AKSUM UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATION Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia

AKSUM UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
COLLEGES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND LANGUAGE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND
INTERNATIONAL RELATION

Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: Cases from Dodola Woreda in Oromia National Regional State

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BY
HUSSEIN KENESO

July 2018
Aksum, Ethiopia

AKSUM UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
COLLEGES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND LANGUAGE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND
INTERNATIONAL RELATION

BY
HUSSEIN KENESO
ID. No AKU/1389/07
ADVISOR: GAZAEY DESTA
CO-ADVISOR: YOSEF HAILU

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES OF AKSUM UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER’S OF ART IN POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATION

August 2018
AKSUM, ETHIOPIA
Acknowledgement
The researcher profoundly grateful to the thesis major adviser, Dr. Gazaey Desta, for his relentless guidance and support to complete my thesis. You have devoted your valuable time and efforts in managing, revising and editing from the commencement up to the accomplishment of the entire thesis. You did not only train the researcher on how to carry out research, but also taught the researcher, very vital skills to become a good researcher. Highest gratitude also goes to co-adviser Yosef Hailu for your precious comments and suggestions about this thesis. Your ideas and comments have been important in finalizing this thesis.
My special thanks also go to my fellow graduate students and my beloved. The researcher would like to very thankful to all of you. My dearest friends and wife Jemila Daksiso (a friend and an Advisor), Haji Ahmed, and my son in low Daksiso Wari for their constant encouragement, and financial support throughout my work in finalizing my thesis. I am also very grateful to Aksum University because my enrolment in the program could not have been possible without your support. At the last, the researcher would also like to thank the research participants. Without them, this research would not have reached to this level. You expanded the unlimited knowledge that the researcher had his area of study. Your sincerity and truthfulness were having a great impact on the researcher’s future career.

Declaration
I, Hissein keneso, declare that ‘Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: Cases from Dodola Woreda in Oromia National Regional State’ is my original work and all the resource used within the study have been appropriately acknowledged.

Candidate
Name Hussein Keneso
Signature _____________
Date of submission August 2018

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
AKSUM UNIVERSITY
As thesis research advisor, I hereby certify that I have read and evaluated this thesis prepped under my guidance by Hussein Keneso entitled “Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: Cases from Dodola Woreda in Oromia National Regional State” I recommend that it be submitted at fulfilling the thesis requirement.
Gazaey Desta (PhD) ______________________ _______________
Major Advisor Signature Date
As members of the board of examiners of the M.A Thesis open defense examination we certify that we have read and evaluated the thesis prepared by Hussein Keneso and examined the candidate. We recommended that the thesis accepted as fulfilling the thesis requirements for the degree of master of art in (Political science and International Relation department).
_______________ _________________ ____________
Chairperson Signature Date
_______________ _________________ ____________
Internal Examiner Signature Date
_______________ _________________ ____________
External Examiner Signature Date
Final approval and acceptance of the thesis is contingent up on the submission of the final copy of the thesis to School of Graduate Studies (SGS) through the department or School Graduate Council (DGC)

Dedication
This study is dedicated to all victims of human trafficking who were lost their live during their journey up to the Middle East, and those who were psychological, socially, morally, economically, harmed the act of human trafficking and as well victims’ of families.

List of tables
Table 4.1. Sex of the respondent 42
Table 4.2. Age of the respondent 42
Table 4.3. Educational status of the respondent 43
Table 4.4.Occupational status of the respondent 44
Table 4.5. Marital status of the respondent 44
Table .4.6. The level of the respondent’s income 45
Table 4.7. Are there human trafficking activities in your area? 46
Table 4.8. If you say ‘yes’ are you follow up any reported case of human trafficking in Dodola Woreda? 46
Table 4.9. Which sections of the societies are more affected by an act of human trafficking to the middle east? 47
Table 4.10. Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly? 50
Table 4.11. How you can identify victims of human trafficking you can answer more than one alternative 51
Table 4.12. Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? You can answer more than one alternative 52
Table 4.13. What are the negative cause of human trafficking ?. 53
Table 4.14 What do you think was the positive cause of human trafficking? you can chooce more than one alternative 54
Table. 4. 15. Do think the impact of human trafficking were increased this year? 58

List of figures
FIGURE, 1SUMMERY OF THE THEORY 15
FIGURE,2 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND SMUGGLING 18
FIGURE, 3 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 19
FIGURE, 4 THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 32
Figure,5 Map of study area description 34
FIGURE,6 PHOTO INFORMANTS FROM YOUTH AND SPORTS OFFICE OF DODOLA WOREDA 69
FIGURE, 7PHOTO LABOUR AND THE SOCIAL AFFIER OFFICE OF DODOLA WOREDA 70
FIGURE, 8 PHOTO OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING OF DODOLA WOREDA 70
FIGURE, 9 PHOTO OF VICTIMS FAMILIES IN DODOLA WOREDA 71

Acronyms
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CSC Central Statistical Agency
FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
HR Human Rights Watch
ILO International Labour Organization
IOM International Organization for Migration
MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MoLSA Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations
OSCE Organized and sophisticated crime enterprise
PEAs Private Employment Agencies
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Abstract
Human trafficking is a global concern due to it affects every country of the world. Ethiopia is not an exception to this problem and the issues of human trafficking is affecting the community in general and the youths and productive age in particularly. This thesis also deals with the causes and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda Oromia national regional state. In this thesis, Descriptive and explanatory research designs were employed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were also applied. The major tools utilized for this study were a questionnaire, interview, and focus group discussion. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (statistical package for social science) software was in descriptive and frequency whereas; the qualitative data were analyzed thematically in explanatory through crosschecking the validity and reliability with quantitative data. These methods and research approach were employed to answer the following research question (1) how human trafficking is affecting the youths politically, economically, social in Dodola woreda. (2) What are the key drivers of the trafficker to engage in human trafficking? (3) What are the effects of human trafficking on the young group in Dodola woreda? (4) Why were the youths engaged in human trafficking in Dodola woreda? Snowball sampling which is part of purpose sampling were used to get the target group of population. Hence, 18 participants from six offices were selected; 6 from labour and social affair, 2 from youth and sport office, 7 from police officer, 3 from court official were filled questionnaire, and 25 interviewers were from victims of trafficking, and 8 focus group discussion from family of victims were selected using the above sampling method.
The find of the study reveals that lack of job opportunity, the desire to improve one’s life, low payment in domestic work, swindle and false promises by brokers, better paying job in the Middle East, and failure in an exam were seen as the main cause of human trafficking. In addition to this, pressure from friends, family, and relative, conflict among family member, the success stories of returnees, to support of families were also seen as the cause of human trafficking. Furthermore, the study reveals that though there are opportunities in the homeland to change oneself, but there were cases that contributed for human trafficking. The study also identify the effects of human trafficking on youths were imprisonment, death, forced labour, long working hour, restriction of movement, negligence and denied of food, loss of life, and psycho-emotional harmed. Thus, it is the belief of the researcher that the outcomes of this study were important to all concerned body to take the necessary measures for the sake of saving the lives of the youth from trafficking. Overall, the government should apply different possibilities of job creation that targeting youth beneficiary, and awareness raising program should be done in shaping the mind of youth about the effects of human trafficking. Furthermore, government and nongovernment organization, civil societies, and different layers of government from kabale levels to the regional government should follow up the activities of brokers and apply law enforcement mechanism to reduce the crime of trafficking in person; moreover, the justice system should apply the rule of law.
Key-word: human trafficking, causes, effects, youth, victims of trafficking, families of victims, negative cause, positive cause, Middle East, Dodola woreda
Table of contents
Contents page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT II
DECLARATION III
DEDICATION V
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURE VII
ACRONYMS VIII
ABSTRACT IX
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5
1.3.1. General Objective 5
1.3.2. Specific Objective 5
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION 6
1.5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 6
1.6. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 7
1.8. ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER 7
CHAPTER TWO 10
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10
2.1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 10
2.1.1. Neoclassical Migration Theory 10
2.1.2. The New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM) 11
2.1.3. Migration System Theory 11
2.2. DEFINITION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 13
2.4. HUMAN TRAFFICKING VS HUMAN SMUGGLING 14
2.4.1. Source of Benefit 14
2.4.2. Trans-nationality 14
2.4.3. Victimization 14
2.5. COMPONENTS OF TRAFFICKING AND FORCED LABOUR 15
2.5.1. Recruitment 16
2.5.2. Transportation 16
2.5.3. Exploitation 16
2.6. “PUSH” AND “PULL” FACTOR 17
2.7. GLOBAL OVERVIEW OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 18
2.8. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN AFRICA 18
2.9. CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ETHIOPIA 19
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists 20
2.10. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ETHIOPIA 20
2.11. ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRAFFICKING PROCESS 21
2.12.1. FACILITATORS, SMUGGLERS AND TRAFFICKING 21
2.13. THE CONSTITUTION OF FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA 21
2.14. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 27
2.15. Conceptual Framework of variables 29
CHAPTER THREE 30
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 30
3.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA AND POPULATION. 30
3.2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32
3.3. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF THE THESIS. 32
3.3.1. Research Design 32
3.3.2. The Methodology of the thesis. 32
3.4. SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 33
3.5. DATA GATHERING TOOLS 34
3.5.1. Questionnaires 34
3.5.2. Interview 35
3.5.3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) 35
3.5.4. Document studies 36
3.6. Methods of data analysis 36
3.7. Ethical Consideration 37
CHAPTER FOUR 38
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 38
General background of the respondents 38
4.1. THE SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RESPONDENTS 38
4.1.1. Sex of the respondent 38
4.1.2. Age related information 39
4.1.3. Educational status of respondent 40
4.1.4. Occupational status of the respondents 40
4.1.5. Marital status of the respondents 41
4.2. RESPONDENTS VIEW ON THE CAUSE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 42
4.2.1. Push factor (supply side) cause of human trafficking 44
4.2.3. Pull factor (demand side) cause of human trafficking 45
4.4. ANALYSIS ON THE SITUATION OF TRAFFICKERS/BROKERS/ 52
4.3. RESPONDENTS VIEW ON THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 54
4.3.1. Economic effects of human trafficking 54
4.3.2. Social effects of human trafficking 56
4.3.3. Psycho-emotional effects human trafficking 56
CHAPTER FIVE 58
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 58
5.1. CONCLUSION 58
5.2. RECOMMENDATION 60
REFERENCES 62
APPENDICES 68
APPENDIX 1 68
APPENDIX 2 69
APPENDIX, 3 72
APPENDIX, 4 79
APPENDIX, 5 85
APPENDIX, 6 91
APPENDIX, 7 94
APPENDIX, 8 96

