?Geography 6340 Cartography with Lab
Lab 10 Exercise: Short answer essay questions Name: Tanerica Thurman
What is Analytical Cartography?
According to Tobler, analytical cartography is “the mathematical and analytical aspects of cartography that are both independent of technology as it applies to real as well as virtual maps” (287). It was the development of computers that are responsible for the creation of analytical cartography and GIS. Focusing more theoretically as opposed to technologically. Development, origins, scope and both conceptual content and applications have all been defining points for analytical cartography. Recently, analytical cartography has been included within geographical information systems. It can be viewed as a link between GIScience and computer-based mapping.
Computer science, mathematics and statistics, cartography, and psychology are a few of the methods of analytical cartography. As it relates to computer science, analytical cartography can be used for data base science, computation, and logic and programming. In mathematics and statistics, analytical cartography is used in the matrix theory, set theory, algebra, trigonometry, topology, and spatial statistics. As far as cartography goes, analytically, it helps with map data, various transformations, representation, symbolization, and layout and design of map making. Oddly enough, it is used in psychology as well, to help interpret and read maps, navigate routs and user design. These are all various ways in which analytical cartography can be used to broaden data in these areas. Some of the various topics associated with these methods are: map transformation, sampling, critical features, map generalization, shape analysis, data models and structures.
Clarke, Keith. What is analytical cartography? University of California Santa Barbara. 3 April 2001. www.geog.ucsb.edu/~kclarke/Geography128/Lecture05.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2018
Clarke, Keith and Tobler, W. R. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 45. 4, pages 287-288
Which common coordinate systems in use in the US are based on the Mercator projection?
Coordinate systems essentially provide the foundation for defining actual locations. They enable geographic datasets to use common locations for integration. Measurement framework, units of measurement, the definition of the map projection, and other measurement system properties all help to define the coordinate system. UTM provide various ways to display maps of the earth’s round surface onto a two-dimensional coordinate plane. A few of the coordinate systems used in the US are the cylindrical projections, equal-area projections, and Gall-Peters projection. Several online maps use a similar variation of the Mercator projection for their map images. Those online sources are: Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo! Maps, OpenStreetMap, and Bing Map. Equal-area map projections, preserve the area measures, but distorts the map shape. Cylindrical projections stretch the distance from east to west, distorting their image. The Gall-Peters projection is rectangular in presentation.
www.resources.esri.com/help/9.3/arcgisengine/. Accessed 23 April 2018.

What are the advantages of raster data structures for computer cartography?
In the beginning stages of computer cartography, the data sets that went with the software contained just enough information to produce the map. There weren’t any extra details given, just the basic information. Raster data is comprised of pixels, sometimes referred to as grid cells. The grid cells are generally evenly spaced and square; however, this is not always the case. They tend to give off the pixelated look due to each pixel having its own assigned value.

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They are useful for storing data that continuously vary. The main advantage of raster data structures is that it is simple. The grid structure that raster data uses makes that analytical operations much easier. Some of the analytical operations that are made easier by raster data structures are: interpolation, filtering, autocorrelation statistics, and computation of variograms. A few disadvantages of raster data structures are that they tend to be rather large, difficult when it comes to displaying linear images and paths.

GIS Analysis. Vector vs. Raster: What’s the Difference Between GIS Spatial Data Types? 18 February 2018. www.gisgeography.com/spatial-data-type-vector-raster/. Accessed 23 April 2018.

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