Being a 64-years old smoker with diabetes puts this patient at high risk for stroke and heart attack

Being a 64-years old smoker with diabetes puts this patient at high risk for stroke and heart attack. Having a history of consuming fast and processed food, makes his prognosis less optimistic. Smoking damages the smooth lining of the arteries. LDL (bad) cholesterol begins to accumulate in the walls of the arteries. This activates special macrophages that consume LDL cholesterol invading the arterial walls and become foam cells. Enlarged cholesterol-enriched foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up at early stage of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Plaque is formed due to the accumulation of foam cells that result in fatty streaks on the walls. As fatty streaks continue to grow, the body tries to protect its arteries by surrounding them in the fibrous capsule. The capsule grows as long as the muscular (elastic) layer can allow its expanding to prevent narrowing of the artery. But eventually the plaque begins to grow inside the blood vessel reducing normal blood flow. Besides, calcium deposits settle in the plaque making it hard and inelastic. At this stage, the artery is not able to expand in order to increase blood flow when needed (during physical exercises, for instance). As this plaque grows, it narrows the lumen of the artery, reducing blood supply to the affected organ, and increasing blood pressure inside the vessel. This can result in damaging and rupture of the capsule, and the clot completely blocking the lumen of the artery. Depending on the location, atherosclerosis can cause stroke (in the brain), heart attack and stroke (in heart) that often can be fatal. Atherosclerosis causes the weakening and thinning of the artery wall leading to the forming of the aneurysm that can also rupture with fatal consequences due to massive hemorrhage.
Omega 3/Omega 6 balance decreases the risk for diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The essential omega-3 fatty acids are responsible for initiating anti-inflammatory responses, whereas omega-6 fatty acids are responsible for pro-inflammatory responses. Arachidonic acid (one of the omega-6 fatty acids) impacts inflammation directly. Linoleic and ?-linolenic, omega-6 fatty acids can indirectly provoke the synthesis of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) superoxide, a pro-inflammatory mediator. Oleic acid can reduce the inflammation associated with saturated fatty acid-induced inflammation in human aortic endothelial cells.
Omega-3 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) are able to displace the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, as molecular substrates during the cyclooxygenase and oxygenase pathways, providing cardioprotective effect. The epoxides of an omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid epoxyeicosatrienoic acids also have antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects.

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