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
As the United Nations human trafficking protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and known as the Palermo Protocol (2000) by Supplementing the United Nations Conventions against Transnational Organized Crime defines trafficking in persons, in Article 3 (a) in the following ways:
“human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud of deception, the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, to exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”.
As human trafficking scholars suggest that, the available data on human trafficking were not based on concrete, reliable and comparable data. As Cwikel and Hoban, (2005b), Laczko (2005a), Laczko and Gramegna (2003), Lange (2011), Macklin (2003) there is high level of variability and unreliability in the global human trafficking data. It also explained in this definition, trafficking in persons is more than simply moving someone from one location to another against their will, and forcing someone to work in poor conditions. The complex phenomenon of human trafficking is often confused with other forms of people movement, such as irregular migration and smuggling of migrants. As a result, people who have been trafficked were treated as criminals rather than victims.
Ethiopia has ratified major international instruments that criminalize trafficking in persons. The FDRE Constitution Article 18 (2) reads as; ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude’. ‘Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.’ The revised Criminal Code of Ethiopia further incorporates the provisions that criminalize trafficking in persons, particularly of women and children (articles 596, 597, 598 and 635). Despite the international, regional, and national human rights standards, thousands of Ethiopians young ages were trafficked to different countries of the world including to the Sudan, South Africa, and the Middle East. However, there were very little or no reliable information on the nature of human trafficking in Ethiopia because trafficking in human done secretly and little crime were reported for fear of retribution (ILO, 2011)
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Beyene, (2005) Traffickers can brainwashes young and productive age and make promises of glorious life as the result, they were engaged in human trafficking process. In addition to this, there are pressures from families, friends, and neighbors influences the youth’s for trafficking. The victims of human trafficking can an easy prey to trafficking because of inappropriate information from peers and other nearby people. Peoples lent money to pay for the traffickers from their neighbors, and relatives to send their son/daughter. In addition to this, the trafficked people also believe that when he or she can go abroad they can make money in easy way at short time. Even if there is a chance of getting opportunity of work in homeland country, he or she can compare and calculate the time of money they make big asset in and outside country. They believe that, they can make money in two or three years outside country, but, think that as it was, take a lifetime process working inside the country
Trafficked young ages were traumatized in many cases, they are beaten, the grill can be raped, and threatened, confined and/or deprived of food until they agree to the trafficker’s demands, and make them dependent on traffickers and as debt bondage to control and coerce them. Many of them were forced to have sex with multiple clients per day. They also suffer from a series of diseases associated with multiple rape and physical abuse. Worse still intimidation and violence are very common, and extreme, particularly in cases with “mafia” or organized crime connections (OSCE, 1999).
Victims of trafficking person could hardly care for their elderly and their children. This leads to the breakdown of families and neglect of children (Danilova, 2010). Human trafficking can also affect democracy and democratization in many developing nations in many ways. Among these the trafficked person can lose, his/her live during the trafficked process or has no health. Bellesa Jemal (2014) cited in Agrinet (2003) and PCI (2010) the ever-growing processes of human trafficking perpetuated by organized and sophisticated criminal enterprises. These criminal activities and the official corruption linked to trafficking undermine democratic institutions and challenge of the principle of the rule of law. While the trafficked persons go distance area, and as the result, they may lose their liver due to hardship they face on their journey. This can challenge the activities of the government (Gabriel, 2012)
1.2. Statement of the problem
Human trafficking is a complex issue that affects every corner of the globe. There are not a single country that is unaffected by the effects of ‘modern day- slavery’. Slavery, as commonly supposed was not eradicated during the nineteenth century, it had only expanded over time to form an enormous global trade system of human beings into what was known as human trafficking or ‘modern day slavery’ (Emser, 2013)
As Horwood (2009) cited in IOM (2009) human trafficking was defined as, the use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability. In addition to this human trafficking, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person to having control over another person, for exploiting the labour. Trafficked persons are thus, considered as victims of human rights and labour standards violation. In addition to this, human trafficking refers to the organized, illegal entry of a person into a state of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident.
Human trafficking can bring social, economical, and political crisis to the country in general and individual in particularly. Most of Ethiopian young age becomes victims of human trafficking to earn a better livelihood in Middle East; however, the result of trafficking leads to many problems. The traffickers receive a huge amount of money from potential victims of trafficking and families. To pay this money, the families sell their properties, such as cattle, house, and rent farmland even selling their land illegally. The family of victim had also taken credit from different financial institution such as, office of credit and saving and from their relatives. Due to this, they get into long lasting trouble in their life by working for long hour. This can affect the country as a whole, and the trafficked person that get back empty hand, and their family in particularly (ILO, 2014).
Human trafficking is increasing in alarmingly in the world in general and in developing countries with no exceptionality in the study area in particular. The rationale behind among others are, the Ethiopian young age becomes the victims of human trafficking by the process of trafficking to life a better live are an overriding factor for young’s group in general. The victims of trafficking do not have legal permit to live in host country and can be affected psychologically, socially and, morally and get anxiety due to unexpected situation they are face in destination as well in home country. They live lonely and community with nothing almost only obeying order from the exploitative person. They rarely share their ideas with whom they are working together with their friends. In this way they were affected socially and politically (ILO, 2011).
The key drivers of traffickers to engage in human trafficking activates were to accumulate wealth from human of trafficking process through giving false promise and information. Brokers use different methods to encourage the poor youth to migrate to another place. They often promise the victims that they were got them employed in hotels and other service offering industries. Such false promises of steady employment as house cleaners, car drivers, and hotel service positions or attendants, motivate individuals to migrate to those places. This has become a very common method of taking victims from their homeland to a place that they know nothing about (Gudetu, 2014). Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia officially considered as labor supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases in which the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.
Oromia regional state is not an exceptional to these problems. In west Arsi zone Dodola woreda, the causes of human trafficking and the problem attached to is prevailed. The trafficked persons thought to respond to the economic crisis of their family and become a heavy burden and work the entire times in household activities. In addition to this, the extreme abuses of youngster in a destination whose hope to change their live, and their family’s lives were very sad, when what they supposed was opposite. The family of victims were also faced the shortage of money to pay back they were borrowed for the process of sending their son or daughter. In addition to this, the families of victims were also not as such success from returnees (labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, 2018)
Apart from the economic one, the social side of human trafficking were abuse of human right and these were included beating, confinement, and starvation, thrown from building, rape and in the worst form death. There were also death reports from the labour and social affair of Dodola district by human trafficking abuse. It is not difficult to imagine how mad problems of these. At all its stage, it was violating human rights. However, the International human rights instruments always dictate that, human rights should not be violated. However, the violations of human rights shade the country’s good image and affect the foreign relation between sending and receiving countries. Moreover, it affects the victims of trafficking and families of victims moral and psychological.
Dodola woreda was selected because; it is one of the major areas of the woreda in west Arsi Zone where the problem of human trafficking were more prevalent. Secondly, from the 23 kebeles in the district, four kebeles, Edo, Heraro, Berisa, and Serofta were selected purposively based on the magnitude of the problem of human trafficking. Thirdly, according to data obtained from labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, there were about 206 victims of human trafficking in 2007 E. C; from which 4 were died 2 were badly harmed. Therefore, if this condition were continuing in the same rate, the live of victims were put endangers and they were affected economically, politically, socially and morally. If the problem human trafficking were unsolved, the community’s development were put endangered. With regard to the research gap, the researcher observed that, there had been relative researches done on the researcher’s title but what distinguish the researcher title from others is that it takes into consideration human trafficking were affecting more youth and productive age. The researcher had also observed that no research have been conducted in the study area within this specific topic. Thus, the researcher; was initiated to conduct this study on the selected topic and area of the study to give the possible suggestion on the effects of human trafficking through identifying the major causes of the human trafficking but, it may be difficult to total avoid this problem within this specific research.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General objective
The overall objective of the study was tries to address the causes and effects of human trafficking on young group in Dodola Woreda with the following specific objectives.
1.3.2. Specific objective
To analyze why were the youths engaging in human trafficking in Dodola woreda.
To assess how human trafficking is affecting youths people politically, economically, and socially;
To analyze the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola; and
To assess how human trafficking were effects the youths in Dodola woreda.
1.4. Research question
Under this topic, the following research questions were to address:
1. Why were the youths engaged in human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
2. How human trafficking were affect the young group politically, economically, and socially in Dodola woreda?
3. What are the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola woreda?
4. What are the main effects of human trafficking on youth in Dodola woreda?
1.5. Significance of the Research
The foremost purpose of this research is for completion of MA degree in Political science and International relation. It is a building stone for the researcher to continuing further education. It also affixes a significant element to the academic sphere; moreover, it adds knowledge to individuals who are interested in doing further research in this area of interest. It also expected to open a discussion and research interests in human trafficking and human security.
In addition to this, it also helpful for the government, and nongovernmental organization as well the community, at large in solving the recurrent problem. It also important to know the cause of problems of human trafficking; moreover, to recommend the possible strategies for better community development endeavors. It is also useful for the migrant is sending community, and their local administration to locate possible strategies for tracking and creating consciousness about human trafficking, specifically its cause and challenges.
1.6. Scope of the study
This research was used the term of ‘trafficking in human beings’ as defined in the Palermo Protocol. The research mainly focuses on cross border trafficking. Although external trafficking may be committed for different purposes, the scope of this research study was limited to human trafficking for labour purposes, with particular emphasis on the young group. In addition to this, the scope of this study was also looks into the causes, and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda Oromia National regional state. The study was focus on trafficked young peoples, those who went the Middle East for better living conditions but vulnerable to exploitation particularly in Saudi Arabia, Bruit, and Kuwait. It was also described the causes of trafficking, and its consequences on victims of trafficking and their family.
1.7. Limitations of the study
Because of the hidden and underground nature of human trafficking, it were difficult to locate communities where trafficking exists. In addition to this, during the fieldwork, there were a shortage of statistical data on the total number of out trafficked and returnees. The researcher was to consult the Labour and Social Affairs offices but had no got significant statistical data on the number of returnees. Most of the trafficked youth were undocumented; hence, researcher faced inadequacy in statistical data from the district on the number of trafficked person; furthermore, victims of trafficking were a ‘hidden group’ and different factors such as cultural acceptability victims of trafficking, the clandestine and sensitive nature of trafficking in persons, as well negative attitudes towards failed trafficking experiences. Traffickers had not easily accessible and wisely provide information, since they resort to clandestine operation and due to fear of being reported to the police. Key informants on the operations of traffickers are also difficult to find. They had limited information regarding the operations of brokers and other traffickers. In addition, the institutions involved in giving the data about human trafficking have no maintain easy to access, up-to-date, and organized data.
1.8. Organization of the paper
The researcher was organized this thesis into five main chapters. The first chapter of the research was deals with an introduction chapter. The introductory chapter was contained background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research question, the significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, and organization of the paper. The second chapter of the study was focus on presentation of a literature review of the thesis. This chapter was constitutes the theoretical part of the research production. It also explained the cause and effects of human trafficking, and its consequences. It was very essential and supporting part of study.
The third chapter was introduced the methodology that employed for the research. In addition to this, this chapter also describes the description of study area. The fourth chapter was presented the about the findings of the research. The last chapter of the research project was conclusion and its recommendation
CHAPTER TWO
Review of Literature
In this chapter, topic relevant literatures were reviewed in order to get a broader insight and understanding. The global as well as national meanings of human trafficking were discussed. The theoretical model of the discussion was also cover in this section. Human trafficking is a universal human right violating crime and a contemporary concern of states, international organizations, local, NGOs and individual scholars. The problem initiates discourses and resulted in various kinds of literature; books, research articles, dissertations, theses and different kinds of reports that are available on print and non print formats. For the purpose of this particular study, literature on human trafficking in general and trafficking of Ethiopian young age in particular were consulted.
2.1. Theoretical Framework
For purpose of this study the theoretical model that can explain the causes of the trafficking that is found to be appropriate for better understand are neoclassical theory, the new economics of labour (NEL) and system theory.
2.1.1. Neoclassical Theory
It is true that people trafficked for different reasons/factors. For adequately understand the causal factors underlining theories of trafficking have been developed in the past couple of decades. There are three main reasons why people were trafficked, and the factors that sustain trafficking are flows “…demand-pull factors in the destination area, supply-push factors in the origin area, and network factors that link origin and destination” (Martin 2003:10).
One of the main theories that attempts to explain people’s movement across borders is neoclassical theory. It operates at both macro and micro levels. A key insight of this theory is that international migration arises from geographic differences in the supply of and demand for labour. As a result, people in search of employment migrate from the low age country to the high wage country Massey et al. 2006:36). The assumption of this approach specific to trafficking “the supply and demand for labour is driven by socio-economic conditions in both the origin and destination countries, conditions heightened by the stratifying effects of globalization along gender, ethnic, and geographic lines” (Hebert 2012:89).
Neo-classical approach is optimistic about the impacts of trafficking on labour-sending counties due to high expectations of reduced poverty, unemployment and overpopulation. Further, Constant and Massey (2002) have fostered an assumption of Neo-classical perspective where the victims would not return to the home country as long as he/she benefits from low wages, education and prestige in the host country.
2.1.2. The New Economics of Labour theory (NEL)
New Economics of Labour has been developed recently with the purpose of challenging the assumptions and conclusions of Neo-classical Theory. NEL focuses on trafficking from the micro individual level to meso units such as families, households or other culturally defined units. In other words, a key insight of this new approach theory is that the decision to trafficking is not merely an individual decision, but also is a collective decision of households or families. Their aim is not only to increase income, but is also a risk management strategy in the context of market failures, in addition to failures in the labour market (Stark, 1984, 1991; Stark ; Levhari, 1982; Massey et al., 1993; Taylor, 1999). However, the theory suggests not to ignore individual behavior, but to study it in the context of a group (Stark, 1991).
“A number of empirical studies from diverse regions support the new economics of labour theories (NEL) hypothesis that migration and remittances have positive indirect effects on incomes in migrant sending households, easing capital and risk constraints on local production” (Taylor 1999). Based on the premises of NEL, Taylor (2004) states that, this theory remittance, savings both directly and indirectly contributes to the income of those households receiving remittances, and that the contribution may be significant.
2.1.3. System Theory
The core assumption behind this theory is that the movement of people contributes to change the economic, social, cultural and institutional conditions in both the receiving and sending country. De Haas (2010a) has identified that the Network Theory closely affiliated to the system theory. Further, the focus of the System approach is on both the macro and micro linkages of places linked to the migration process Fawcett and Arnold (1987); Kritz, Lim, and Zlotnik, (1992). Micro level factors include kinship and friendship systems, while macro level factors focus on economy, dominance, political systems, national policies, and cultural and social systems. Unlike the other models, the System Theory emphasizes on the mutual link between trafficking and development (De Haas, 2010a). Therefore, this theory is relevant for developing a theoretical framework that considers trafficking in a broader perspective.
Figure 1.summery of the theory

Source own owing

(Source own drawing form theory, 2018)
2.2. Definition of human trafficking
According to the statement on trafficking the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, also known as the Palermo Protocol (Art. 3a UN, 2000) provides definition that could be universally applicable states as:
“Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”.
As Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013) cited in the US Department of State in its documents ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’ (2010) uses the term, “trafficking in persons” for “activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service. (US Department of State, 2010: NP), “using a number of different terms such as involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labour. The US State Department, further, says that: …a person may be a trafficking victim regardless of whether they once consented, participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked, were transported into the exploitative situation, or were simply born into a state of servitude. At the heart of this phenomenon are the numerous forms of enslavement not the activities involved in international transportation (2010: NP).
International Organization for Migration (IOM) defines trafficking in migrants as an act when the following conditions were met. According to the statement of (IOM); An international border is crossed, departure, transit, entry or stay of a migrant is illegal; an intermediary or the trafficker is involved in the movement of the migrant providing services, such as supplying counterfeit identity documents, official or unofficial transportation and introduction into the illegal labour market in the destination country. The trafficker profits from such activities and that the transaction is voluntary, other than in cases of (Yussouf, 2008: 173).
According to the definition given, trafficking not only involves force to abduct a victim which in most cases, considered to commit by illegal individuals but also applies complex means of deception. Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia is officially considered as worker supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases where the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that is prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.
2.4. Human Trafficking Vs Human Smuggling
There is a general misconception that human trafficking and the smuggling of persons and illegal immigration are the same issue. The definition of human trafficking provided by the separate UN protocol on that phenomenon one can identify a number of distinguishing elements. First, trafficking necessities the threat of, use force, coercion, or deception against victims; however, smuggling migrants who have been smuggled have voluntarily consented to their smuggler; moreover, victims of trafficking have not consented or, if they have initially consented, the consent has been rendered meaningless given the abusive coercive or deceptive action of the trafficker. Second, smuggling necessities the crossing of international borders, but human trafficking can take place both across international borders, and within the state (Wegayehu, 2014).
According to Union Council Framework Decision on Combating Human Trafficking, there are three basic differences between human smuggling and human trafficking as summarized below:
2.4.1. Source of Benefit: The primary source of profit and thus the primary purpose of human trafficking is exploitation. In contrast, smugglers generate their profit through facilitating illegal entry or stay. After reaching destination country, the relationship between migrant and smuggler usually ends.
2.4.2. Trans-nationality: Migrant smuggling always has a trans-national dimension involving at least two countries. However, in case of trafficking it can be within the borders of a particular state.
2.4.3. Victimization: Smuggling does not necessarily involve the victimization of the migrant. Migrant smuggled generally consent to the smuggled. In contrast, victims of trafficking have either never consented or if they have given initial consent it became meaningless by the means by which the trafficker had gained control over the victim such as deception or violence. Smuggled person is part of crime and trafficked person is victim of crime (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010)
Figure, 2 the difference between human trafficking and smuggling

(Source own drawing from literature, 2018)
2.5. Components of trafficking and forced labour
According to International Labour Organization (2011), Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes state trafficking in persons consists of three essential components:
1. Recruitment: by force or deception;
2. Transportation: within a country or across borders, legally or illegally, and
3. Exploitation: traffickers financially benefit through the use or sale of the victim.
2.5.1. Recruitment
Research Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011) state on Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes how people enter the process of trafficking through recruitment by other people. According to them, most are lured into the process by a false promise of an opportunity, deceived by misinformation or lies, or pushed by need or desperation. In some cases, victims are aware that they are to be employed in a given activity but do not know the conditions in which they were working. In other situations, victims were coerced, in extreme cases abducted. The recruitment also made by families, relatives, friends, neighbors, brokers, or recruitment agencies.
2.5.2. Transportation
Once the victims are recruited, they are transported from one town, area, or country to another. This may involve someone or a group of people to facilitate and arrange the movement, provide for false travel documents and shelter along the way. There are instances where corrupt border guards, immigration or law enforcement personnel and officials are also involved. Transport providers may or may not know the nature of their cargo (International Labour Organization, 2011).
2.5.3. Exploitation
The main purpose of recruiting and transporting victims in this case, is to exploit them by engaging them, for instance, into prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour, and, in some instances for body organs removal. In most cases, the main purpose is thus to profit from the exploitation of labour. The notion of exploitation of labour allows a link to establish between the Palermo Protocol and the ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour. Article two, paragraph 1 of the latter Convention defines ‘forced or compulsory labour’ as “all work or service, which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which they said person has not offered himself voluntarily”.
Most employers feel they own the migrant workers because they paid for the recruitment and any other related fees, just as if they own any other property they have paid for. The lack of social and legal protection in the destination countries gives traffickers and employers power over trafficked victims. This power exercised through physical, emotional and sexual abuse and threat.

