MODULE: Understanding And managing behaviors in the learning environment
YEAR: 2017/2018
TEACHER NAME: Mathew Alexander
STUDENT NAME: Ghita Moutamid
TASK A: RESEARCH REPORTThe classroom management is the main task that the teacher has to learn before even talking about the teaching, if the teacher does not know how to manger his learner, the teaching delivery process is blocked, and it hard to start a normal learning environment.

It can influence the learners as well as the teachers as the learning environment includes not only the physical ambiance, the place, but its concern the attitudes and the behavior
A very talented teacher must manage the topic taught and the learners to be taught in a very inclusive learning setting, to create a supportive and creative session with interactive, cultural, Safe Classroom.

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1.1: Theories of Behaviour Management:Many theories have been developed to help the teachers to manage the learners’ behavior all over the globe. Few of these theories is given below:
Maslow’s Theory: ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Maslow</Author><Year>1943</Year><RecNum>2368</RecNum><DisplayText>Maslow (1943)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>2368</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1451902482″>2368</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Maslow, Abraham Harold</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A theory of human motivation</title><secondary-title>Psychological review</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Psychological Review</full-title></periodical><pages>370</pages><volume>50</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1943</year></dates><isbn>1939-1471</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Maslow (1943) suggested that human beings need some essential and complimentary things to live happily. He confirms that these needs have to be presented in the people’s life. If these needs are absent, then the learners feel unsatisfied and he will not concentrate to succeed in his learning, so, it is mandatory to find out what are these needs and provide them to satisfy. He showed that human beings ask for five needs that can be shown on the figure below starting to satisfy the physiological needs, and moving forward to provide safety needs, after, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs and self-actualization. All this is to make learners concentrate more and more on their future.

Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Roger Bill is teacher and education consultant; he is very expert on managing the classroom, discipline, behavior challenging and teacher stress issues. He presents five basic principles for good behavior management in the classroom.
Shared rights and responsibilities expressed as rules
Minimise unnecessary confrontation and embarrassment
Offer choices to show confidence in students
Models respectful and dignified behavior
Communicate expectations and standard positively
These principles are designed to manage the group, avoiding excessive interruptions lessons. 
He confirms that teachers have to adopt a system of behavior that can assist disruptive students to learn better ways of behaving so that students learn from their behaviors and can see how changing their behavior will benefit them.

Berne’s Theory: ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Berne;/Author;;Year;1971;/Year;;RecNum;3854;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Berne (1971);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;3854;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519326550″;3854;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Berne, Eric;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Away from a theory of the impact of interpersonal interaction on non-verbal participation;/title;;secondary-title;Transactional Analysis Bulletin;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Transactional Analysis Bulletin;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;6-13;/pages;;volume;1;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;1971;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0041-1051;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Berne (1971) confirm that everyone is having three states depending on the context and the situation where the person is. These ego states are :
Parent ego state: it is the authority state; it is connected with orders, commands. This state is linked as well with the assertive sentences and body language more affirmative, and a strong tone to compel them to do the work at their place
Child ego state: we connected all the time to the dependence, the learners in this state seek assurance from other, show immature behavior, like short-tempered, they indulge in temper tantrums, talking like babies by whining and using a big word incorrectly.

Adult ego state: the learners in this state are more stable, they act with full responsibility and they show a mature behavior, using reasonable sentences to communicate and selected style thinking before they act as they non-threatening physical appearance.
Mehrabian’s Theory:
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Mehrabian</Author><Year>1972</Year><RecNum>3856</RecNum><DisplayText>Mehrabian (1972)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3856</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519326637″>3856</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mehrabian, Albert</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Nonverbal communication</title></titles><dates><year>1972</year></dates><publisher>Transaction Publishers</publisher><isbn>0202367525</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Mehrabian (1972) worked on the different ways the human beings communicate. Everyone know that there two ways the verbal and non-verbal, but Mehrabian found out that both are very important and they are complementary sometimes. The non-verbal communication is equally important but sometimes it is more important compared to the verbal. He asserted that in a direct interaction happening between two persons, the total communicated are as below:
Words form 7 percent.

Voice form 38 percent.
Body language forms around 55 %.

Figure 2: Mehrabian’s Theory
For this theory maker, the spoken words are literally understood. The body language is a main part of the communication model. It can be as shown as facial features, posture and gesture and the tone or the voice come at the end to influence the overall of the communication process.
1.2: Behaviours That Can Occur:Managing the overall classroom behavior is the duties of the teacher and the administrator’s staff.

