After numerous academic studies of marketing in the 20 century

After numerous academic studies of marketing in the 20 century, the concept of marketing that once was view as a strictly business-oriented discipline, expended toward non-commercial entities (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). This possibility of marketing concept expansion resulted to a debate between authors. David Luck explain to be opposed to its idea by reason that marketing should remain strictly to business that operates for “market transaction” purposes (Luck 1969 in Hunt 2002, p. 9) reflecting Carman’s rigorous core definition of marketing; “exchange of value” (Carman in Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). The reasoning was from fear that it could bring further concept’s complexity leading to increase irrelevance and unpracticality of its discipline (Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). Kotler and Levy confronted these narrow and limited thinking arguing that marketing the central feature of marketing “lies in a general idea of exchange” (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2002, p.10). This is because other than profit-oriented organizations, non-commercial entities also use marketing mix tools, to better analyze the market in which they should or not operate (public schools, churches etc.) (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2002, p.9). Idea of merging marketing with other than nonbusiness organization is further appropriate as marketing described to be as a social process (University of Ohio 1965 in Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3) which changes and adapts to social and environmental role (Journal of Marketing 1971 in Hunt 2002, p.10)

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