Figure 3: trafficking in Persons

Source: Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants in the context of mixed migration flows (IGAD RCP, 2015)
2.6. “Push” and “Pull” factor
According to Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013), the “push” and “pull” are reinforcing factors that contribute to trafficking in persons. “Push” factors are those hostile social, economic, political conditions in the countries of origin which encourage or force the people to migrate for the greener pastures. These conditions include extreme poverty, unemployment, lack of education, political corruption and political instability and civil war or conflict situations in countries of origin. Poverty and unemployment put a person to enter into situation of exploitation without fully knowing about it, as they do not have many alternatives. Powerlessness and marginal position of poor and unemployed people in society provide traffickers an opportunity to exploit them. The visible gaps in the standards of living of people also lead to their victimization as they start regarding migration as only way to become rich. Difference between wages in home country and abroad is quiet huge and aggravate the danger (Wheaton, Schauer and Galli, 2010:123).
The “pull” factors are also responsible for flourishing the trafficking in human beings. It refers to such elements that exist in the destination countries and attract the people to migrate there. This category includes a globalized free-market economy that has increased the demand for cheap labour, goods and services. The labour from the third world countries is quite cheap, less demanding and harder working. Thus, because of hyper-capitalism, human beings have also become the commodities. This mutual beneficiary pattern of demand and supply has also given birth to transnational criminal networks that are earning from the migration of people and making them victims of trafficking (The Levin Institute, 2011: 13-14).
2.7. Global Overview of Human Trafficking
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Laczko, (2005) an estimated of 600,000 to 800,000 men and women and men are trafficked across global borders every year. The report also added that the figures quoted above do not include millions who are victims of trafficking within their nations. All East African countries have recognized as source transit and destination. The study also shows that trafficking occur both international and across borders to other countries in the East and southern Africa and Trans continentally to Europe and the Middle East.
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Endeshaw (2006) revealed that trafficking is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently reemerged globally. Global March show that trafficking of persons leaves no country untouched and the widespread global nature of the practice is on the rise. The author listed Ethiopia among countries affected by the practice (Allais, 2004)Trafficking of person has evolved in to one of the most tragic feature of contemporary global migration and the situation of victims is described as follows. Victims of trafficking were exposed to physical and psychological violence and abused, denied labor right. Are illegal before the law and are often found in a forced and unwanted relationship or dependency with their traffickers. (IOM, 2003)
2.8. Human Trafficking In Africa
A review of existing literature indicates that individual characteristics such as gender, socio economic status education, employment and personal aspiration related to an individual’s lively of being trafficked. The first evidenced of UN employment came not from statistical data but from reports about the appearance in various towns of people who obviously has no jobs. They came in increasing numbers, and lived in shantytowns in desperation and poverty. Street children as beggary who simply work on the stretch but are without families or homes are increasing in number in substandard Africa major cites irregular migration as well as trafficking young boy’s and girl’s was stimulated and indemnified by worsening youth unemployment and rapidly deteriorating socio economic condition and poverty (Annan, 2006)
The research reviewed focuses primarily on how the economic environment in people’s home communities contributes to their vulnerability to trafficking. However, some mention of other community or environmental characteristics may be important. This includes the lack of protected services for children trading to escape an abusive home, employer, or early marriage (Masudi, 2001). The vulnerability of working and abusive home, employer may be compounded by the fed and sometimes inability to reform home or to access support after migrating.
2.9. Causes of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
As Gudetu (2013) state the cause of human trafficking states as it was the corrupt mode of human migration. Human migration cannot stop, but human trafficking can be. Even if there is no single country that succeeded in stopping human trafficking. Women’s unemployment and underemployment could partially be associated to their low level of education, and it encourages the process of human trafficking. It is an overt truth that women’s educational attainment was directly related to their better status in the society. As it can also be observed from the profile, of labour and social affair of Dodola woreda the number of the educational attainment of women out-migrates is low. Hence, poverty because of poor employment and unemployment is one area that exposed women to trafficking. Dishonest agents who claim to have established contacts with employers oversees process trafficking. These agents were place victims of trafficking in exploitative conditions (Gudatu, 2013:239).
Economic factors are also causes of migration to the Middle East. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (2014), Fransen ; Kuschminder (2009), Baker ; Aina (1995), Atnafu (2006) presented economic factors as the main driving force for Ethiopian youth migration to the Middle East. For local communities of Ethiopia, migration is the only viable option for alleviating their poverty.
Many youths of Ethiopia migrate to boost their material gains Selamawit, B (2013) states the factors that cause Trafficking as “People fall victim to trafficking for many reasons. Although the root causes of trafficking vary from country to country, there are however many factors that tend to be common to trafficking in general according to US Department of State (2012) report. Social, economic and political factors are major driving forces. Socially marginalized, economically deprived and poverty stricken individuals are primary victims of trafficking through deception and coercion.”
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists
Across the world, numerous belief systems, cultural patterns and practices affect potential human trafficking victims. An example of a cultural belief that was found to impose subjection was a study done on child trafficking in Thailand, where it was found that a typical belief pattern was for families to view their children as being responsible for helping to provide for the family through means of income, household help, and community labor (Taylor, 2005:413). In the developing world, it is typical to find a lack of accessible resources so parents was readily assign responsibility to their children in the allocation of care concerning “each child’s perceived potential economic, social and reproductive returns” (Taylor, 2005:414). A child’s birth order and sex are determinates of whether they are deemed as a helper child, particularly for the firstborn daughter. The common belief is that daughters are responsible for the welfare of the family especially their younger siblings and seeing to the well-being of their elderly parents (Taylor, 2005).
2.10. Consequences of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
“The consequences of human trafficking can be social, political and economical. Most of Ethiopian women become victims of human trafficking in their process of migration to earn a better livelihood. Earning a better livelihood was an overriding factor for women’s migration in general and trafficking in particular. The result of trafficking is exploitation of victims for different purposes. Traffickers receive huge amount of money from potential victims and their families too. In most cases, this money comes from selling of movable and immovable properties, such as cattle and land. In addition, they take credit from siblings and neighbors. Women who are trafficked in most cases get back to their country empty handed, because they do not have legal permit for employment and their employers do whatever they like to exploit them. Hence, let alone getting their life improved, they get into long lasting trouble in their life” (Gudetu 2013:241)
Therefore, the economic impact of trafficking is capital, as it not only affects the migrant, who get back empty handed, but also their family and the country as a whole. Migration, which was thought to respond to the economic crisis of the family and the migrant, becomes a heavy burden to the entire household. Another consequence, which is not distinctly apart from the economic one, is the social side of human trafficking.
A statement quoted by Beydoun (2006) reads; Trafficking does not occur in a vacuum. It is a crime because of various and combined social situations and circumstances, legal systems, people and their needs. Trafficking is not one event, but a series of constitutive acts and circumstances implicating a wide range of actors. When seeking a solution, extracting one aspect of the equation would be futile (for example restricting migration) since the combined forces would continue to act (people’s need, social situations, poverty, violence, demand, and criminal intent) even with the elimination of one of its links.
2.11. Actors Involved in the Trafficking Process
2.12.1. Facilitators, Smugglers and Trafficking
As Habteyes (2016) cited in Wegayehu (2014) state, facilitators are typically neighbors or other person who knows the targets. This can also include close relatives and family members. The main tasks of the facilitators in the recruitment process are to seek out potential victims, convince victims and their families of the benefits of working abroad and arrange a meeting with the broker. They are beneficial; actually, they receive commissions from brokers for each successfully trafficked person. Working through facilitators benefits the brokers in many ways. There is a better chance of engaging the victims while and at the same time reducing suspicion of active recruitment. The arrangement also makes it easier for the broker in communities where he or she was not known. Additionally, the brokers are were not held responsible for the victim’s exploitation in the eyes of the community.
Likewise, Yamauchi (2003) as cited in Adamnesh (2006) stated that people migrate though different channels such as through family ties, networks, labor brokers, smugglers and traffickers to mention few. Equivalently, the study finding elaborated that almost all of the participants traveled to Saudi Arabia due to the push by smugglers and family/friends. The smugglers arrange transport, receivers to the host country, prepare false documents like passports, visas, and work permits.
2.13. The Constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in its proclamation no.1/1995 article 18 declares prohibition against inhuman treatment and makes it clear that everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. No. 2 of this article prohibits trafficking in human beings for any purpose and states that no one shall be held in slavery or servitude. In addition, article 32 of the constitution guarantees the freedom of every Ethiopian to move and reside within the country, to leave the country whenever one wishes, and to return to the country. However, in practice, any Ethiopian who wishes to travel abroad for any reason is provided with a travel document or passport. The challenges associated with this freedom, is the situation of Ethiopian young aged who migrate to the Middle East and Gulf countries to seek for employment. The challenges include the issue of how to prevent such situations while respecting the constitutional and human rights of movement of all Ethiopian citizens.
Trafficking in human being was prohibited as provided under Article 18 (2) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. According to Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No.909/2015, Ethiopia has signed the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crimes and ratified the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons especially Women and Children. In addition to this, it is found important to promulgate a law consistent with the Constitution and these international instruments; in accordance with Article 55 (1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed as follows: the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No.909/2015.
According to the Proclamation No.909/2015 of The Federal Negarit Gazette of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia human trafficker were defined in following. As to this proclamation, 1/ “human trafficker” or “migrant smuggler” means a person who: a) by any means, either directly or indirectly, in violation of the law or by his personal initiation, commits or attempts to commit the crimes of Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants; b) Participants as an accomplice in the crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants; c) Organizes other people to participate in the crimes or who provides order for organized criminal group; d) Solicits people from their residence to migrate by providing a promise; or e) In any way encourages, promotes or intentionally gives assistance for persons organized with common motive for the commission of the crime stipulated in this Proclamation; living either in the territory of Ethiopia or outside.
2/ “organized criminal group” means a structured group of two or more person living and operating in Ethiopia or elsewhere, existing for a limited or unlimited period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more offences stipulated under this Proclamation, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly a financial or other material benefit, and it includes association and groups organized for trafficking;
3/”transnational crime” means when the commission of the crimes stated under this Proclamation: a) involves more than one country; b) is committed under the territory of Ethiopia with its preparation, planning, direction, supervision or funding in another country; c) in committed in another country with its preparation, planning, direction, supervision or funding in Ethiopia or through another country; d) is committed by an organized criminal group engaged in criminal activity in more than one country; e) is committed under the territory of Ethiopia even another country with its effect in another country or in Ethiopia.
4/ “Exploitation” include the following: a) benefiting from prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation; b) labor exploitation, forced labor or servitude; c) slavery or practices similar to slavery; d) sexual servitude and enslavement; e) debt bondage or surrender as pledge for another; f) removal or taking of organs of the human body; g) forcefully engaging for begging; h) engaging children for military service.
5/ “slavery” mean the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;
6/ “servitude” mean the conditions or the obligations to work or to render services from which the person cannot escape, prevent or alter.
7/ “debt bondage” means the pledging by the debtor of his personal service or labor or those of a person under his control as security or payment for a debt, when the length and nature of service is not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt and resemble trafficking in human.
8/ “smuggling of migrants” means an act immigrating or emigrating individuals, in land, see and air, to country of which the person don’t have nationality, work or residence permit, with direct or indirect intention to procure financial or material benefit;
10/ “Refugee” means any person who full fills the criteria has stipulated under Refugee Proclamation;
11/ “victim” means a person against whom the offence stipulated under this Proclamation has been committed or any person who has sustained harm, including mental and physical injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial violation of basic human rights due to the commission of the crime. The other point raised in Federal Negarit Gazette of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No.909/2015 Crimes of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants State Trafficking in Persons in 3/1 any person, for the purpose of exploitation, within the territory or outside of Ethiopia, and as a) at the pretext of domestic or oversees employment or sending to aboard for work or apprenticeship) by concluding adoption agreement or at the pretext of adoption; or c) for any other purpose; using threat or force or other means of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, promise, abuse of power or by using the vulnerability of a person or recruits, transports, transfer harbors or receives any person by giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.
2/ where the crime stipulated under sub-article (1) of this Article? a) is committed against child, women or anyone with mental or physical impairment; b) resulted in physical or psychological harm on the victim; c) is committed by using drugs, medicine or weapons as a means; d) is committed by public official or civil servant in abusing of power; or e) is committed by a person who is parents, brother, sister, a guardian or a person having a power on the victim; the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not less than 25 years or life imprisonment and with fine from 200,000 to 500,000 Birr.
3/ the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means stipulated under sub article (1) of this article.
4. Assisting and Facilitating Trafficking in Persons For the purpose of promoting human trafficking, any person who: 1/ permits his house building or other permits in his own name or in his control to be used for human trafficking knowingly or ought to have known; 2/ publishes, stores, disseminates, imports or exports any publication; 3/ manages, runs or finances by organizing any job recruitment agency; 4/ knowingly arrange transportation, transport or facilitate the transportation of victim by land, sea or air; 5/ assist, produce, provide, holds and falsifies any fraudulent or false identity card or travel document or assist to get these documents through illegal means for the benefit of other person; or 6/ holds as debt bondage, forcefully snatches, conceals, destroys or causes to destroy the victim’s identity card or travel documents to restrain his right to movement or access to public service; shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.
5. Crime of Smuggling Migrant 1/ Any person, either directly or indirectly with the intention to procure financial or other material benefit, who causes migrants to cross border, attempts to cross or prepare to cross into or out from the territory of Ethiopia illegally shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment of 15 years to 20 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr. 2/ If the crime stipulated under sub-article (1) of this Article: a) is committed against child or women, or any person with mental or physical impairment; b) causes the victim to suffer a physical or psychological harm; c) is committed by using drugs, medicine or weapons; d) is committed by a person who has a similar criminal record; or e) is committed by public official or civil servant in abusing of power; the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not less than 20 years and with fine from 300,000 to 500,000 Birr.
6. Aggravated Circumstance where the offence stipulated under Articles 3 and 5 of this Proclamation results in sever bodily injury or death to the victim, where the offender commits the offence as being a member, a leader or coordinator of an organized criminal group or where the crime is committed in large scale, the punishment shall be a life imprisonment or death penalty, depending on the case.
7. Offences Related to Identity Card or Travel Documents Any person who produces, possesses, provides or transfers fraudulent or false identity card or travel documents to smuggle migrants to enter into and escape from the territory of Ethiopia by land, sea or air, shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment not less than 10 years and not exceeding 20 years and with a fine from 100,000 to 200,000 Birr.
8. Assisting Smuggled Migrant to Enter or Stay in the Territory of Ethiopia Notwithstanding the provisions of other laws, any person who, knowingly or where he should have known the importance of residence permit, identity card and other travel documents to foreigner to stay or to live in Ethiopian, assists smuggling of migrants to enter in to Ethiopia or assists the smuggled migrants to stay or to live in the territory of Ethiopia, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 3 to 5 years.
9. Assistance to Illegal Stay in any Country Any person who, in order to obtain directly or indirectly a financial or material benefit, intentionally: 1/ assist, to stay in the territory of Ethiopia, a foreigner who is not a national or have no residence permit by violating the law and without complying with the necessary requirements to live legally or to stay an Ethiopian national elsewhere in other country 2/ facilitates the smuggling of another person into Ethiopia or to cross the border or to enter into another country by violating law; 3/ agrees to provide, provides or transfers false identity card or travel document, whereby he knows or should have reasonably known or there is a means to know that the document is to be used for the purpose of smuggling of migrants; shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment from 10 years to 15 years and with a fine from 100,000 to 500,000 Birr.
10. Destroying of Evidence and Blocking Testimony Any person who, intimidates by any means or bribes directly or indirectly, an informant, witness or a potential witness not to testify, to provide false testimony or to conceal an evidence in the process of criminal investigation, prosecution or court proceeding of the crime of trafficking in persons or smuggling of migrants or destroys or conceals an evidence by his own, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 10 years to 15 years.
11. Concealing Crime and the Suspected Criminal Any person who conceals the suspected criminal, who is accused of committing the crimes stipulated under this Proclamation, hides a property used or planed for the commission of the crime or conceals the proceed of the crime or the source of the money used for the commission of crime or disguises or fails to report the source or the money, that he should have known the fact that either the source or money is a proceed of crime, shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment from 5 years to 10 years, depending on the cases.
12. Failure to Disclose Criminal Acts Whosoever, with regards to the crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants stated on this Proclamation: 1/ having information about the preparation or evidence that may assist to prevent any harm before its commission, fails to immediately inform or give information or evidence to the police or any other competent authority, unless he adduces force majeure or adequate reason prohibiting disclosure, or gives false evidence shall be punishable with simple imprisonment; or if the possible harm of the criminal act is serious, the punishment shall extend to 5 years of rigorous imprisonment; 2/ having an information or evidence capable to arrest, prosecute or punish a suspect or person ready to commit the crime, fails to immediately inform or give information or evidence to the police or any other competent authority, unless he adduces force majeure or adequate reason prohibiting disclosure, or gives false evidence shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment not less than 5 years and not exceeding 10 years and a fine of 10,000 to 50,000 Birr.
13. Criminal Liability of Legal Persons 1/ Notwithstanding Article 90 (1), (3) and (4) of the Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, where any offence stipulated under this Part is committed by a direct or indirect participation of juridical person, or the crime is committed in cooperation with organized criminal group or through an illegal association or juridical person established for trafficking or smuggling:
2.14. Conceptual Framework
By taking review of various literatures, 11 independent variables were hypothesized for this study as the cause of human trafficking. However, what have been taken in to account that this is not the only factors that push or pull the process of human trafficking to Middle East that might exert positive or negative influences on the number of out migrate. In the study, the researcher was focus on the young group that were affected by the act of human trafficking. It is based on the recognition that each young person is unique, but all young people are shaped by developmental (including the biological and psychosocial of puberty), culture, gender, and environment.
As Shelley Joy (2012) cited in Barr (2010) Ostrager (2010); Johnson, Blum, and Greded in (2009) and much of literature highlight that young people do not understand or recognize the serious consequences of their action. As the prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain responsible for reasoning and decision making, and it is not fully developed until the mid twenties. This explain why the impulsive and emotional response of adolescence to risk taking is not always about a deficit in knowledge as many young people participate in high risking behaviors even though they know they should not (Muscari 2009; Admas 2009). These influence the young people to engage in human trafficking activities without calculating the consequence of the action that may affect their life. So the studies was try to investigating how the young person affected by the act human trafficking that they are shaped by culture, gender, environment, economy and other people and push and pull factor.
According to the statement of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Trafficking in Persons Global Patterns Vienna, United Nations, (2006) stated trafficking is a crime against individuals. As them, trafficked persons most directly feel the consequences, and trafficking activities contravene fundamental human rights, denying people basic and broadly affect individual freedoms. Trafficking also has broad economic, social, political and cultural consequences. As a criminal act, trafficking violates the rule of law, threatening national jurisdictions, and international law. Further, trafficking in persons redirects the benefits of migration from migrants, their families, community and government or other potential legitimate employers to the traffickers and their associates. Difficult as it is to measure accurately the scope of human trafficking, it is equally difficult to measure its impact.