The behavior has an important influence on the learning environment as well as the learner personality outside the classroom. I mean with their family, friends or others.
A learner’s behavior in the classroom may take various forms. It may be supportive, may become challenging and inappropriate then it may interfere with the others as it may cause disruption and learners may lose concentration.
There is much behavior that can occur in the classroom during the lecture or mainly anytime:
“Students talking over the Teacher or other Students
Students disrupting the Teacher or other Students
Swearing/Using offensive language
Throwing objects across the room (eg: furniture)
Disrespect to the Teacher or Other Students
Cultural Disagreements
Religious Disagreements
Physical/Sexual Abuse
Ignoring Instructions
Asking personal questions
Playing the ‘fool’, particularly during small group activities
Gender Disagreement
Students having an Argument
Students insulting each other
Trying to catch the teacher out
Texting on Mobile Phones”
From Study pack, jenny Robertson2017

1.3: Potential Factors Contributing To Those Behaviours: From diverse experiences, we did find out that they are many potential factors that lead to creating the atmosphere of a challenging behavior in the classroom. On one hand, you have the teacher planning, the attitude and the other hand you have the external factor, social, cultural and physical as well as emotional.

The teacher has done a kind of formative assessment to find out what subject they like and what they dislike and ask them to suggest the ways they like to learn. Using VARC as a reference to multiply and differentiate the material resources. It is a way to listen to the learners avoiding any challenging behavior. A poor planning may get the teacher loses control of the class. By taking time to check the resource materials prepared. The teacher will give learners the opportunity to talk with each other may create disruptive behavior. Also, less prepared and organized teacher deliver a monotonous lecture leading to less, lack of the enthusiasm from the teacher and/ or the student may cause an challenging behavior that’s why we must encourage ourselves and make the lesson plan more interesting to get them involve and ensuring that they are enrolling in the right course first of all. Also, do not create an atmosphere that is very competitive for Learners what can make the learner unconfident and unsure, and he can be reacting aggressively in some delicate situations. Furthermore, the Poor attitude of the teacher towards learners or even poor attitude of learners towards their colleague’s classmates may also lead to disruptive behavior in the class. The feeling and the opinions of all the learners have to be respected. Make sure as a teacher do not patronize the learners or put them on “the spot” If not, the response may have negative toward the teacher and/or the colleague classmate.

The inappropriate body language and appearance have a role to do in their mental state. We have to be a role model for them if our presentation is not at our level, then the learners will not listen to our lecture even.

For the social factors, we have:
the lack of support from other, teacher or colleague or admin staff
being bullied in one period in his past life, it can affect his present.

not fitting with a certain group, so he fell not accepted
buddy system
financial concern can affect his concentration and mood
family and private problems as well can put him in a negative state.

Cultural factors can be :
The language barrier, he will not be able to express properly himself ending by being misunderstood more often.

Nonacceptance form the other due to his religion, his origins,
Lake of inclusivity as we already mentioned before due to poor planning and preparing the lesson.

Physical factors:
we are able to include the health issues,
being assertive
general poor environment condition that leads to
our emotional factors:
Stress and anxiety
1.4: Impact of Those Behaviours:-1758573300
For Roger Bills, the figure above explained that normally as a teacher we concentrate on the
Negative behavior and forgot all about the white space inside the shape, Which present all the
good qualities of the learner. That’s why it really important to show them their white space and
Prevent them to do bad behaviors.

Indeed, there are different ways in which disruptive behaviors influence classroom management and other areas of an academic setting, but for sure, not all of them are bad. we can get many students that are intelligent by asking a lot of interesting questions which can direct the learning setting to more creative aspects of learning subjects. Or some humoristic situation where can blow some fresh and good energetic atmosphere in the setting. However, the other side is really worrying, scary and challenging. This kind of behavior in the classroom can label the student and the institution, by having a bad reputation which can lead to bad inspection results and finance issues as well as loss of efficient staff and interesting students. It can affect the other learner by annoying them, disturbing them and waste a valuable time. We don’t forget to mention that it can affect the learning environment, in horrendous situations, an unpleasant behavior may damage the equipment and tools like the computer, projectors or chairs, desks. It can affect the organization of the learning process by delay the completion and the submission of the work or the assignments, some learners may decide not to continue with the course.
The use of telephone, sleeping during lecture, coming late to the class, is considering as a less disturbing but we have to put ground rules in the first meeting with the learners to put some limits from the beginning. the disruptive behavior may affect teacher as well, he may lose focus and attention, which may cause poor performance and may also lead to confidence-shaking. Possibly, a disruption by one student may provoke other students to indulge in same behaviors. This may create a situation in which teacher’s authority is compromised and he may lose control of the class. In such situation, the students who are really serious about learning may suffer which may lead to a bad reputation of the school.

TASK B: LEGISLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLICIES RELATED TO DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOURWe can find guidance in different sources regarding the management of challenging and disruptive behavior in the classroom. These resources help teachers and other stakeholders in making the right decision. We have Equality Act of (2010), Health and Safety Act (1974), Diversity policy, Data Protection Policy, Confidentiality Policy, Zero Tolerance Policy, Schools of Code of Conduct, Learning Agreements, etc It will be presented and developed below.

