1.3 Types of Fermentation
• Alcoholic Fermentation
• Lactic Acid Fermentation (Lactic acid fermentations are of two types: Homo-fermentative and Hetero-fermentative)

• Propionic Acid Fermentation

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• Butyric Acid Fermentation

• Mixed Acid Fermentation
1.4 The Component Parts of Fermentation Process
During fermentation, the following points must be observed
• To ensure the sterility of incoming and outgoing air.

• Appropriate construction of the bioreactor for sterilization.

• The preparation of media to be used in culturing the process organism.

• Cleaning and sterilization of medium and bioreactors to avoid the contamination during fermentation process.

• The manufacturing of pure culture in a satisfactory amount to inoculate in a bioreactor.

• Observe the growth of the organism in a bioreactor for the product development under ideal conditions.

• The purification and extraction of product.

• Disposal of wastes that are produced by the fermentation process

1.5 Factors Influencing Fermentation Process

• Temperature
• pH
• Nature and composition of a medium
• Dissolved oxygen
• Dissolved CO2
• Operation system (batch,fed-batch,continuous)
• Mixing and shear rates in a fermenter
1.5.1 Factors Influencing Fermentation May Affect
• The rate of fermentation

• The product spectrum and yield

• The organoleptic properties of the product(appearance, taste, smell and, texture)

• The generation of toxins

• Nutritional quality

• Medium Formulation
1.6 Process Monitoring and Control
The complication of metabolic biosynthesis includes in fermentation needs, the use of process control parameters for monitoring and control to check optimum process performance. The process control variables are temperature, impeller speed, aeration rate, pressure, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, biomass, oxygen uptake rate, carbon dioxide and production rate.
1.7 Importance and Health Benefits Of Fermentation
Fermented foods have many advantages and it plays an important role in creating jobs, in food security, increase in salary, enhancing livings and improving the nutrition for people around the world, and many more. Following are some important benefits of fermentation and its products.
• To enrich the diet through the development of a variety of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substances.

• It makes the end product more digestible.

• To preserve substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentation.

• Lacto-fermentation allows you to store these foods for longer periods of time without losing nutrients like you would with traditional canning.

• To enhance the nutritional value of food with protein essential amino acids and vitamins.

• To eliminate anti-nutrients.

• To increase the storage life of food substances.

• To convert the agricultural wastes into food with good taste and nutritious for humans.

• To minimize the cooking time.

• By supplementing and balancing the levels of good bacteria in our gut, eating fermented foods can help improve digestion, boost immunity, and may even help us stay.

• Absorb food better, having the proper balance of gut bacteria and enough digestive enzymes help you absorb more of the nutrients in the foods you eat. You won’t need as many supplements and vitamins, and you’ll be absorbing more of the live nutrients in your foods.
1.8 Applications of Fermentation
1.8.1 Food products
Yogurt, kefir, fresh and matured cheeses, wine, vinegar, pickles, kimchi, sauerkraut, soy sauce, fermented sausages, salami
1.8.2 Industrial chemicals
Solvents: acetone, butanol, ethanol, enzymes, amino acids
1.8.3 Specialty chemicals


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