2.15. Conceptual Framework of variables
Figure 4. The causes and effects of human trafficking

(Source: own drawing, 2018)
CHAPTER THREE
THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1. Description of the Study Area and population
Dodola woreda is one of the 18 woreda’s of West Arsi Zone, which is, found in the central part of Oromia in Ethiopia. It has a total area of approximately 143246 hector with an altitude ranging from 2370 to 3500 above sea level, which is almost within the range of 95% dega and 5% waina dega climate zone. The annual mean temperature oscillates between 13oc-26oc, while the average annual rainfall is between 800-1200mm. It is bordered to the south by Adaba woreda, to the northeast by Kofale, to the North -West by Kokosa and to the West by Nansabo woreda. Currently this woreda has 23 Rular kebeles and has 4 rural towns and on the basis of 2007, CSA, the woreda has a total population of 186, 907, of which, 92,471 were male, and the left 94,436 shows female sections. Out of this total population, 30,250 indicate the urban residents or inhabitants of Dodola district. Here, majorities of the inhabitants (80.65%) were Muslim whereby 17.89% followed by 1.3% indicated the followers of Ethiopian Orthotics Christianity and protestant respectively. Among the 23 woredas of West Arsi Zone, it is one of the best woreda being characterized by having comfortable weather condition for life in general and fertile land for the farm. Here, the study populations are the entire group of people to which a researcher intends the results of a study to apply (Aron & Coups, 2008). Therefore, the subjects of this study were victims of human trafficking, families’ of victims, policy officer, labour and social affair office, and youth and sport office of dodola woreda.
The study was conducted in the Dodola district, West Arsi, Oromia region in Ethiopia. The reason for selecting Dodola as my study area is the following factors. As data obtained from labour and social affair office from 2014-2018 there was the highest number of migration among West Arsi Zone, Dodola was the second level in returns. Second, it is because of the researcher’s personal experience and familiarity with the language and culture of the region. The study was selected focus on Edo, and Heraro town, as well as Barisa, and Serofta kebales because of the occurrence of a higher level of trafficking in persons than in the other kebales of the woredas. For instance, from the 2014 deportees from Saudi Arabia the highest numbers, and Kuwait, Beirut were small cases of trafficking victims were found respectively (Dodola woreda office of Labor and Social Affairs, 2018).
Figure 5. Map of study area description

Map of Dodola woreda Map of West Arsi zone

Source: (Dodola woreda administrative office, 2018)

