In 2007 Barack Obama became the president of United States, and in 2016 Hillary Clinton became the Democratic Party’s nominee for president of USA. But before this she was 67thunited state secretary of state. If we turn back with time to 70 years ago this would be impossible to happened, because Obama is a black and Clinton is a woman.
In that time the black men was no more than a slave, he was considered as property the white men slave owner.In other hand the white (the black were slavers) woman was regarded as a server for her husband and children, it was just house keeper. In that time the black men was treated in disrespectful way because of his race and colour, while the woman was seen weaker than men and less important because of her gender and sex. So the racism and discrimination became dominant in American society.
In this chapter we are going to recognize more the meaning of racism and discrimination, also we are going to see the different aspects of racism, and finally we are going to know the most important reason behind racism.
3-2 Racism and discrimination
One of the major problems that American society suffers from was racism.
Race is a socially constructed artefact that categorizes people based on appearance that imputed to indicate differences between people. These categorizations are amorphous and fluid over time which reflects their social rather than physical basis. Its significance arises out of the meanings we as societies assign to it, and the way we structure race in our societies (wolf 1).
Racism can be defined as any policy, belief, attitude, action or inaction, which distinguish between people based on their race (wolf 2). Also, Racism is disrespectful treatment, and the lack of respectful life to people who are suspicious of them because of their ethnicity or colour ( Williams 17).
Racism is when one group is dominating ,the superiority of this racial groups is used to justify or prescribe the inferior treatment or social position(s) of other racial groups. Through the process of racialization (Clair and Denis 857).
The American woman suffered from discrimination which can be defined as:Discrimination is to treat a person or group differently than others, especially because of their colour (Oxford 229).also, Sex discrimination means treating someone badly and in unequal way, because they of their gender identity by threating theme or call them bad name (sex discrimination 1).
Discrimination Faced by Women Through Time
Women life is full of complication. They have no right in male dominating society, there were no respect for women feelings or needs either physical or emotional one, the woman was obliged to married in early age, and if her husband death she can’t marriage again, also she was suffer from domestic violence with the denial of her right to be educated, also she suffer from discrimination in food, clothing and shelter (shastri 28-29).
3.2.2. Aspects of racism
The idea fall under racism can become apparent in many aspects of social life. In the following, we will see the most important aspects of racism which spread all over the world.
Aversive racism is one of the aspects of racism; there are many definitions of aversive racism, but we chose to portray it in a very short and brief image that covers the full definition of it.
Aversive racism is a form of implicit racism in which a person’s unconscious negative evaluations of racial or ethnic minorities are realized by a persistent avoidance of interaction with other racial and ethnic groups. As opposed to traditional, overt racism, which is characterized by overt hatred for and explicit discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, aversive racism is characterized by more complex, ambivalent expressions and attitudes. Aversive racism is similar in implications to the concept of symbolic or modern racism (described below), which is also a form of implicit, unconscious, or covert attitude which results in unconscious forms of discrimination (“Racism”).
Colour blindness is considered as one of the forms of racism, is the rejection or the ignorance of ethnic characteristics when interacting with others in social life.People with colour reject any form of racism which can lead to inequality between people which are different physically.
In relation to racism, Colour blindness is the disregard of racial characteristics in social interaction, for example in the rejection of affirmative action, as way to address the results of past patterns of discrimination. Critics of this attitude argue that by refusing to attend to racial disparities, racial colour blindness in fact unconsciously perpetuates the patterns that produce racial inequality (“Racism”).