Administrators and instructors believe on the benefits of personal instruction provided by teachers in traditional classroom settings and merge this with online access to interactive

Administrators and instructors believe on the benefits of personal instruction provided by teachers in traditional classroom settings and merge this with online access to interactive, media rich technologies along with assessment tools (L Batangas). “The flexible time-space accounted for by the integration of ICT into teaching and learning processes contributes to increasing the interaction and reception of information. Such possibilities propose changes in the communication models and the teaching and learning methods used by teachers, giving way to new scenarios which favor both individual and collaborative learning (J. Cabero). The importance of ICT has been recognized by educational institutions worldwide. Today, schools are under pressure to adapt to this technological innovation. ICT provide remarkable opportunities for developing countries to enrich their educational system since it can help in acquiring and assimilating knowledge (V. L. Tinio).
First of all, it is necessary to define the notion of satisfaction and especially student ?satisfaction”. Satisfaction – a fulfillment of need or desire, the pleasure obtained by such fulfillment. “Satisfaction is the feeling of pleasure or disappointment attained from comparing a product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted” (Wikipedia). Student’s satisfaction is defined by Wiers-Jenssen, Stensaker and Grogaard (2002: 185) as students? assessments of the services provided by universities and colleges. Student satisfaction is a continually changing construct in the Higher Education environment due to repeated interactions (Elliott and Shin 2002). It is a dynamic process that requires clear and effective action as a result of an institution listening to its students. Student satisfaction is a complex construct influenced by a variety of characteristics of students and institutions (Thomas and Galambos 2004: 252). Student satisfaction is an overall response not only to the learning experience of a student (Wiers- Jenssen et al. 2002). Continuous improvement of quality is a philosophy. Within this philosophy is a set of broad principles and values that provide guidance on how to restructure and improve organizations (Frasier 1997:7). Continuous quality improvement requires an organization to meet or exceed the customer’s expectation of quality (Frasier 1997:8).
In the growing literature on academic quality there is often extensive debate about the meaning of the term (Green 1994). Many have suggested that ‘academic quality’ is amorphous, non-measurable, or so ambiguous in its meaning, deeming it inappropriate for public intervention (Dill 2007). Harvey and Green (1993:2) put forward a number of ways of viewing quality. Firstly, Harvey and Green mention the traditional view that quality is linked to the idea of exceptionally high standards. Secondly, quality is seen as consistency focusing on processes and set specifications that it aims to meet. Thirdly, quality relates to relevance to its purpose while fourthly quality is equated with value for money at the heart of which is the 2 notion of accountability. Fifthly quality is seen as transformative because education is not a service to the customer, but an ongoing process of transformation of the participant. On this follows two notions of transformative quality in education i.e. enhancing and empowering the consumer. While quality in other sectors was often associated with the idea of customer satisfaction and market adaptation, one can find a range of translations of quality within higher education (Stensaker 2007:113).
Higher education institutions are becoming more business-like. Similar to the importance of satisfying customers to retain them for profit-making institutions, satisfying the admitted students is also important for retention. It might be argued that dissatisfied students may cut back on the number of courses or drop out of college completely. Hence, the satisfaction-intention-retention link for students in higher education should be studied and carefully managed (Kara 2004:1). Tinto (1982) formulates a student integration theory of persistence or retention based on the relationships between students and institutions. He argues that retention involves two commitments on the part of the student. The first commitment is the goal to obtain a college degree; and the second one is the decision to obtain that degree at a particular institution (institutional commitment). And students are able to judge the quality of the service, because they have various performance experiences in the university (Selnes 1993).
The globalization of education has intensified competition among universities, not only for local, but also for international students. The elimination of socioeconomic barriers and the opening of opportunities to connect people more closely in time and space are among the dramatic benefits associated with globalization (Mavondo et al. 2004). “Globalization „encouraged? higher education to become more business-like. For example, higher education is increasingly expected to interpret international student recruitment from an economic perspective…During the late 1980s and particularly the 1990s, higher education institutions gradually started seeing fee-paying students as a source of revenue and this led to the development of an international market for higher education students. In this market the strategy of some institutions is to attract foreign students to enroll in one of their regular programs against far higher tuition fees than regular national students have to pay” (Maassen and Cloete 2006: 17). Universities and academic systems themselves have developed many strategies to benefit from the new global environment and attract nonresident students (Altbach et al. 2009).
Student? satisfaction with university has individual, institutional and social benefits. From an institutional point of view, satisfied students are more likely to continue in their studies and succeed academically, and this is likely to enhance the financial position and reputation of the institution. Successful universities realize that it is very important to retain enrolled students rather than concentrate on attracting new ones. One reason for this is because a competitive advantage can be gained through student satisfaction (Elliott and Shin 2002) and they can be marketed in the university’s marketing tools. Satisfied students make effective public relations agents.” Highly satisfied students “engage in favorable word-of mouth publicity”. Word-of-mouth from satisfied students lowers the cost of attracting new customers for the university and enhances the university’s overall reputation, while that of dissatisfied students has the opposite effect (Fornell 1992). Also, they can return as graduate students, recruit prospective students or regularly donate as alumni. The most mentioned relationship-building practices are referrals, testimonials, and visits to customers? sites by potential customers.” Understanding the underlying dimensions of student satisfaction and the factors that contribute to student satisfaction has several potential benefits and applications for institutions, students, and society (Wikiversity). As mentioned above, the literature on student? satisfaction and student? perception of academic experience is very complex. Two threads of perspectives are apparent: the academic and the social. The authors supporting one or the other perspective mention the factors that can affect students? satisfaction with their university. Many authors underline the importance of the same factors (for example Harvey (1995) and Hill (1995). They both mention library 21 services, accommodation services, course content, teaching quality, catering service, academic workload and so on.

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