3.2. Research methodology
In chapter two of this proposal, the relation between an existing body of knowledge and important issues involved in assessing the causes and effects of human trafficking. This chapter explained the methodology that used in this research and the different techniques that utilized while collecting data including how the primary and secondary data collection. The study was employed both qualitative and quantitative research approach.
3.3. Design and the methodology of the thesis
3.3.1. Research Design
In this research, both descriptive and explanatory research designs were used. The reason to choose this research design was it enabled to describe and explain the intended objective of this study. In order to address these stated objectives, the researcher was used both quantitative and qualitative (mixed) research approaches; however, the qualitative data types were given more attention since it is important to study the research participants’ viewed and experience in-depth/details. As to Marshall and Ross man (1995), the strength of qualitative methodology lies in its uses in descriptive research since it often employed for deeply rooted studies that attempt to interpret the social reality. The issues related to human trafficking are one aspect of the human problem; and, qualitative analysis believed to provide sufficient understanding of the subject (Roger, 2003).
3.3.2. The Methodology of the thesis
This method allows the researcher to investigate initial participant responses by using open-ended questions ask why or how with full freedom and flexibility. The reason why such a method is used is to enable informants to express their ideas in their own words and get the full picture of the problem. Hence, the researcher has primarily used the statements of the trafficking of young aged returnees to establish a pattern of the experiences, treatments, and problems they face throughout their passage and in a destination. Quantitative and qualitative research methods combined as complementary rather than as rival camps in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The quantitative and qualitative methods complement each other when used in combination and allow for more complete to analysis.
Hence, methodological triangulation was employed in this study to understand the whole process of the causes and its effects of human trafficking. The qualitative method employed in the investigation of the problem and the researcher used both first and second-hands sources of data collection (Green et.al, 1989). Broadly, the finding in qualitative research can be written in three ways. (1) Developing narrative to describe a situation, episode, events or instance; (2) identifying the main themes that emerge from field notes or transcription of in-depth interview and writing about them, quoting extensively in verbatim format, and quantify the main themes in order to provide their prevalence and significance Ranjit. , k (2011:248)
While designing mixed methods of study, the following issues need consideration: priority, implementation, and integration (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). This study used sequential explanatory mixed methods design, consisting of two distinct phases. In the first phase, the quantitative (numeric) those statistical data was collected through questionnaires. In the second phase, qualitative data was gathering through structured and semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussion. The qualitative data analysis was refined and explained results by exploring participants’ view more in depth. Because of these, the sequential mixed research method selected by the researcher to determine the frequency of the factors, and compared the variables; focus on underlying reasons, opinions, feeling, perception, on problems of the human trafficking.
According to Lofland (1995), sequential mixed methods of data collection strategies involve collecting data in an interactive process whereby the data collected in one phase contribute to the data collected in the next. Thus, in this study the informants were quantitative, to obtain the categories of the respondents depend on those returnees from abroad by the act of human trafficking was identified and the frequency of the values to determine the level of the causes. while qualitatively, get to know them personally what have experienced in their life by using questions such as how, and why is happening, what are the effects, and what are the key driver? To answer the how, what and the why questions, one should focus on people and settings, looking for the meanings that existed in, emerged from, and were consequential for, those settings.
3.4. Sample size and sampling technique
Purposive sampling was used to select participants or specific sites for the study intentionally by the researcher (Kothari 2004:59 and Singh 2006:91). Hence, the researcher in relation to the specified criteria that were assumed important for a particular research question (Kothari 2004:59) purposefully selected participants of this study. Police officers, victims of trafficking and their families, officials from the labour and social affairs offices and representatives of the youth and sports affairs, and districts court judges’ were selected by purposive sampling technique.
Snowball sampling, which is part of purposive sampling, was used to get the target group of trafficking victims. The main strategy of snowball sampling involved to identify the people with relevant attributes and asking them to pinpoint the other people who have similar characteristics or challenges (Bruce 2001:33).
Snowball sampling is the process of selecting a sample using networks. To start with, a few individuals in a group or organization are selected and the required information is collected from them. They are then, asked to identify other people in the group or organization, and the people selected by them become a part of the sample. Information is collected from them, and then these people are asked to identify other members of the group and, in turn, those identified become the basis of further data collection. This process is continued until the required number or a saturation point has been reached, in terms of the information, being sought (Ranjit, 2011:189).
This sampling technique is useful if you know little about the group or organization you wish to study, as you need only to make contact with a few individuals, who can then direct you to the other members of the group. This method of selecting a sample is useful for studying communication patterns, decision-making or diffusion of knowledge within a group (Ranjit, 2011:189).
Through purposive sampling, the informants were chosen for an interview. During the selection of participants for an interview, the researcher was looking into consideration the respondents’ age, and gender. The total numbers of respondents for this research were 52. Out of these respondents, 35 were males and, 17 were females. Among this 33 were rights holders who were victims of trafficking and the families of victims. From this, 26 of the participants were from the victims of trafficking groups; out of which 10 were females, and 16 were males, who came back from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The families’ of victims were 8; from this, 6 males and, 2 females. The majority of the sampling was from the rights holder at the age of 18 up to 30. The remaining 18 samples were from the relevant of duty bearers. 6 respondents out of the 18 duty bearers were female, and; 12 were males. Among these 7 Police officers, from these 5 males and 2 female, and 6 officials from the labour and social affairs offices 4 male and 2 female; and, 2 from youth and sport office and both were 2 females; and, 4 from districts court’s judges, and all are males.
3.5. Data gathering tools
The type of data that used for this study was quantitative and qualitative. Because through these techniques the numerical value of the sample and clear description and explanation of the past and current factors have been discussed. The first hand and second hand source of data were available in this study. The primary data were gathered via questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion while the secondary data was collected through published and unpublished relevant documents, materials, reports of the conference, and researches result. Data collection tool for this study treated as a matter of design that was boost the construction of both internal and external validity as well as the reliability of the study that were started by planning for data collection, distribution of questionnaires and conducting of interviews. The data gathering tools employed in this study are as follow:
3.5.1. Questionnaires
Taylor (1998:55) explained, Questionnaires are preferred in the study because they give respondents complete freedom of response. Both open-ended and close ended questionnaire were applied to collect the necessary data, and both have its own advantages and disadvantages in different situations. As a rule, closed questions are extremely useful for eliciting the factual information, and open-ended questions for seeking opinions, attitudes and perceptions. The choice of open-ended or closed questions should be made according to the purpose for which a piece of information is to be used, the type of study population from which information is going to be obtained (Ranjit, 2011:144).
The questionnaires were mainly used because it is appropriate to obtain varieties of options from a large population within short time. To make respondents understand the questionnaire, it was prepared in English and translated into Afan Oromo. The questionnaires were designed for Police officers, and representatives of the youth and sports offices, labour and social affair offices, and districts court judges’ to get information on the nature, scale, socio-economic effects of human trafficking and as well as its causes.
3.5.2. Interview
The most common sources of data collection in qualitative research are interviews, and review of documents (Holt-Jenson, 1999:11). This study was conducted via person-to-person interview format during data collection. Interviews highly structured style was conduct, for in whom officials from the labour and social affair and the close-ended questionnaire were used primarily to gather socio-demographic information; however, for the most part the interviews are more open-ended and less structured. In a structured interview, the interviewers asked the same questions of the same categories, and same wording and order of question (Ranjit, 2011:137). Participants For example victim of trafficking, labour and social affair officials but the orders of the questions, the exact wording, and the type of follow-up questions were varied considerably.
The researcher was used both structured and unstructured interview in which carefully worded questionnaire was administered in structured; however, the interviewer did not follow rigid form in the case of unstructured. This was encouraged in capturing of respondents’ perceptions in their own words and this is a desirable strategy in qualitative data collection. The strength of unstructured interviews is the almost complete freedom they provide in terms of content and structure. You are free to order these in whatever sequence you wish. You also have complete freedom in terms of the wording you use and the way you explain questions to your respondents (Ranjit, 2011:137).
This allows the researcher to identify the causes and effects of human trafficking from the experience of respondent’s perspective. The interviewers sought to be encouraged, free and open responses, and there is a tradeoff between comprehensive coverage of topics and in-depth exploration of a more limited set of question. It is the most appropriate approach for studying complex and sensitive areas as the interviewer has the opportunity to prepare a respondent before asking sensitive questions and to explain complex ones to respondents in person (Ranjit, 2011:137). Interviews were conducted with officials from the labour and social affairs offices and to get information on policy issues, challenges they faced in applying anti-human trafficking, its goal is to elicit rich, detailed material that can be used in the analysis.
3.5.3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
Beside the interviews, FGD are a form of strategy in qualitative research in which the attitudes, opinions or perceptions towards an issue, product, service or program are explored through a free and open discussion between members of a group and the researcher. Focus groups discussion is discussions in which a researcher raises issues or asks questions that stimulate discussion among members of the group. Approximately eight to ten people are the optimal number for such discussion groups. The researcher identifies carefully the issues for discussion by providing every opportunity for additional relevant ones to emerge. In addition to this, the researcher decides in consultation with the group the process of recording the discussion. This may include fixing the times that the group can meet to extensively discussing the issues and arriving at agreements on them. Your records of the discussions then become the basis of analysis for findings and conclusions (Ranjit, 2011:124).
FGD was conducted with the selected local community of returnees’ family members. The selection of the members was based on the experience and knowledge they have in the area of trafficking in persons due to their sons/daughters’ participated in this. One group of FGD and that contain eight members were held for discussant, and the researcher was held discussion three times with the families of victims on the causes and effects of human trafficking question. The data was analyzed based on the transcripts of typed interviews in Afan Oromo and converted into English then, the finding was analyzed it thematically.
3.5.4. Document analysis
As Lincoln and Guba (1985: 16) defined a document as “any written or recorded material” not prepared for the purposes of the evaluation or at the request of the inquirer. This technique is preferred because of its ability to provide supplementary information and flexibility, which help in producing descriptive information. For the purpose of this study, Public records such as census and vital statistics reports were observed. Both published and unpublished literature on causes and effects of human trafficking as well as internet sources were consulted. Through this study, the researcher was attempts to review of the relevant written documents about the subject (causes and effects of human trafficking) the written documents has consisted of Dodola district labour and social affair recorded documents, publication, reports presented at conferences, internet, and government documents.
3.6. Methods of data analysis
Mixed data analysis is a complex process that involves moving back and forth between inductive and deductive reasoning (Merriam, 1988). Data collected by qualitative methods are usually voluminous and the analysis does not involve using a set of formula like it does with statistical analysis used in quantitative methods. Therefore, in this study, the researcher was employed mixed data analysis strategy much like to go about organizing, analyzing, numerating and interpreting data. The first step in analyzing this research involved organizing the data for this purpose which essentially means analysis using of the following as data, words derived from interviews, notes of description, from questionnaires, and documents whereby the methods of organizing such data was different depending upon the research strategy or data collection technique. The interview data, for instance, were organized by grouping answer together across respondents. The questionnaires were analyzed compared, and tabulated by frequency and supported by an explanation.
Data analyses of this study were based on inductive analysis, which means that the patterns, themes and categories of analysis produced from the data. These were emerged out of the data rather than being decided prior to data collection and analysis via understanding, examining, tabulating or recombining the problem to identify the cause and effects of human trafficking in Dodola woreda by 2018. The report data examined and analyzed based on data collected from the distributed questionnaires, policy documents and interviews with participants. The responses of the subjects were categorized in score tables, with varying percentages calculated interpretations and drawing conclusions is done in accordance with a number of each item. For the case of qualitative data, field notes have been written and work edited at the end of each working day to ensure accuracy in recording consistency information given from the respondents. After the questionnaire designed, the data was reviewed to test its validity and relevance. In addition, the data gathered in the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statics. Its importance descriptive frequency, percentages were computed. Therefore, the collected data were presented to the reader mainly in statement format, and tabulation, Finally, Summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendation was made based on data collected.
3.7. Ethical Consideration
A strict code of conduct must adhere to while doing research. Because there are varying opinions across cultures and countries on what defines ethical behavior, the ethical clearance was obtained from University of the Aksum. Permission had obtained from Dodola labour and social affair offices. Informed oral consent was obtained from the study participants after explaining the purpose and objective of the study. The respondents were told that they have the right to withdraw from giving the response at any time during the interview. To ensure the confidentiality and privacy of participant’s names or codes that led to identifing the respondent for the third party were not recorded throughout the study.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRITATION
This part of the thesis explain the about the finding extracted from the respondent through questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion were presented and discussed. The whole of this chapter have categorized in to three sections. The first section is analyzed the socio demographic characteristics of the respondent. The second section was analyzed the cause of human trafficking. Under this, there were additional sub topics the push or supply side and the pull or the demand side cause of human trafficking. In the third section, the effects of human trafficking were discussed particularly emphasized on the economic effect, social, political and psychological emotional effects are presented and analyzed. Under all section and sup topics the verbal example expression or comment of respondents were presented under each topics and sub topics. The verbal words of the respondents were summarized under each sub topic to have full picture of trafficking.
General background of the respondents
Respondents these who were selected for the sample size for this study on the title of the cause and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia; cases from Dodola woreda National Oromia regional state 50 respondents were selected of those respondents 39 respondents were male and 11 respondents were females. Additionally, for all respondents the open ended and close-ended questionnaires were distributed and; as well, interview and focus group discussion were contacted with the researcher. Therefore, the researcher was succeeded in getting information from all respondents without missed any respondents in the study area.
4.1. The Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Respondents
4.1.1. Sex of the respondent
The survey result in table 4.1 shows that, there is a big variation among sex of the respondent. The vulnerable of human trafficking with regard to sex, males were more vulnerable than females. From this we can understand that trafficking can affect both sex, but males are more vulnerable i.e. 78% males were trafficked when compared to 22% of females (see table 4.1). The vulnerability of trafficking were result from males culturally encouraged to for outgoing than females or less fear than females for any hard ship they face during their journey; and at their work place. In addition to this, traditionally they think that, males can Passover any challenges they may face than females, but this cannot be scientific prove and it is societies up hold.
Table 4.1. Sex of the respondent
Sex of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Female 11 22.0 22.0 22.0
Male 39 78.0 78.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.1.2. Age related information
In Ethiopia 18 to 24 years of age appear to more vulnerable to trafficking especially internal trafficking. Traffickers mostly target those who are less powerful (Bezabin T, 2008). The present survey data of table 4.2 indicate that, 26% of the respondents age were between 15-20,and 38% of the respondents age were between 21-25, and 22% of the respondents age were between 26-30, and 14% of the respondents age were above 31. The vulnerable ages for human trafficking were between 15-20, i.e. 26% and 21-25 or (38%) respectively. Moreover, the ages that were found between 15-30 were the most determinant factor at the time of trafficking. From this, we concluded that, most of the respondent’s ages were youth according to the country’s youth policy. This implies that youth were the most vulnerable to human trafficking.
Table 4.2. Age of the respondent
Age of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 15-20 13 26.0 26.0 26.0
21-25 19 38.0 38.0 64.0
26-30 11 22.0 22.0 86.0
31 and above 7 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018

