1. Background and evolution of online newspaper
The advance development of the communication media has digitized the print media, for instance newspaper to be accessible through online. The younger generation is easier and faster to reach through online newspaper to keep track of the recent happenings in their surroundings. The news article can be either positive, neutral or negative and how does it affect the attitude of TAR University College students using the Uses and Gratification theory. Before the digital era, the print media is more delayed and fewer audience can be reached instantly and therefore the impact is smaller compare to online newspapers where readers receive updates momently. Online newspaper may change the way of an individual perception or build the perception according to the theory.
Attitude is defined as the response shown towards certain issues. It can be positive, neutral or negative. The components of attitude is categorized into ABC’s of attitude which is Affective component, Behavioural component and Cognitive component. (Chaiklin H. 2011.) The 3 components will be a guide to interpret the respondents’ attitude.
Affective component: It involves a person’s emotion about the object. For example: “I feel disgust about LGBT.”
Behavioral component: The attitude influences how we act or behave. For example: “I will avoid LGBT community and ignore their existence”.
Cognitive component: It involves a person’s belief or knowledge about a subject.. For example: “I believe being a LGBT is morally wrong”.
(McLeod, S. A. ,2014.)
This study examined attitudes of online newspaper student readers towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) among TAR University College students from age 17 to 22. LGBT has become a topic of concern of the public audience especially in this few years. This is because the rise of technology and internet. It is hypothesized that the youths who read online newspapers are more aware of the happenings of the LGBT cases. Therefore they own different attitude towards the LGBT. It is known that Malaysia is an Islamic country with majority in Malays which relationships of same gender is against the law because Islam as the religion of the federation, so there is no way for the LGBT to be given equal rights even though they may argue that human rights of everyone. Other than that, after all the demonstration done by LGBT’s people and group, some countries and citizens have recognized the status of the LGBT by accepting their sexual orientation and approving LGBT marriage. On the other hand, there are also a lot of people who still cannot accept and think it is wrong to be a LGBT. The purpose of this research is to know that how non-Muslims readers in TAR University College students in Penang which majority are chinese react to the LGBT community issues under the impact of online newspaper which reports on the consequences of being LGBT, basically news about punishment and discrimination, for example the discrimination and challenges faced by trans women and two Malay lesbian women who attempted to have sex was caned under law enforcement.
Furthermore, the findings will further explain the sustainable ways of online newspaper to influence the targeted audience. In addition, the research will also focus on the direct and indirect effects of online newspaper to Malaysian society.
Quantitative, Questionnaire through Google forms
Quantitative method enables one to express numerically or computerised. The course of action taken is measured by the data collected. This method collects data to form a more accurate result.
The understanding and conclusion are made based on the data collected.
1.Respondents basic info: name, contact, year, email
2. Does online newspaper influence your attitude towards LGBT community?
3. How strong does it influence your attitude?
4. How frequent do you read online newspapers?
5.What is the role of online newspaper towards decision making?
6. How does online newspaper shape your perception towards LGBT?
7.Do you know about LGBT through online newspapers?
8. Do you tolerate gays? Lesbians? Transgender? Bisexual?
Uses and Gratification theory
Uses and Gratification theory method stated that individuals rely on mass media to gain information but they still hold control in interpreting contents.(Guosong Shao, 2009) For example,
1. The new government has been advised by campaigners to curb the spread of hatred toward LGBT people. (NST,,24th August 2018)
2. Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department , Datuk Dr Mujahid Yusof Rawa stated that the LGBT community must not be discriminated regardless of one acceptance towards the LGBT. (NST, 23th July 2018)
3. Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir claimed that Malaysia cannot accept LGBT marriage regardless of the acceptance in Western countries. (NST, 21,Sep 2018)
This approach is aim to prove that the influence of media is limited to what people allow it to be. Individuals have their own independent opinions about the presence of LGBT community.