2D mathematical modelling of pancreatic cancer using Microwave Therapy PROBLEM STATEMENT In this research/study we’ll construct a 2D mathematical model of pancreatic cancer and treat it with the help of Microwave therapy

2D mathematical modelling of pancreatic cancer using Microwave Therapy
PROBLEM STATEMENT
In this research/study we’ll construct a 2D mathematical model of pancreatic cancer and treat it with the help of Microwave therapy.

OBJECTIVE (TO BE OBTAINED)
We focus on the mathematical modelling of pancreatic cancer. For this we’ll construct a 2D pancreatic cancer geometry and with the help of microwave therapy, try to eliminate or minimize the cancerous effect.

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LITERATURE SURVEY
(Brief survey of past work done on the topic and related work with reference developing need for recent study)
Mathematical modeling is very helpful in biological field to understand the bio-medical phenomenon ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Deisboeck</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>29</RecNum><DisplayText>1</DisplayText><record><rec-number>29</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>29</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Deisboeck, Thomas S</author><author>Zhang, Le</author><author>Yoon, Jeongah</author><author>Costa, Jose</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In silico cancer modeling: is it ready for prime time?</title><secondary-title>Nature Clinical Practice Oncology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nature Clinical Practice Oncology</full-title></periodical><pages>34-42</pages><volume>6</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>1743-4254</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>1. It provides a vast information in experimental and clinical settings ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Peng</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Peng, Huiming</author><author>Tan, Hua</author><author>Zhao, Weiling</author><author>Jin, Guangxu</author><author>Sharma, Sambad</author><author>Xing, Fei</author><author>Watabe, Kounosuke</author><author>Zhou, Xiaobo</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis</title><secondary-title>Front Biosci (Schol Ed)</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Front Biosci (Schol Ed)</full-title></periodical><pages>169-86</pages><volume>8</volume><dates><year>2016</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>2. At present many mathematical models related to the cancer treatment have been introduced PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5LaW08L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA3PC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNO
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 3-6.
Pancreas is most important organ of human body and is located behind the stomach. It is the part of the gastrointestinal system that not only secrete but also make enzymes in the intestine. The structure of pancreas is consisted of two main parts; endocrine and exocrine.