4.1.3. Educational status of respondent
As it can be seen the educational background of the respondents in Dodola woreda 6% of the respondents can read and write, 8% of the respondents were completed (1-8) or elementary, and 46% of respondents were completed high school, and 18% of the respondent were diploma holding, and 22% of the respondent s were degree holding. The implication of this data were majority of trafficked peoples were peoples who are dropped and failed by EGSECE, and 18% of the respondents holding diploma but they were unemployed. Due to they failed by their national exam they choice to go out abroad and as the result they exposed to trafficking.
Table 4.3. Educational status of the respondent
Educational status of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Read and write 3 6.0 6.0 6.0
Elementary(1-8) 4 8.0 8.0 14.0
High school(9-12) 23 46.0 46.0 60.0
Diploma 9 18.0 18.0 78.0
Degree 11 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.1.4. Occupational status of the respondents
The survey result in table 4.4 indicate that 17 (34%) of the respondents were government employer; and 10% of the respondents were farmer; and 4% of the respondents were merchants; and 52% of the respondents were unemployment. this implies that failed in exam can expose the youth for victims of human trafficking. Not only the result of questionnaires, but also the statements of interview of respondents’ confirmed that, victims of human trafficking decided to migrate abroad. For further information, refer the following verbal words of informants.
“..Since I have completed grade10th, I could not find a job and then I decided to go to one of the Arab countries to improve my life and support my parents” (Informant, 1)
“…I was a hard working student, but I have scored unexpected result. It was bad news for my family and me. After that, I planned to go to Saud Arabia (Informant, 9)
We examine the above verbal words of interviewers, lack of job opportunity, fail in exam as well as the families’ expectation for improving their life, and support their family they were thought of migrating and mentioned these as major factors for leaving from their home place.
Table 4.4.Occupational status of the respondent
Occupational status of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid government employer 17 34.0 34.0 34.0
Farmer 5 10.0 10.0 44.0
Merchant 2 4.0 4.0 48.0
Unemployment 26 52.0 52.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.1.5. Marital status of the respondents
The present survey data of table 4.5 shows that, there were big variations among different marital status. Single peoples consists of 60%; and 36% of them were married, and 4% of them were divorced. (See table 4.5) In this regard, the vulnerability of human trafficking with perspective of marital status single peoples was higher than married. This were associated with unmarried people were more free and move anywhere as the result they face risk of human trafficking. The vulnerability of victim of trafficking fear that results from limited access to social service; unemployment and other social structural, is made more venerable to human trafficking (Alemtsehay, 2009).
Table 4.5. Marital status of the respondent
Marital status of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Single 30 60.0 60.0 60.0
Married 18 36.0 36.0 96.0
Divorced 2 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As it can been seen in the table 4.6, level of individual’s income has direct impact on human trafficking situation. It consists of 38% of the respondents’ income were medium, and 48% of the respondents income were low, 14% of the respondents have no income (See table 4.6). As to the verbal words of informants 1, and 4 when they face financial problem and low-income generating activities of their own and their families were seen the reasons to migrate abroad. Not only the result of questionnaires, but also the statements of interview of respondents’ confirmed that, victims of human trafficking decided to migrate abroad. For further information, refer the following verbal words of informants.
“…I have decided to work abroad because; I want to support my mother who works on the house of wealth people other” (Informant, 1)
“…My family was unable to pay my college’s fee, due to financial problem to support me, then I have drop out my education. I had no another option so I decide to work in Middle East (Informants, 4)
Table .4.6. The level of respondent’s income
The level of respondent’s income Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Medium 19 38.0 38.0 38.0
Low 24 48.0 48.0 86.0
no income 7 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.2. Respondents view on the cause of human trafficking
The present data in the table 4.7 shows that, there are human trafficking activities in the study area. About 88.9% of the respondents replied that there are human trafficking activities in Dodola woreda. This implies that the acts of human trafficking were practiced in the study area. In addition to the result of questionnaire, the statements from interview and focus group discussion confirmed the presence of human trafficking activities and worries problem of this. For further information, there are verbal words of informants and you can refer bellow.
“….yes, there were human trafficking movement and a lot of youth age went abroad for searching job, and some were benefitted through these”.(Informant, 26)
“…A lot of interviewed respondents also agree on the presence of human trafficking and they said that it is common on youth age”. (Informant 6)
When we examine the above verbal words of interview and Focus group discussion, human trafficking activities were present in Dodola woreda. In support of this, according to (Ermser, 2013) human trafficking is a complex issue that affects every corner of the globe. There are not a single country that is unaffected by the effects of ‘modern day- slavery’. From this, we concluded that, human trafficking could be present everywhere in including in the study area.
Table 4. 7. Are there human trafficking activities in your area?
Are there human trafficking activities in your area? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 2 11.1 11.1 11.1
No 16 88.9 88.9 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As indicated in the table 4.8 only 16.7% of the respondents were follow up the reported case of human trafficking, and almost all or 83.3% of the respondents were not follow up case of human trafficking. This implies that the issue of human trafficking did not have attention in Dodola woreda. Moreover, giving very less attention for the issue of human trafficking were fueled the expansion of human trafficking number of out migrate and open chance for brokers.
In connection with the above response the justice office of Dodola woreda in the open ending question stated that, there were no case that have been seen in their court regarding human trafficking. In addition to this, the policy officer were also said no complain were come to their office regarding human trafficking issue. This implies that no work have been done regarding human trafficking in the study area.
Table 4.8. If you say ‘yes’ are you follow up any reported case of human trafficking in Dodola Woreda?
If you say ‘yes’ Are you follow up any reported case of human trafficking in Dodola Woreda? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 3 16.7 16.7 16.7
No 15 83..3 83.3 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
Looking at the respondent age composition is necessary in understanding at which section of societies were vulnerable to human trafficking. The findings shows that 5.6% of children under age of 18 years were affected by the act of trafficking, and 83.3% of youth were affected by the act of human trafficking. Generally 88.9% of the respondents were consists of youth and children under the age of 18 years were the at the risk of human trafficking. However, youth were the most group that were vulnerable to the act of human trafficking (see table 4.9).
Table 4.9. Which sections of the societies are more affected by act of human trafficking to the middle east?
Which section of the societies are more affected by act of human trafficking to the middle east? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Children under the age of 18 years 1 5.6 5.6 5.6
Youth 15 83.3 83.3 88.9
Middle age 2 11.1 11.1 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.2.1. Push factor (supply side) cause of human trafficking
According to Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013), the “push factor” is reinforcing a factor that contributes to trafficking in persons. It were caused from those hostile social, economic, political conditions in the countries of origin which encourage or force the people to migrate for the greener pastures. These conditions include extreme poverty, unemployment, lack of education, political corruption and political instability and civil war or conflict situations in countries of origin. Poverty and unemployment push a person into a situation of exploitation without fully knowing about it was happen on them.
Those respondents in the open ending question indicate the following major area that cause human trafficking in the studied woredas. As many respondents have replied, there were multifaceted causes of human trafficking. In support of this, according to (UNIDOC, 2012) scholars on human trafficking argue that all criminal activities are not necessary caused by poverty, but there is a general consensus on the fact that trafficking is closely related to developmental issues in which poverty is a major factor.
In line with the above the respondents in the open ending question stated that human trafficking were caused by unemployed and it was associated with poverty, and exposed the youth to human trafficking process. In support of this the informants from labour and social affair office of Dodola were also mentioned, the human trafficking were caused by unemployment, poverty, lack of educational opportunity, and pressure from friend or their relatives and standard of life in home land.
4.2.3. Pull factor (demand side) cause of human trafficking
The “pull” factors are also responsible for flourishing the trafficking in human beings. It attracts the people to migrate to out. This category includes a globalized free-market economy that has been increased the demand for cheap labour, goods and services. The labour from the third world countries is quite cheap, less demanding and harder working. This mutual beneficiary pattern of demand and supply has also given birth to transnational criminal networks that were earning from the migration of people and making them victims of trafficking (The Levin Institute, 2011).
In the parallel to the above point the response from youth and sport office of Dodola through an open ending question stated that, human trafficking could be caused by the dream of youth to Middle East for accumulate wealth in short period and better rate of exchange. In similar way, participant from police officer of Dodola woreda were also be replied that, youth were eager for change, but they were not calculated the hard ship they face in the process of human trafficking and they were shortening their life.
Focus group discussion participant also explained the reason of youth to migrate to Middle East. As to them, youth migrate for searching better job opportunity and to changing their life. The response from justice office of Dodola woerda were also replied the reason for youth migrate to Middle East. They were said unemployment the cause of human trafficking. The verbal interview from informants, 19 of victims of human trafficking were strength this idea. The verbal word of them was following point:
“…I have graduate with diploma program 3 year ago. I have tried to search a job in my zone and different towns and I never got the opportunity to be employed. He is still unemployment. However, I want to see changes in my life. As the result I decided to go middle was my friends have been working”(Informants, 19)
When we examine the above verbal words, being unemployed have been the chronic problem for human trafficking. Therefore, unemployment was driving force in Dodola woreda for human trafficking. In similar way the participant of focus group discussion from family of victims were also be said that they have tried in educating their child, but their children were not got job opportunity.
However, the cause of human trafficking is not necessary economic based but it were also raised from the conflict between family members or between the son and the father or the mother and friends pressure for this. As an interview from the participant of human trafficking informants 25, the following verbal words were stated that:
“…I have started to migrate to Saud Arabia because I have in conflict with my parents. I have planned to revenge them and started discussing with my friends on how to migrate to Saud Arabia. I have stolen some money from my parents, and started journey to Saud Arabia. I am agreed to share what we have with our friends.”(Informants, 25)
In line with the response responded by victim of human trafficking, the participant of the focus group discussion agreed on the above point. According to the informant 30, the cause of human trafficking is not only lack of job opportunity, but also when there was disagreement among family member can pushed the youth for risk of human trafficking. For further information, refer the following verbal words of informants.
“I and my family have no the problem of money. We are living good life as one Ethiopian’s peoples. However, my wife and I get sad when we heard the News of our son. I do not imagine that my son decide to go to Middle East on foot. I do not know what happen to him but remember last week I get conflict with him. I have started for searching my son but I could not find him. After a week my son have started to phone to me to send him money that broker were charging him. ‘Then, I send the money he need without my personal interests to save from the mouth of broker'” (Informant, 30).
Parallel to above point, an interview from informant 17 or from victims of trafficking support the point raised by focus group discussion and they said youth could not migrate to Middle East not necessary lack of job opportunity and poverty but when there were ideal conflict between the sons with their family. The following verbal interview were shows this. You refer the following verbal statement in following.
“…my father refused to give me the money I need. I know that he had enough money but most of the time he is refused to give me when need. Then I get angry decided to go Middle East. Unfortunately I was return back to my home place due to the situation I face was very hard. You can go during night only, no food to eat, nor water to drink, no home to sleep. You can sleep under a tree. Then I cut that journey and decided to return back to home place” (informant, 17)
The finding from table 4.9 shows that 22.2% of the respondents were replied that human trafficking case can be processed quickly, and 77.8% of the respondent were said the cases of human trafficking cannot be processed quickly.(see table 4.10). Not only the result of questionnaires, but also the statements of interview from victims of human trafficking confirmed that, their case were not seen quickly. For further information, refer the following verbal words of informants.
“…no one asked us the hard ship we face in the possess of human trafficking that I pass nor they can help us after I returned back from abroad” (Informant, 11)
Moreover, focus group discussion from the family of victims also confirmed the above verbal point raised by victims of human trafficking. They rose complain on government why human trafficking was increasing from day to day. This implies that, the attention that were given from different offices in reducing the risk of human trafficking were very low. Delaying to solve the crime of human trafficking could lead to increase the situation of human trafficking.
Parallel to the above point the respondents in open ending question from youth and sport offices stated that they have no system of identifying either the act of human trafficking or victims of trafficking. In addition to this, interviews from labour and social affair also have the system identifying the victims of human trafficking. From this, we understand that the issues of human trafficking do not have attention.

4.10. Table Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly.
Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 4 22.2 22.2 22.2
No 14 77.8 77.8 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As it can been seen in the table 4.11, different offices were asked on how to identify the victims of human trafficking. According to the above table, 16.7% of the respondents or the victims of human trafficking were identified when the cases of human trafficking have been submitted for them. And 22.2% of the respondents were said the victims were identify from regular report that come from kebales, and 11.1% of the victims of human trafficking can be identify from agencies that established to follow this, and 50% of the respondents were replied that it is difficult to identify. From this, we can conclude that different offices have not working in identifying victims of human trafficking. They have not documented data regarding victim of human trafficking. In addition to the finding of questionnaires, the interviewed statements from informants 3 and 5 confirmed that, they had no documented data. For further information, look at the following verbal words of informants.
“….no, we don’t have documented data regarding the number of victims of human trafficking that have returned back from abroad, except in 2014 the government have sent us 206 returnees from middle East” (infomants,3)
“…they hide themselves when we asked them to be registered legally and think as they were punished” (informants, 5)
When we examine the above verbal words of interviewer the work done by different offices at woreda’s were low, and it has impact on either victims of human trafficking or brokers. When the number of trafficker were not carefully documented data, number of victims of human trafficking cannot get needy from different stakeholder.
Table 4.11. How you can identify victims of human trafficking you can answer more than one alternative
How you can identify victims of human trafficking you can answer more than one alternative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid When the case are submitted to us 3 16.7 16.7 16.7
From regular report at woreda 4 22.2 22.2 38.9
From agencies that established to follow this? 2 11.1 11.1 50.0
It is difficult to identify 9 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The survey result in table 4.12 indicates the cause of human trafficking as follow. According to this, 77.8% of the respondent were replied the cause of human trafficking were political case, and 11.1% of respondent were said the cause of human trafficking were political case and 5.6% of respondent were said the cause of human trafficking were social case. This implies that economic case were the most cause of human trafficking.
In line with the response responded in the table 4.12, economic factors were causes of trafficking to the Middle East. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (2014), Fransen & Kuschminder (2009), Baker & Aina (1995), Atnafu (2006) presented economic factors as the main driving force for Ethiopian youth migration to the Middle East. This shows us youth can participate in human trafficking activities due to lack of economy.
Table 4.12. Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? You can answer more than one alternative.
Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? you can answer more than one alternative. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Political case 2 11.1 11.1 11.1
Economic case 14 77.8 77.8 88.9
Social case 1 5.6 5.6 94.4
All 1 5.6 5.6 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The findings on the table 4.13 shows that 44.4% of respondent were replied poverty were seen as the negative cause of human trafficking, and 27.8% of the respondent were said unemployment were seen as negative cause of human trafficking, 16.7% of the respondent were replied underemployment, 11.1% of the respondents were replied dept crisis (see table 4.13).
In relation to above point’s respondent from court office in open ending question stated that unemployment and poverty were the cause of human trafficking. In addition to this the respondents from youth and sport office stated that peoples can inter in to situation of human trafficking when they were unable to get job opportunity they pushed to the act of human trafficking. From this, we concluded that poverty and unemployment put a person to enter into situation of exploitation without fully knowing about it, as they do not have many alternatives.
Table 4.13. What are the negative causes of human trafficking?
What are the negative cause of human trafficking Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Poverty 8 44.4 44.4 44.4
Unemployment 5 27.8 27.8 72.2
Underemployment 3 16.7 16.7 88.9
Dept crisis 2 11.1 11.1 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The survey result in table 4.14 indicates how the positive thing can be the cause of human trafficking. The result of the study shows that, 27.8% of the respondents were said the success stories from returnees were seen as the positive cause of human trafficking, and 16.7% of the respondents were replied high rate of change from external. In addition to this, having money or income in the country were also seen as the cause of human trafficking, and 38% of the respondents were said having material property like land, cow, and house were seen the positive factor that encourage youth for human trafficking. From this, we concluded that having material property like, land, cow and house have been seen as the most positive cause of human trafficking. In addition to this, some successes person from returnee and high rate of exchange returnees from external also share similar percent that caused human trafficking next to having material property like land, cow, and house.
In support of this, the statements interviewed by informants 13, 15 and 6 confirmed that, having material property can initiated the youth for human trafficking. The verbal words of them can support this idea. You can refer the verbal statement of the informants below.
“…I have heard good stories about success of Middle East from returnees and my parents have the means of income that I need for my journey (informants 13)
“…I have half of a hector. This is not enough for me to do everything I need. Then I decide to rent this land and by that money, I decide to migrate with my friend. “(Informants, 15)
“… My parents have 4.5 hectors. They promised me to rent one hector for one year for my process of movement if I were give them back the money” (Informant 6).
When we examine the above words of informants youth were migrate to abroad not only lack of income, but also from the ideology that they tied to Middle East. Even though they have a means of income, they choice to work out side rather than in home place. This idea was generated from misunderstanding of some people that working outside was more benefited than working in homeland.
In line with the above response the success stories from an interview of informant 21, mentioned that they were advantageous from human trafficking. The following verbatim is stated by young return from trafficking in Dodola woreda.
“…life is so better now than before. I have built house and have mini shop after I have returned. I have one Bajaj now. In the future, I want to build hotel. Therefore, there was great change in my life.
From this, we understand that some success stories from returnees also initiate youth for trafficking. They initiated to ward trafficking when they see some success of their friends economically through human trafficking.
Table 4.13 what do you think was the positive cause of human trafficking? You can choice more than one alternative
What do you think was the positive cause of human trafficking? you can choice more than one alternative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Some success stories from returnees 5 27.8 27.8 27.8
High rate of returnees from external 3 16.7 16.7 44.4
Having money or income in the country 3 16.7 16.7 61.1
Having material property like land, cow, and house 7 38.9 38.9 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4. Analysis on the situation of traffickers/brokers/
The study indicates that broker engage in human trafficking for accumulating wealth through transferring of human being from place to place. Those respondents in the open ending question from court offices of Dodola woreda mentioned that, trafficker were trafficking human being for economy gain. In connection with this, informants from victims of trafficking trafficker were said that they gave more emphasized on their own benefit rather calculating the hard ship that victims were face.
In support of the above idea, the statements that interviewed by informants 7, 18 and 24 confirmed that they misinformed the about the simplicity trafficking system. The following verbal statements were there.
“.. In the first, I heard good salaries paid in Saud Arabia. He told me that they were paid enough money. He said you would do only housework. You can also choice other work if you like”(Informant, 7).
“…one of my friends from Bruit invites me to come and make money there. He told me that an alternative salary was paid for me depending on my work’s ability. So decided to go there” (Informant, 18)
When we examine the above verbal statement the traffickers can used different persuasive and convince system to get the attention of victims of trafficking. They can cheat and simplify every process of trafficking in person.
Moreover, the response in an open ending question from labour and social affair official mentioned that, brokers could meet with the victim indirectly by using other intermediated. In addition to this, they were said it was difficult to identify, brokers since their practice were hidden. They have network chain starting from the place of origin of victims up to the countries of destination.
In line with the above response an interview of informant 9, 16, 17 mentioned that the trafficker. The trafficker can work indirectly with intermediate. Young returnee from Middle East states the following verbatim. You can refer the following verbal word of victims of trafficking:
“…I agreed with the mediator of trafficker. He told me everything that need in movement. They arrange the travelling process with victim of human trafficking”(Informant, 9)
“…brokers were connected to each other and arranged best situation with people lived along the passing of trafficking. The mediator can commission both from victims and with main broker”(Informant, 16).
“…the broker in Dodola has chain with broker in Jijiga. Likewise, the brokers in Jijiga have chain with Bossasso. They arrange the travelling bus. They adjust the place were to sleep. The intermediate and the main broker arrange the time to phone to each other. They share money they collected from victims of trafficking and families of victims” (Informant, 17).
From this, we understand that, the brokers have strong chain with each other and work in such a way, that no one can expose them to order of law. In addition, these, absence of legal labor travel agencies, take as aggravated factor that exposed victims for trafficking.
In parallel to the above point, the response from focus group discussion of family of victims confirm that, the contract that singed by brokers in home became untrue when reached the destination country. The verbatim words of an informants 31, stated as follow:
“…the contract agreements of my son have been changed after him rich in destination. The employer and my son disagree on the second contract of the work type and the salary paid….”(Informant, 31).
This implies that once the victims were entered the employer home, they were under the control of that employer. These show us the traffickers were exploitation the labour of victims. Since the victims were also signed illegal contract with the broker in home country, they were not have chance of refusing and appalling the complains to destination office.
4.3. Respondents view on the effects of human trafficking
4.3.1. Economic effects of human trafficking
As it can be seen in the table 4.14, 27.8% of the respondents were said they create public meeting on the cause of human trafficking, 72.2% of respondents were replied they were not creating public meeting on the cause of human trafficking. From this we can concluded that the awareness creation program have not done by the government on the impact of human trafficking.
In line with the above questionnaire result, most of the informants from victims of trafficking were stated that, there were not any efforts done by the government to help them. Moreover, the victims of trafficking complain the neglect of government. This neither shows that, both the rehabilitation and establishing program nor awareness creation for victims of trafficking done by the government. Therefore, victims were affected by the act of human trafficking in person.
Table 4.14. Have you made any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
Have you made any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 5 27.8 27.8 27.8
No 13 72.2 72.2 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As it was seen in the table 4.15, 66.7% of respondents were said the impacts of human trafficking were increase, and 33.3% of the respondents were said the impacts of human trafficking were not increase. From this we can concluded that the impact of human trafficking become worsen in the study area. In connection with this idea, informants from focus group discussion discussed that, human trafficking affecting us multidimensional. The verbatim word of informants, 29 and 30 can see in the following:
“…we are losing our generation; I know one of my relatives’ sons was died in Saud Arabia. The family of that son never forgets what happen on their son. They hear the dead of their son after six month. They get confused to search their son where about. They went for Addis Ababa to know by whom and by what case their son was dead” (informant, 29)
“… We felt in dept crisis. I borrowed the money to send my son to Middle East. Before he reach the Arab country, my was return back” (informant, 30)
When we examine the above verbal words, the social and economic impact of trafficking were capital as it not only affects the victims of trafficking, who get back empty handed, but also their family and the country as a whole.
In parallel to the above, the interview from the victims of trafficking by affirming the above point state that, they were neither benefited from trafficking nor they give back the money they borrowed. The following verbatim of informant 5, explain about this.
“…Neither the government nor nongovernment organization supports me after I return back from outside country. I have finished every money I have on the process of trafficking. Moreover, I was unable to survive since I run out every money I have in my hand. I got shamed, and if get a chance I was return back to…” (Informant, 5)
In line with the above, the response responded by open ending question from youth and sport official were also said victims were not use their money for wisely. They said the victims were too extravagant. This implies that, victims of trafficking did not know the culture of saving.
Table. 4. 15. Do think the impact of human trafficking were increase this year?
Do think the impact of human trafficking increase this year? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 12 66.7 66.7 66.7
No 6 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 18 100.0 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.2. Social effects of human trafficking
As the information gained from returnee showed that, they were frequently arrested, and detained. In addition to this, they were taken in prison in destination. Moreover, they have mentioned that they face suffering during their stay at prison. The verbal words noticed of informant, 11 were as follow:
“…when we were caught in Yemen, we were sentenced for three months in prison. I can say this prison was my worst experience. They rarely give us what to eat and what to drink. We don’t have any freedom to ask or to express…”(Informant, 11)
In support of this, the statements from focus group discussion of informants 28, from family of victims confirmed that, human trafficking have high risk on both the families of victims and victims of trafficking. It leads up to loss of life. The verbatim statement of family’s’ of victims were the following:
“…my sons have dead for reason that we don’t know. He phoned to me only after he is arriving at the border of the country. He asked me to send the money. I send him money. Again, trafficker in Yemen kidnapped him. After a month I heard my son was passed away…”(Informant, 28)
When we examine the above discussion from families of victims, human trafficking were not affecting the victims of trafficking, but also family of victims in particularly and the country in general.
4.3.3. Psycho emotional effects human trafficking
The study indicates that, human trafficking was affecting psycho emotional of victims. Those respondents in the open ending question from labour and social affair of Dodola woreda mentioned that, victims were frequently raped, and denied of food. In addition to this, the statements of interview of respondents’ confirmed that, the psycho emotional of the victims was affected as the result of trafficking. Young returnee from Middle East states the following verbatim. You can refer the following verbal word of victims of trafficking
“I have no rest in all my working days. I was forced to do work beyond my capacity. They makes busy to do all the housework like cooking, cleaning bathroom. They order her to do the neighbor works too. Only I have little time for sleep but, I was not allowed to take leisure time”(Informant 13)
“…they were refused me to communicate with my family through mobile phone. Nor did they allow to me to communicate with my friend”(informant, 23).
“…I get angry when I remember what happen to me in Saud Arabia. Always the wife beat me for nonsense when her husband goes out from home for work” (Informants, 20).
“…I was refused to pay my salaries for the job, which I have done. I was cry day and night but they were never care for you. However, sometimes they paid irregularly”(informant, 10)
When we examine the above verbal words the psycho emotional of the victims were harmed as the result of trafficking. This implies that, psychological, personal, and spiritual growths of the victims of trafficking were lost. Moreover, the victims of trafficking were loss a sense of self-esteem, and personal disorder.