2.1: Equality Act 2010:We Have:
“This Act 2010 legally protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society. It replaced previous anti-discrimination laws with a single Act, making the law easier to understand and strengthening protection in some situations. It sets out the different ways in which it’s unlawful to treat someone.”
“An Act to make provision to require Ministers of the Crown and others when making strategic decisions about the exercise of their functions to have regard to the desirability of reducing socio-economic inequalities; to reform and harmonise equality law and restate the greater part of the enactments relating to discrimination and harassment related to certain personal characteristics; to enable certain employers to be required to publish information about the differences in pay between male and female employees; to prohibit victimisation in certain circumstances; to require the exercise of certain functions to be with regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and other prohibited conduct; to enable duties to be imposed in relation to the exercise of public procurement functions; to increase equality of opportunity; to amend the law relating to rights and responsibilities in family relationships; and for connected purposes.”8th April 2010.

lefttop0Equality Act was enforced in 2010. It helps all the stakeholder: teachers and school administrators to manage school daily life: Show them how to behave with the student, parents, caregivers, employees, and members of the community. The school has to be a place of fair and non-discriminatory treatment, policies, and practice for the individual as well as the group. Like, the right of admissions, provision of education, benefits, and in exclusion of learners from different activities to include even the students with learning difficulties and learning.

2.2: Health and Safety Act:
Health and Safety Act (HSA) of 1974 contained guidelines for different types of resources the school has to adapt to provide a safe and healthy learning placement. The Health and Safety Act insist that schools should take reasonable steps to ensure that the institution building is safe for the students, teachers, and staff and also all the visitors who come to the school.
The Health and Safety Act emphasize the state of the classroom like the floor, clearing pathway, electric cables, dealing with spillage also the furniture, their conditions are very important, the cupboards have to be securely fastened. Prevention and management of fire hazards, workplace ventilation, and heating. Generally, Avoid any obstruction in the classroom setting that can be a hazard.

2.3: Schools of Code of Conduct:It’s defining the importance of developing and implementing the code of conduct in schools.
The Code of Conduct applies to all members of the school during the curriculum or extracurricular activities. This code of conduct also clarifies activities that are prohibited to ensure the safety of students and school teacher and staff.

So, school’s code of conduct establishes guidelines to show the right behavior that is acceptable to the school and has to be respected. The rules are for to students and teachers administrative staff. And can be extended to all the visitors.

These regulations have a positive impact not only inside the class but outside it as well that leads to eradicate the challenging behavior and disruptive behavior. We notice that it promotes the sense of responsibility, respects, and consideration. It enhances the understanding of the viewpoint of school’s administration and others.

2.4: Diversity Policy: ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Bagley</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>3879</RecNum><DisplayText>Bagley, Glatter, and Woods (2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3879</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519352026″>3879</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bagley, Carl</author><author>Glatter, Ron</author><author>Woods, Philip</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Choice and diversity in schooling: Perspectives and prospects</title></titles><dates><year>2005</year></dates><publisher>Routledge</publisher><isbn>1134770324</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote> The diversity is a very important matter of the modern learning settings. Diversity overtakes the equality definition and includes the multiculturalism, which promotes the acceptance of differences of others. Diversity recognizes and respected and encourage that people from different ethnicity (gender, age, religion, political and sexual orientation, ethnicity, etc.) to be accepted anywhere. A teacher should create an inclusive learning atmosphere. This is vital to learning process success. Each academic institution has to aim to be a place where people can be free to be themselves no matter what their identity or ethnicity by supporting a creative learning environment in which individuals can utilise their competencies, skills, knowledge, and talents to the full without fear of prejudice or harassment, where everyone can reach their fullest potential.

All the academic institutions make a clear diversity policy to bring this notion into their premises such celebration all the festival, avoiding stereotypical behaviors. Work on a lesson plan or workplaces that promote diversity as well make sure that there the discriminatory behaviors will be punished.

Beside these Acts, all the schools and colleges have created their Own policies like :
42566831848500Zero Tolerance: require a very harsh punishment when a student breaks the rules:
Differentiation policy:

Anti-bullying policy:

Equality and diversity policy:
-40005118097500Behavior policy:
315785521971000Whistleblowing policy:
Open door policy:

TASK C: PORTFOLIO OF TEACHING EVIDENCEIn your teaching portfolio m provide evidence that you have :
Established a purposeful learning environment
See the Practical Folder:

TASK D: PERSONAL ACCOUNTa: explains how you create and maintain a purposeful learning environment applying theories of behavior management ( ref3.3)
A managing classroom is not an easy task, I know that I will be trying maybe I succeed, maybe I will fail. But for sure, as a new teacher, with time, my perseverance and advice from my colleagues all my fears will vanish.
I did learn a lot of behaviors management theories, I Tried to use them in my learning environment.
I counted on Maslow theory (1943) based on the needs hierarchy pyramid. Every time I did have a discussion with my student, I tried to wonder and ask about their needs and tried to fulfill their needs that they can concentrate more on their studies.