Exocrine pancreas produces and secrete digestive enzymes in the duodenum. Its comprises 95% mass in pancreas. Endocrine pancreas produce insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide in the blood stream. It usually comprises of 1-2% of pancreatic mass. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Longnecker</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>7</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”xrefvast52vvszed0r6xwxtirw5x2pvp0a25″>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Longnecker, Daniel S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas</title><secondary-title>Pancreapedia: The Exocrine Pancreas Knowledge Base</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Pancreapedia: The Exocrine Pancreas Knowledge Base</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>7
Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable cell division, form lumps or mass of tissues called tumor. Tumor can grow and interfere with other organ of body, release hormones that can afterwards alter body functions. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Today</Author><Year>2016, march 30</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><DisplayText>8</DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”xrefvast52vvszed0r6xwxtirw5x2pvp0a25″>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Medical News Today</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The MNT Editorial Team </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Cancer: What you need to know</title></titles><dates><year>2016, march 30</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>8 Pancreatic cancer is a highly fatal disease. It is usually diagnosis at the advanced/later stage for which there is no effective therapy yet. It is difficult to diagnose pancreatic cancer at earlier stage, because of its symptoms. It is considered as fourth most common cause of cancer death annually throughout the world. Despite of medical advancement, little progress has been made to reduce its effects and mortality rate. One of the major hallmarks of pancreatic cancer is its extensive local tumour invasion and early systemic dissemination. The molecular causes and basis for these attributes of pancreatic cancer is incompletely understood . ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText>9</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”xrefvast52vvszed0r6xwxtirw5x2pvp0a25″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Chenwei</author><author>Heidt, David G</author><author>Dalerba, Piero</author><author>Burant, Charles F</author><author>Zhang, Lanjing</author><author>Adsay, Volkan</author><author>Wicha, Max</author><author>Clarke, Michael F</author><author>Simeone, Diane M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Identification of pancreatic cancer stem cells</title><secondary-title>Cancer research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cancer research</full-title></periodical><pages>1030-1037</pages><volume>67</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0008-5472</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>9
Cancer treatment includes Hyperthermia that involves heating of cancerous body cells. It damages the cell membrane because of heating, results in the destruction of cancer cells. Hyperthermia is defined as a cancer treatment, in which the uncontrollable growth of cells i-e cancerous cells are exposed to increased temperature for a long period of time. Hyperthermia like chemotherapy destroy cancerous cells without any additional long-term side effects. It aims to raise the temperature in the tumors to 40 – 44°C for at most one hour to achieve tumor cell death. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>chalmers</Author><Year>2012, May 21</Year><RecNum>5</RecNum><DisplayText>10</DisplayText><record><rec-number>5</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”xrefvast52vvszed0r6xwxtirw5x2pvp0a25″>5</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>chalmers</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Microwave hyperthermia for cancer treatment</title></titles><dates><year>2012, May 21</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10
In local hyperthermia, several methods are used to deliver the energy to heat the tumor which includes ultrasound, microwave and radio frequency ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wust</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>40</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>40</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>40</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wust, P</author><author>Hildebrandt, B</author><author>Sreenivasa, G</author><author>Rau, B</author><author>Gellermann, J</author><author>Riess, H</author><author>Felix, R</author><author>Schlag, PM</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Hyperthermia in combined treatment of cancer</title><secondary-title>The lancet oncology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The lancet oncology</full-title></periodical><pages>487-497</pages><volume>3</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2002</year></dates><isbn>1470-2045</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11. One of the best technique is interstitial hyperthermia. In this technique tumor is heated through ferromagnetic rods, high frequency needle (375 KHz) or probe. With the help of Ultrasound, it is make sure that the probe is properly connected to the heat source and is correctly inserted into the tumor. Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is one kind of interstitial hyperthermia ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Baronzio</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>36</RecNum><DisplayText>12</DisplayText><record><rec-number>36</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>36</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Baronzio, G</author><author>Parmar, G</author><author>Ballerini, M</author><author>Szasz, A</author><author>Baronzio, M</author><author>Cassutti, V</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A brief overview of hyperthermia in cancer treatment</title><secondary-title>J Integr Oncol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Integr Oncol</full-title></periodical><pages>1-10</pages><volume>3</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>12.

Tumor ablation is an effective technique to destroy the tumor when surgery is not a good option for patient. For the cancer treatment by tumor ablation, probe or needle is inserted into the tumor tissue of patient through skin. While through CT scanning or ultrasound, probe or needle is guided into place in tumor ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ahmed</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>43</RecNum><DisplayText>13</DisplayText><record><rec-number>43</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>43</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ahmed, Muneeb</author><author>Solbiati, Luigi</author><author>Brace, Christopher L</author><author>Breen, David J</author><author>Callstrom, Matthew R</author><author>Charboneau, J William</author><author>Chen, Min-Hua</author><author>Choi, Byung Ihn</author><author>De Baère, Thierry</author><author>Dodd, Gerald D</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Image-guided tumor ablation: standardization of terminology and reporting criteria—a 10-year update</title><secondary-title>Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology</full-title></periodical><pages>1691-1705. e4</pages><volume>25</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>1051-0443</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>13.

One or more microwave antennas can be used to treat the tumor, depending on the tumor size and location in the body. When antenna is turned on, body tissues having high concentration of water content get exposed to significant amounts microwave energy, leads to tissue heating. In this process microwave energy is transformed into heat energy. Microwave heat generations is like rubbing your hands together to produce warming sensation. which oscillates about a billion times a second, passes through the tissue causing vibration of water molecules. Heating is produced due to the friction between water molecules. It helps to destroy selected tumor organ while protecting healthy tissues at the same time. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>wiki</Author><Year>2017,April 12 </Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText>14</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”xrefvast52vvszed0r6xwxtirw5x2pvp0a25″>4</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>engineering and technology history wiki</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Hyperthermia: Microwaves as Cancer Treatment</title></titles><pages>4,5</pages><keywords><keyword>Bioengineering, microwave technology, oncology, wave and electromagnetic</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2017,April 12 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>14
For pancreatic cancer treatment high energy radio waves are used. By inserting needle or probe into the tumor through probe tip high frequency waves passes to heat up the tumor tissues and destroy the tumor ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Haemmerich</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>48</RecNum><DisplayText>15</DisplayText><record><rec-number>48</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>48</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Haemmerich, Dieter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biophysics of radiofrequency ablation</title><secondary-title>Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering</full-title></periodical><volume>38</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>0278-940X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>15.
METHODOLOGY
Brief Description of how research will be conducted
Investigate all the possible results available in the literature, research papers and web-based results to conduct the research work related to tumor of pancreatic cancer using microwave therapy.