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1. Conclusion
? The research has shown that human trafficking is occurring in Dodola. A number of factors contribute for the cause of human trafficking. As the study shows, the age between 15-30 and male section of the people were most vulnerable group of human trafficking.
? The study have revealed that, lack of job opportunity, families expectation for improvement of their life, unemployment, good standard of life were identified as the pushing factor that aggravated the youth for trafficking.
? The study also shows that, different offices were not supporting the victims of trafficking fueled the factor for expansion of human trafficking. In addition to this, there no work have been done in creating awareness about the impact of human trafficking on societies nor do they have system of identifying victims of trafficking. Furthermore, they did not have documented data about the victims of trafficking.
? The study has revealed that, youth were the most vulnerable age composition to the act of human trafficking. In addition to this, poverty and other developmental issue like educational opportunity, unemployment, pressure from family, friends, and relatives were initiated victims toward human trafficking.
? The study also shows that, the dream of youth to accumulate wealth in short period, searching for better job opportunities, to live glorious life, and better rate of exchange have identified as a pull factors that exposed youth for trafficking.
? The result of this study also shows that, poverty, unemployment, dept crisis were identified as the negative cause of human trafficking whereas, having money, or income or property likes land, cows, and house was identified as positive cause of human trafficking. In addition to this, looking at the successes person through human trafficking initiates the youth for trafficking.
? As the study shows that, human trafficking was not only caused by lack of income, but it also tied to the ideology of Middle East that, salary payments for job in abroad were better than homeland. Moreover, the misunderstandings of youths to believe on outside job opportunity than in the home country were the cause of human trafficking.
? The finding of the study shows that, the false promises of brokers that attract the image of trafficker and complex chain that had been established among the trafficker can aggravated the factor and exposed victims of trafficking. Moreover, making false contract agreement between brokers and victims were caused for human trafficking.
? The result of the study shows that, due to lack of rehabilitation and establishing done by different offices and stakeholders, the effects of human trafficking were more aggravated. Additionally, there were no awareness creation done about the effects human trafficking either on victims of trafficking or on the victims of families.
? The study also revealed that, human trafficking were affected the societies in the study area socially, economically, psycho emotional in general and victims of trafficking and families of victims in particular. Moreover, it abuses the right of victims like long working hours, restriction of movement, negligence, denied of food, loss of life seen as the effects of human trafficking.
? The study further shows that, the psycho emotional victims of trafficking were affected. As the result the psychological, personal, and spiritual growth of victims of trafficking were lost. In addition to this, victims of trafficking were lost a sense of self-esteem, and personal disorders were seen as the most effects of human trafficking on the study area.

5.2. Recommendation
Based on the finding of the study, the researcher has forwarding the following major recommendation to the concerned bodies to control the cause of human trafficking and to minimize effects of human trafficking.
As the problem mainly related with economy such as lack of job opportunity, unemployment, and aspiration to life better life, the government should facilitate more job opportunities for youth. Furthermore, the government should apply different possibilities of job creation that targeting youth beneficiary.
As there were no work done by different offices either to create awareness on the risk of human trafficking or identifying the victims, supporting and rehabilitation the victims were necessary, thus the government official should give effective service delivery system to improve the life of victims. Moreover, they should work in collaboration infighting against the act of human trafficking. Furthermore, they should strength their capacity to address the problem of human trafficking.
Since the youth, groups were the most vulnerable to human trafficking, government and private organization for victims of trafficking should do awareness creation programs. Additionally, awareness raising programs should be done through public and private mass media on regular basis in shaping the mind of youth.
Although there were, respondents who have better job opportunity in home land and have resource of their own but believe in working at outside country as the result waste this resource for human trafficking so that, the government and other stakeholders should give aware on the importance of working in domestic than the external.
As the broker plays an influential role on the youth for trafficking by making complex chain and using different techniques of cheating; the government and non-government organization, civil societies, and religious group should work hand in hand in exposing and, abolishing traffickers. In addition to this, different layers of government from kebale level up to regional government should follow up the act of traffickers effectively, and apply the law enforcement mechanism to reduce the crime of trafficking in person. Furthermore, the justice system should apply the rule of law.
As the study shows that, human trafficking were affect social, political, and economics of the victims like long working hour, restriction of movement, negligence and denied of food, and loss of life, so that; the rehabilitation and establishing program should given for victims. In addition to this, the assistance and reintegration support should be give function for victims of trafficking. Moreover, the guidance and counseling services should provide for the victims of trafficking who were psycho moral harmed.

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Appendices
Appendix 1: Background of research participant (victims of human trafficking)
No Name of informants Age Sex Kebale Educational level Country of destination
1 Informants 1 20 M Edo 10 Saud Arabia
2 Informants 2 23 M Heraro 10 Saud Arabia
3 Informants 3 21 M Serofta 9 Saud Arabia
4 Informants 4 24 F Berisa 9 Saud Arabia
5 Informants 5 22 M Edo 9 Saud Arabia
6 Informants 6 20 M Heraro 10 Beirut
7 Informants 7 20 M Edo 10 Kuwait
8 Informants 8 21 F Serofta 10 Saud Arabia
9 Informants 9 24 M Berisa 10 Saud Arabia
10 Informants 10 20 M Serofta 9 Saud Arabia
11 Informants 11 23 M Edo 10 Beirut
12 Informants 12 21 M Serofta 9 Kuwait
13 Informants 13 24 M Berisa 10 Saud Arabia
14 Informants 14 22 M Heraro 10 Saud Arabia
15 Informants 15 20 M Barisa 5 Saud Arabia
16 Informants 16 20 M Heraro 9 Saud Arabia
17 Informants 17 24 M Serofta 3 Bruit
18 Informants 18 24 M Berisa 10 Saud Arabia
19 Informants 19 20 M Edo 10+3 Saud Arabia
20 Informants 20 23 F Edo 10 Saud Arabia
21 Informants 21 21 M Serofta 10 Kuwait
22 Informants 22 24 M Berisa 9 Saud Arabia
23 Informants 23 22 M Edo 10 Kuwait
24 Informants 24 20 F Heraro 7 Saud Arabia
25 Informants 25 20 M Heraro 10 Saud Arabia

Appendix 2: Family of victims
No Name of informants Age Sex Kebale
1 Informants 26 34 M Edo
2 Informants 27 41 M Heraro
3 Informants 28 51 M Serofta
4 Informants 29 43 F Berisa
5 Informants 30 42 M Berisa
6 Informants 31 35 M Heraro
7 Informants 32 46 M Edo

Appendix, 3
Aksum University
School of graduate studies
College of social sciences and language
Department of political science and International Relation
First, I would like to thank you for your willingness and cooperation to complete this questionnaire. I assure you that any response you provided to this questionnaire well is kept strictly and confidentially and please put a tick mark or write down about your personal feeling.
The main purpose of this research is to assess and analyze causes and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda in Oromia National Regional State. The information obtained was help to discover the causes of human trafficking and to know the effects of human trafficking and evaluate responses and interventions by relevant actors. Therefore, it is purely an academic project and was not any affect your personal circumstances. It has also no relation with any religious or political stand. So that you are genuine views, frank opinions and timely responses are quite important in determining the success of this study. You are kindly requested to extend your cooperation by providing relevant information. Your participation in this study is voluntary. Feel free to withdraw your participation without any fear at any time.
1. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents
1.1. Name of participant_________________
1.2. Sex: A/Male _____ B/ Female ___
1.3. Which age groups are you?
A/15-18 B/19-22 C/ 23-26 D/ 27-30 E/ 31-35
1.4. What is the level of your education attainment?
A/ Illiterate B/ Read and write C/Elementary (1-8) D/ High school (9-12)
E/ diploma F/ degree and above
1.5. Occupation status: A/government employee B/ Farmer C/Merchant D/unemployment
1.6. Marital status: A/ Single B Married C/ Divorce D/ Windowed
1.7. Level of the respondent’s income
A/high B/ medium C/ low D/No income
1.8. Represented organization and location:______________________
Questionnaires for policy officer
Part1: The cause of human trafficking
1. Are there human trafficking activities in your area? A/ Yes B/No
2. If you say ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
3. How your office is working to stop human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
4. If you say ‘yes’ are you follow up any reported case of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
A/ Yes B/No
5. If you say ‘Yes’, what kind of human trafficking are you follow up. If not why?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. How human trafficking cases are reported to your office?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the Middle East?
A/ Children under the age of 18 years B/Youth C/ Middle age D/ Old age
8. For any of your choice above please write out the reason of it?
_________________________________________________________________________________
9. How can you identify victims of human trafficking? You can answer more than one alternative.
A/ When the case are submit to policy B/ from regular report at woreda
C/ from agencies that established to follow this D/ all
10. If you know other system of identifying victims of human trafficking please write down your answer under following space?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
11. Are you motivated for searching human trafficking cases by yourself? A/ Yes B/ No
12. If your answer was ‘no’ why do not follow it? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly? A/ yes B/ No
14. If your answer was ‘no’ what do think was reason of this?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15. Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? You can answer more than one alternative.
A/ Political case B/ Economic case C/ Cultural case D/ Social case F/ all
16. For any of your choice please write down the how it can be the cause of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
17. What are negative causes of human trafficking regarding to economic case?
A/ poverty B/ unemployment C/ under employment D/Dept crisis
18. What do think was is the pull factor in destination country.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
19. What do you think was the push factor in the country of origin?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
20. What do you think was the positive causes of human trafficking?
A/ some success stories from returnees B/ high rate of exchange at external
C/ having money in country D/ having material property like land, caw, and house D/All
21 what do you think was the key driver of brokers or traffickers to engage in human trafficking activity?
______________________________________________________________________________
22. How can you identify the brokers or traffickers of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
23. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working in your area?
_________________________________________________________________________________
24. Who were facilitates the act of human trafficking with brokers?
_________________________________________________________________________________
Part 2: The effects of human trafficking
2.1. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on victims?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.2. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on sending family?
________________________________________________________________________________
2.3. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on country?
_______________________________________________________________________________
2.4. Are you make any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? A/ yes B/ No
2.5. If your answer was ‘no’ why doing you create for such criminal activities?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.6. Do think the impact of human trafficking were increase this year? A/Yes B/ No
2.7. If you say ‘Yes’ why it was increased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.8. If you say ‘NO’ why it was not be decreased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.9. How the people are collaborated with justice stockholders to prevent the act human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.10. What measures did you use to empower the capacity of vulnerable and victims of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.11. What should be the role of policy officials in handling human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.12. How the government and nongovernment actors are working to address the problem of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.13. How you take any measurement action on brokers’ of human trafficking?
________________________________________________________________________________
2.14. What are the challenges of law enforcement, judiciary and other government bodies they face in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
________________________________________________________________________________
2.15. What are the limitations of law enforcement, judiciary and other government bodies facing in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.16. What do you think should be done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?
____________________________________________________________________________

