According to Merriam-Webster

According to Merriam-Webster, waste is a “damaged, defective, or superfluous material produced by a manufacturing process” (waste, 2018).
Materials from living creatures comprise organic wastes. Organic waste has a lot of types and they can be found in in municipal solid waste, industrial solid waste, agricultural waste, and wastewater. Together with other waste, organic wastes are usually discarded in landfills but since organic wastes are biodegradable, some of them are appropriate for composition and application for land (Encyclopedia, 2018).
Agricultural wastes are unwanted or unusable materials from the manufacturing of agriculture. They consist of poultry and animal manure, remains from production and marketing of poultry, livestock and animals that have fur and the remains from output and production of fruit, grain, and vegetable (WHAT IS AGRICULTURAL WASTE?, 2016).
The word vegetable refers to parts of plant that can be eaten like leaves, stems, flowers, and roots. Fruits and seed that are also part of a plant that are edible are not considered as vegetables. But denoted as their names suggest. Any plant that contains seed are not considered as vegetable (Vegetable, 2015).
Vegetable wastes are wastes composed mainly of vegetable materials, which is decomposable by microorganisms (vegetable scrap, 2017)
According to Ijjasz-Vasquez, waste experts say that the environmental, safety, and health risk of waste is enormous. It also includes the economic and bad social consequences. Contamination in river occurs and gradually leak into ground water. The garbage clogs the drains which leads to flooding and poisoning of the atmosphere due to the toxic that came from the trash. When failed to gather together, waste increase the possibility of having diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infection worst, if burning of waste is related it can raise the chance of having one into six times higher (Simmons, 2016).
The maximum amount of wastes produced every day in different facilities and places can easily contribute to the pollution in our city. Pollution is a serious problem that can affect not only the individuals but also the environment. According to the Solid Waste Management under the Chapter IV in the website of the city of Zamboanga, the problem of pollution does not only happen in urban areas where there is a high density of population and human activities but also happens in rural areas that contributes pollution due to the improper disposing and handling of wastes. It was said that most of the solid wastes come from domestic sources and the rest are from different industries. The generating of solid wastes are not always disposed and collected properly where it is only about 70% to 80% are collected and disposed and balance in the way of leaving on the streets, dumping in drains, canals, rivers and creeks. There are about 505 of the total waste generated in the residents which contributed as single largest sources of solid wastes ().
The total number of establishments of Agriculture and Trade in Zamboanga City is 5597, including the number of Public Market and Flea Market with a total number of 84 all in all. There are two public
markets in Zamboanga City considered to be the biggest trading markets. One is the main public market that comprises of forty-seven (47) stalls that are divided into nine (9) rows and 936 tables that are divided into seven (7) buildings that supplies the basis and prime commodity needs of the people. In the seven buildings, there are four (4) buildings starting from building-D to building-G that supplies vegetable and fruits with 594 total number of tables. The other one is Sta. Cruz Market that has 663 stalls devoted for the wet products including fish, meat, fruits and vegetables and thirty-six (36) permanent compartments for dry goods. It is said that there are five (5) big buildings that makes up the Sta. Cruz Public Market and in building one (1) and building two (2) are the places that supplies vegetables and fruits with the total number of sixty-three (63) stalls. Based on the Barangay land use survey conducted, as of May 14, 1993, there are 84 flea market that are licensed located in different parts of the city.
Base from the number of markets in the city, it also reflects the number wastes it can produce and contribute ().
According to a study, the waste type and sources under agricultural (organic) wastes include baggage, rice and wheat straw and husk, coconut shell, fibres and husk cotton stalk, saw mill waste, ground nut shell, banana stalk and jute, sisal and vegetable residues and their possible construction applications are the following: particle boards, insulation boards, wall panels, roofing sheets, fuel, binders, fibrous building panels, acid proof cement, coir fiber, mats, reinforced composite, polymer mixtures, cement board, printing paper and fillers, and bricks (Reddy, Reddy, & Kasthurba, 2014).
The word brick pertains to small parts of construction material, usually made from fired clay and protected by mortar, an attachment agent containing sand, water, and cement. An old popular material that keeps heat away, resists corrosion and with-stands fire. Since each unit is usually eight inches long and half of it is its width, brick is a good material to use in confined spaces and curved designs for structural purposes. Furthermore, brick buildings are ideal because they commonly last for a long period of time (Brick).
A brick clay’s chemical composition consists of 55% of Silica which avoids decrease of size, breaking and deforming of brick clay, 30% Alumina imparts malleability to brick clay which is significant in moulding and also convey compactness, 8% Iron oxide the amount if Iron oxide depicts the colour of the brick and it also makes the brick more water-proof and increases the durability of brick, 5% Magnesia, presence of minor amount of magnesia reduces shrinkage and gives yellowish tint, 1% Lime melts silica in burning and binds the particles of brick together. It also decreases shrinkage of brick throughout drying and 1% Alkali and Organic matter, its small quantity support the burning of the brick clay. It also lessens the fusion point (Kyleyx, 2011).
Silicon dioxide or SiO2 is the alternative chemical name for Silica. It is made out of the most abundant element on earth, oxygen and silica. Silica is utilized everywhere, from industrial applications to the industry of food and beverages. Silica can be found in many places like rocks, medicine, make ups, plants and foods. There is also silica present in our bodies. Quartz is the common form of silica. To explain
it short, silica is everywhere. Silica has effects on skin, nails and hair (Dr. Edward Group DC, 2016).
Diets that has plenty of vegetables and low in meat has more silica. Most vegetables have trace quantities of silica but with dark, leafy greens such as lettuce and spinach higher concentration of silica is found (Watkins).
The production of brick contributes an average of 1.4 pound of carbon into the atmosphere per brick that generates air pollution in developing countries like China and India. Other choices for materials to use can deal with these matters while using waste materials at the same time. The component in green plants that provides the cell walls their strength is called cellulose. It can be found anywhere, and recyclable supply found in cotton, hemp, wood and a lot of businesses have created bricks made out of recycled paper, textiles, and wood. Based in Australia, Timbercrete, originated way back in 1994, Peter Collier made his own formulation for bricks. The mixture comprises of cement, sand, binders and cellulose. The source of cellulose in this mixture is from sawdust that has the 50 per cent of the mixture, the composition did not required kiln firing that saved a big amount of energy and avoided pollution. Timbercrete bricks can be in different sizes that can be used in walls and as pavers and gives a few important advantages over standard clay and concrete bricks like it has lighter weight and easier to work with (Hansen, 2014).
Cellulose is the chemical name for fiber, which is an important component of diet, even though it doesn’t provide you with any vitamins, minerals or energy. Many foods — especially whole foods — contain cellulose. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains — those grains with the bran intact — are significant sources of fiber.
The chemical term for fiber is Cellulose. An important part of diet but does not give any vitamins, energy or minerals. Lots of foods contain cellulose like whole foods. Vegetables and fruits, along with whole grains especially with the brain intact are excellent sources of fiber (Hendrickson, 2017).
In creating a brick, its quality can be measured by water absorption test and durability test or compressive strength. A key factor of affecting the durability of a brick is the water absorption. Intensive avoidance intrusion of water must be present in the internal structure of a brick because the durability of a brick and its resistance to natural environment are expected when there is less water infiltration to the brick. The most important test to be done to measure the durability of a brick is the compressive strength for assuring the engineering quality of a building material. (Chih, Deng , & Pen, 2003)


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