Construct a 2D geometry of pancreatic cancer.

Apply microwave therapy to cancerous cells of pancreas, analyze/verify the results.

Experimentation/ Software TOOL
The method will be implemented on computer using software named “COMSOL Multiphysics” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Multiphysics</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText>16</DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”aa559sztmf0xeketp5x5sv5gvsazxwewwwez”>42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Multiphysics, COMSOL</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>User’s guide;/title;;secondary-title;Version;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Version;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;290-298;/pages;;volume;4;/volume;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;16.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Nil.

THEORATICAL STUDIES
Several recently published books and related research articles will be studied.
RESULTS EXPECTED AND METHOD OF ANALYSIS
Mathematical model of pancreatic cancer treatment will be developed which will remove the tumor in human body safely. For the numerical treatment of the PDEs, finite element method will be used.

UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH
Mathematical modeling for the treatment of cancer tumor is an important area of research work in field of bio-mathematics. This research work will lead us to reduce the tumor in the 3D pancreas geometry, which is definitely an important area of research and service to mankind.
RESEARCH TIME TABLE
(Showing the period for the start of work and expected time for each stage like literature review time for experimental setup, experimentation, analysis of results and submission of thesis, etc.)
The time schedule for research project is as follows.

Literature Review 4 months (Feb 2017 to May 2017)
Computation and Analysis of Results 4 months (June 2017 to Sep 2017)
Write –up and Submission of Thesis 4 months (Oct 2017 to Jan 2018)
Total 12 months
REFERENCES
ADDIN EN.REFLIST 1.Deisboeck, T.S., et al., In silico cancer modeling: is it ready for prime time? Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, 2009. 6(1): p. 34-42.2.Peng, H., et al., Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis. Front Biosci (Schol Ed), 2016. 8: p. 169-86.3.Kim, Y., M.A. Stolarska, and H.G. Othmer, A hybrid model for tumor spheroid growth in vitro I: theoretical development and early results. Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 2007. 17(supp01): p. 1773-1798.4.Cristini, V., et al., Nonlinear simulations of solid tumor growth using a mixture model: invasion and branching. Journal of mathematical biology, 2009. 58(4): p. 723-763.5.Deisboeck, T.S., et al., Multiscale cancer modeling. Annual review of biomedical engineering, 2011. 13: p. 127-155.6.Kim, Y., M.A. Stolarska, and H.G. Othmer, The role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and invasion. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology, 2011. 106(2): p. 353-379.7.Longnecker, D.S., Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas. Pancreapedia: The Exocrine Pancreas Knowledge Base, 2014.8.Today, M.N. Cancer: What you need to know. 2016, march 30.9.Li, C., et al., Identification of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Cancer research, 2007. 67(3): p. 1030-1037.10.chalmers. Microwave hyperthermia for cancer treatment. 2012, May 21.11.Wust, P., et al., Hyperthermia in combined treatment of cancer. The lancet oncology, 2002. 3(8): p. 487-497.12.Baronzio, G., et al., A brief overview of hyperthermia in cancer treatment. J Integr Oncol, 2014. 3(1): p. 1-10.13.Ahmed, M., et al., Image-guided tumor ablation: standardization of terminology and reporting criteria—a 10-year update. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2014. 25(11): p. 1691-1705. e4.14.wiki, e.a.t.h., Hyperthermia: Microwaves as Cancer Treatment. 2017,April 12 p. 4,5.15.Haemmerich, D., Biophysics of radiofrequency ablation. Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering, 2010. 38(1).16.Multiphysics, C., User’s guide. Version, 2007. 4: p. 290-298.

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