Appendix, 4
Questionnaires for District Court Judges’
1. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents
1.1. Name of participant_________________
1.2. Sex: A/Male _____ B/ Female ___
1.3. What is the level of your education attainment?
A/ Illiterate B/ Read and write C/Elementary (1-8)
D/ High school (9-12) E/ diploma F/ degree and above
1.4. Occupation status: A/government employee B/ Farmer C/Merchant D/unemployment
1.5. Which social class is more vulnerable to trafficking with regard to marital status?
A/ Married B/Unmarried C/Windowed D/ Divorce
1.6. Represented organization and location:_________
Part 1: The cause of human trafficking
1. Are there human trafficking activities in your area? A/ Yes B/No
2. If you say ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
3. How your office is working to stop human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
4. Which age groups are the most dominate trafficked person in your area?
A/15-18 B/19-22 C/ 23-26 D/ 27-30 E/ 31-35
5. Are there specialized units of justice system that work on preventing of human trafficking?
A/Yes B/No
6. Are human trafficking cases are reported to your office?
A/ Yes B/No
7. If you say ‘Yes’, what kind of human trafficking are you follow up?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. How human trafficking cases are reported to your office?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the Middle East?
A/ Children under the age of 18 years B/ Youth C/ Middle age D/ Old age
10. For any of your choice above please write out the reason of it?
_________________________________________________________________________________
11. How can you identify victims of human trafficking? You can choice more than one alternative
A/ When the case are submit to policy B/ from regular report at woreda
C/ From agencies that established to follow this D/All
12. If you know other system of identifying victims of human trafficking please write down your answer under following space?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Are you motivated for searching human trafficking cases by yourself?
A/ Yes B/ No
14. If your answer was ‘no’ why do not you follow it? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15. Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly? A/ yes B/ No
16. If your answer was ‘no’ what do think was reason of this?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
17. Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
A/ Political case B/ Economic case C/ Cultural case D/ Social case
18. For any of your choice please write down the how it can be the cause of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
19. What are negative causes of human trafficking regarding economic case?
A/ poverty B/ unemployment C/ under employment D/Dept crisis
20. What do think was is the pull factor in destination country.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
21. What do you think was the push factor in the country of origin?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
22. What are the positive causes of human trafficking?
A/ some success stories from returnees B/ high rate of exchange at external
C/ having money in country D/ having material property like land, caw, and house F/all
23. What do you think was the key driver of brokers or traffickers to engage in human trafficking activity?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
24. How can you identify the brokers or traffickers of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
25. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working in your area?
_________________________________________________________________________________
26. Who can be the facilitated the act of human trafficking with brokers?
________________________________________________________________________________
Part 2: The effects of human trafficking
2.1. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on victims?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.2. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on sending family?
________________________________________________________________________________
2.3. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on country?
______________________________________________________________________________
2.4. Are you make any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? A/ yes B/ No
2.5. If you were answers ‘no’ why are doing you create for such criminal activities.
______________________________________________________________________________
2.6. Are the reporting rate increasing on the impact of human trafficking during this year?
A/Yes B/ No
2.7. If you say ‘Yes’ why it was increased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.8. If you say ‘No’ why it was not be decreased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.9. How the people are collaborated with justice stockholders to prevent the act human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.10. What measures did you use to empower the capacity of vulnerable and victim groups?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.11. What should be the role of law enforcement and judicial officials in handling human trafficking?
____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.12. How the government and nongovernment actors are working to address the problem of human trafficking?
________________________________________________________________________________
2.13. Have you ever taken any measurement action on brokers’ of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.14. What are the challenges of law enforcement, judiciary and other government bodies they face in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.15. What are the limitations of law enforcement, judiciary and other government bodies facing in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.16. What do you think was done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix, 5
Questionnaires for representatives of the youth and sport offices
1. Socio demographic characteristics of trafficked persons
1.1. Name of participant_________________
1.2. Sex: A/ Male _____ B/ Female _________
1.3. What is the level of your education attainment?
A/ Illiterate B/ Read and write C/Elementary (1-8)
D/ High school (9-12) E/ diploma F/ degree and above
1.4. Occupation status: A/government employee B/ Farmer C/Merchant D/unemployment
1.5. Which social class is more vulnerable to trafficking with regard to marital status?
A/ Married B/Unmarried C/Windowed D/ Divorce
1.6. Represented organization and location:_________
Part 1: The cause of human trafficking
1. Are there human trafficking activities in your area?
A/ Yes B/ No
2. If you say ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
________________________________________________________________________________
3. How your office is working to stop human trafficking activities?
_______________________________________________________________________________
4. Which age groups are the most dominate trafficked person in your area?
A/15-18 B/19-22 C/ 23-26 D/ 27-30 E/ 31-35
5. Are your offices are working on preventing of human trafficking activities?
A/yes B/No
6. Are you follow up any reported case of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
A/ Yes B/No
7. If you say ‘Yes’, what kind of human trafficking are there in your woreda?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. How human trafficking cases are reported to your office?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the Middle East? A/ Children under the age of 18 years B/ Youth C/ Middle age D/Old age
10. For any of your choice above please write it out the reason?
_________________________________________________________________________________
11. How can you identify victims of human trafficking? You can choice more than one alternatives A/ When the case are submit to policy B/ from regular report at woreda C/ from agencies that established to follow this D/All
12. If you were known other system of identifying the victims of human trafficking please write down the answer under following space.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Are you motivated for searching human trafficking cases by yourself? A/ Yes B/ No
14. If your answer was ‘no’ why you do not follow it? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15. Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly? A/ yes B/ No
16. If your answer was ‘no’ what do think was reason of this?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
17. Which of the following was the cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
A/ Political case B/ economic case C/ cultural case D/ social case
18. For any of your choice please write down the how it can be the cause of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
19. What are negative causes of human trafficking regarding economic case?
A/ poverty B/ unemployment C/ under employment D/Dept crisis
20. What do think was is the pull factor in destination country.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
21. What do you think was the push factor in the country of origin?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
22. What are the positive causes of human trafficking?
A/ some success stories from returnees B/ high rate of exchange at external
C/ having money in country D/ having material property like land, caw, and house F/ All
23. What do you think was the key driver of brokers or traffickers to engage in human trafficking activity?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
24. How can you identify the brokers or traffickers of human trafficking?
_________________________________________________________________________________
25. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working in your area?
_________________________________________________________________________________
26. Who can be the facilitate the act of human trafficking with brokers?
_________________________________________________________________________________
Part 2: The effects of human trafficking
2.1. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on victims?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.2. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on sending family?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.3. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on country?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2.4. Are you make any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda? A/ yes B/ No
2.5. If your answer was ‘no’ why not doing you create for such criminal activities.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.6. Are their reporting rate increasing on the impact of human trafficking during this year?
A/Yes B/ No
2.7. If you say ‘Yes’ why it was increased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.8. If you say ‘No’ why it was not be decreased?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.9. How the youth and sport office are coordinately working with other stockholders to prevent the act human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.10. What measures did you use to empower the capacity of vulnerable and victim groups?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.11. What should be the role of youth and sport office in handling human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.12. How the government and nongovernment actors are working to address the problem of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.13. What are the challenges faces as Youth and Sport Office in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.14. What are the limitations that Youth and Sport Office are facing in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.15. What do you think should be done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix, 6
An Interview for Officials of from Labour and Social Affair office
1. Socio demographic characteristics of respondents
1.1. What is your name?
1.2. What is your sex?
1.3. How old are you?
1.4. What is the level of your education attainment?
1.5. What is your occupational status?
1.6. What is represented organization and location:_______________
Part 1: The Cause of human trafficking
1. Are there human trafficking activities in your area?
2. If you say ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
3. Which age groups are the most dominate trafficked person in your area?
4. How your office is working to stop human trafficking?
5. Are you follow up the report of human trafficking in Dodola woreda and if you say ‘yes’, what kind of human trafficking are you follow up?
6. How human trafficking cases are reported to your office?
7. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the middle east and why?
8. How can you identify victims of human trafficking?
9. Are you motivated for searching human trafficking cases by yourself?
10. Are human trafficking cases being processed quickly in the judiciary and if not why?
11. What is the root cause of human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
12. Are you motivated for searching human trafficking cases by yourself?
13. If your answer was ‘no’ why do not you follow it?
14. What do you think was the pull factor in the destination country?
15. What do you think was the push factor in the country of origin?
16. What do you think was the positive causes of human trafficking?
17. What do you think was the key driver of brokers or traffickers to engage in human trafficking activity?
18. How can you identify the brokers or traffickers of human trafficking?
19. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working in your area?
20. Who can the facilitate the act of human trafficking with brokers?
Part 2: The effects of human trafficking
2.1. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on the life of the victims?
2.2. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on sending family?
2.3. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on the country?
2.4. Have you make any public meeting to create awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda and if not why?
2.5. is their reporting rate increases on the impact of human trafficking during this year if you say ‘yes’ why it was increased and if you say ‘No’ why it was not be decreased?
2.6. How are the peoples collaborates working with office and other stockholders to prevent the act of human trafficking?
2.7. What type measures did you use to empower the capacity of vulnerable and victims of groups?
2.8. What should be the role of labour and social affair office in handling human trafficking?
2.9. Are there anti human trafficking law in your office and how do you apply it?
2.10. Are there any government and nongovernment organization to address the problem of human trafficking?
2.11. Do you know how the brokers of human trafficking are working?
2.12. Have you ever taken any measurement action on brokers’ of human trafficking?
2.13. What are the challenges as labour and social affair offices are a face in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
2.14. What are the limitations that labour and social affair offices are facing in addressing the problem of human trafficking?
2.15. What do you think should be done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?

Appendix, 7
An Interview for the Victims of Human Trafficking
1. Socio Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
1.1. What is your name?
1.2. What is your sex?
1.3. How old are you?
1.4. What is the level of your education attainment?
1.5. What is your occupational status?
Part 1: The cause of human trafficking
1. Do you understand human trafficking activities?
2. If your answer is ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
3. In which age group you are found in.
4. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the middle east and why?
5. Why you prefer to go abroad through illegal means or human trafficking?
6. What motivated you to go abroad through this means?
7. Do you think going out abroad in this way are more advantages than the legal means?
8. What is your financial source to go abroad by this way?
9. Who are facilitating the situation of your movement?
10. What do think are the root cause for your movement through illegal or human trafficking means?
11. What do think was the pull factors are attracts you in destination country?
12. What do you think was the push factor in the country of origin?
13. What do you think was the positive causes of human trafficking?
14. What do you think was the driving force of brokers or traffickers to engage in human trafficking activity?
15. How brokers can influence you to ward his for human trafficking activities?
16. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working?
17. Who can the facilitate the act of human trafficking with brokers?
Part 2: The Effects of Human Trafficking
2.1. Do you know what was happen to you if you go to abroad through human trafficking?
2.2. Do you know any awareness about the impact of human trafficking in area? and if not why?
2.3. What are the impacts of human trafficking on victims including you?
2.4. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on you and sending family?
2.5. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on country?
2.6. Generally, what are the effects of human trafficking?
2.7. Are there collaborated office and other stockholders to prevent the act human trafficking?
2.8. Have you ever got any support from government and nongovernment organization after you have returned from abroad? If you say ‘yes’ how you get support?
2.9. Are there any measurement action taken on brokers of human trafficking? If you say yes what kind of measurement, do take?
2.10. Generally what do think should be done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?
Appendix, 8
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) for Families’ of victims
1. Socio demographic characteristics of trafficked persons
1.1. What is your name?
1.2. What is your sex?
1.3. How old are you?
1.4. What is the level of your education attainment?
1.5. What is your occupational status?
Part 1: The cause of human trafficking
1. Do you understand human trafficking activities?
2. Are you participated in human trafficking activities in sending your son in your area?
3. If you say ‘yes’, what do you think was the cause of human trafficking?
4. Which section of the societies is more affected by the act of human trafficking to the middle east and why?
5. Why you prefer to send your son/ daughter to abroad through illegal means or human trafficking?
6. Why you are motivated to send your son/daughter to abroad through this means?
7. Do you think going to abroad in this way are more advantages than the legal means?
8. What is your financial source to send your son/daughter to abroad by this way?
9. Who are facilitating the situation of this movement?
10. What are the root causes of human trafficking that force you to send your son/daughter.
11. What do think were the pull factors that attract you to send your son/daughter in destination country?
12. What do you think was the push factor in the country of the origin?
13. What do you think was the positive causes of human trafficking?
14. What do you think was the driving force of traffickers or brokers to engage in human trafficking activity?
15. How brokers can influence you toward them into human trafficking activities?
16. How the traffickers or brokers’ of human trafficking are working in your area?
17. Who can the facilitate the act of human trafficking with brokers?
Part 2: The effects of human trafficking
2.1. Do you know what was happen to your son/daughter if you send to abroad through this way and if your answer was no why?
2.2. Do you have an awareness on the impact of human trafficking in Dodola woreda and if not why?
2.3. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on victims including your son and others?
2.4. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on your economy?
2.5. What do you think was the impact of human trafficking on country?
2.6. Generally what do you think was the effects of human trafficking?
2.7. Are there any collaborated office and other stockholders that stand to prevent the act human trafficking in your area?
2.8. Have you got any support from government and nongovernment actors after you have return back from abroad?
2.9. Are there any measurement actions that have taken on brokers’ of human trafficking.
2.10. Generally what do think should be done by the government and other relevant actors to prevent human trafficking?

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