When I notice that student is not following or having a bad concentration, I know that maybe he needs extra care and attention, I may arrange a personal coaching and supporting session that I can identify their individual problems so I can address it to the right person to help them to solve it.
Also, to give them a feedback, I try to be constructive not destructive .using praises, grades, certificates, surprises and other positive rewards to motivate them and encourage them to do their best for next times. My behavior has to be a role model, so I try not to hurt their feeling and their self-esteem.
For ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Skinner</Author><Year>1958</Year><RecNum>3854</RecNum><DisplayText>Skinner (1958)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3854</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519326053″>3854</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skinner, Burrhus F</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Reinforcement today</title><secondary-title>American Psychologist</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>American Psychologist</full-title></periodical><pages>94</pages><volume>13</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1958</year></dates><isbn>1935-990X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Skinner’s theory (1958). I try to eradicate the external stimuli that can create challenging and disruptive behaviors in the class. Like Bad or sarcastic comments which may hurt my students. Always put the respect as a ground rule inside the setting, everyone has to listen to what other is saying, no one is allowed to ridicule and laugh to their classmates. I all the time look at their facial expression to analyze and find out their future behavior, so I may have time to interact and change it in time to avoid any negative situation.

I did use ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Berne</Author><Year>1971</Year><RecNum>3854</RecNum><DisplayText>Berne (1971)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3854</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519326550″>3854</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Berne, Eric</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Away from a theory of the impact of interpersonal interaction on non-verbal participation</title><secondary-title>Transactional Analysis Bulletin</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Transactional Analysis Bulletin</full-title></periodical><pages>6-13</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>1971</year></dates><isbn>0041-1051</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Berne’s theory (1971), the student is having different ego states: Parent, child and adults ego. From here, I bear in mind. In some very delicate situations, my students can jump from state to state, sometimes they talk like an adult and the following moment they are in child ego so, I have to be careful to manage it and deal with it. For ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Mehrabian</Author><Year>1972</Year><RecNum>3856</RecNum><DisplayText>Mehrabian (1972)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3856</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zw9fxzswowxvz0e9v23xzfei20a9fa5eaaaa” timestamp=”1519326637″>3856</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mehrabian, Albert</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Nonverbal communication</title></titles><dates><year>1972</year></dates><publisher>Transaction Publishers</publisher><isbn>0202367525</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Mehrabian’s theory (1972), I tried to make my personal body language, tone and voice as clear as possible, and respectful as possible as well. So, I ensure that my student does the same toward me and toward there classmates.
I considered the planning of my lectures is very important to make an interesting and fun session to achieve course objectives in an enthusiastic way. I Count on my different resources by respecting the VARC theory and also the learning style of the student to make it inclusive. I start by a warming welcoming behavior that helps them in maintaining their attention in the class and finishing with a constructive feedback.
As they said the first impression is the last impression, I must explain nicely the rule and regulation of the school and the classroom with all the Acts that we did explain earlier to guide them and to show them the right path to a good and appropriate behavior in the school and the classroom. And during the session, I try to get them engage and involve them individually or in a group in activities to avoid any distraction and any challenging behaviors.

4.2: Analysis of Effectiveness of Own Practice:It’s very had to think that managing behavior is an easy task for the teacher. Dealing with a student as an individual is a Must. I understand that to succeed as a teacher I have to put their personal need first, their emotional feeling s first, I have to give them my support. I have to work hand in hand with the staff member and also with their family’s members as well. They need all the support; they have to know that all of us are here to help them achieve their goal no matter what problems they may face.

Moreover, It’s very had as well to avoid all the daily incidents happen to the students that can affect him and affect his mood because I know a challenging and disruptive Behaviour can start way before the classroom time. It can be created by a simple nightmare, by neighbor little fight, financial stress or even parents disagreement or discouragement …etc. These entire contexts may affect in a negative way on the mood of the students and make him ready to any misbehavior with his classmates.
So, from here I can make it clear that we have to know all about the little misbehavers and work closely with school colleagues and staff and also with family to reverse it to a positive behavior especially inside the school.

Berne, E. (1971). Away from a theory of the impact of interpersonal interaction on non-verbal participation. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(1), 6-13.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication: Transaction Publishers.

Rogers, B. (2015). Classroom behavior: a practical guide to effective teaching, behavior management, and colleague support: Sage.

Skinner, B. F. (1958). Reinforcement today. American Psychologist, 13(3), 94.
Jenny Robinson Study pack.


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