# CHAPTER FIVE DATA PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the findings of the study, analysis of data and presentations of major findings. For the purpose of demonstrating the relationship among the various variables, the data is presented in the form of tables.
5.1.1 Response Rate
The study targeted a sample size of 35 respondents from which 32 filled in and returned the questionnaires, making a response rate of 91.4%. This response rate was representative and conforms to Mugenda and Mugenda’s (1999) stipulation that a response rate of 50% is adequate for analysis and reporting, a rate of 60% is good and a response of 70% and over is excellent.
5.1.2 Reliability Analysis
A pilot study was carried out to determine reliability of the questionnaires. The pilot study involved the sampled Media Owners Association officials, Kenya Union of Journalists officials, Bloggers Association of Kenya writers and heads of media training institutes in Nairobi.
Reliability analysis was done using Cronbach’s Alpha which measures the internal consistency by establishing if certain items within a scale measure the same construct.
Klien (1999) notes that the accepted alpha value is 0.7, thus forming the study’s benchmark. Cronbach’s Alpha was established for every objective which formed a scale. The pre-test questionnaires were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for analysis.
The number of items in each variable represents the number of questions contained in each variable section. The table shows that the effects of digitalization on the consumption of media services had the highest reliability (alpha=0.856), followed by the effects of social media on the journalism practice (alpha=0.723) and the effects of digitalization on media (alpha=0.701). The variables were therefore reliable as they met the accepted alpha value of 0.7. This therefore means that the three variables were reliable. The number of items represent the number of questions under each variable of the study. The study used these questions to check on the reliability of the whole questionnaire.
Table 5.1: Reliability Analysis
Scale Cronbach’s Alpha Number of Items
Digitalization on mainstream media 0.701 4
Social media on journalism 0.723 3
Consumption of media services 0.856 4
Average (All Scales) 0.760 3

From the above analysis, the findings show that all the variables had their Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.7, which is the benchmark as provided for by Klien (1999). The study was therefore reliable.
5.2 Demographic information
5.2.1 Number of years the respondents had worked in their respective organizations
The study sought to find out the number of years the respondents had worked in their respective organizations. The findings were as shown in table 5.2 below:
Table 5.2: Number of Years the Respondents had Worked in their Respective Organizations
No. of Years Frequency Percent
Below 2 years 3 9.4%
2-4 years 9 28.1%
4-8 years 15 46.9%
8 years and above 5 15.6%
Average (All scales) 32 100

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From the findings, 46.9% of the respondents had worked in their respective organizations for 4-8 years, 28.1% for 2-4 years, 15.6% for 8 and above years and 9.4% for less than 2 years. These findings show that the respondents who were involved in the study had worked in their organizations for a reasonable period of time hence were knowledgeable on the effects of digitalization on media and journalism in Kenya. More than 50% of the respondents had been practising their profession for more than four years and therefore had factual information on the effects of digitalization on media and journalism in Kenya.
5.3 Effects of Digitalization on Mainstream Media in Kenya
5.3.1 Digital technologies enhanced the collection, dissemination and consumption of information and news by the mainstream media
Findings on whether digital technologies have enhanced the collection, dissemination and consumption of news in Kenya were as shown in the table 5.3 below:
Table 5.3: Digital technologies enhanced collection, dissemination and consumption of news
Frequency Percent
Yes 28 87.5%
No 4 12.5%
Total 32 100

According to the findings, 87.5% of the respondents indicated that digital technologies had enhanced the collection, dissemination and consumption of information and news while 12.5% indicated that digital technologies had not enhanced the collection, dissemination and consumption of information and news by the media.
5.3.2 Digitalization affected media ethics in Kenya i.e. truth, balance, fairness and objective reporting
The manner in which digitalization affected media ethics in Kenya was as presented in the table 5.4 below:
Table 5.4 Digitalization Affected Media Ethics in Kenya
Frequency Percent
Yes 24 75%
No 6 18.8%
Not sure 2 6.2%
Total 32 100

From the findings, 75% of the respondents indicated that digitalization affected media ethics in Kenya, 18.8% indicated that it did not, while 6.2% of the respondents were not sure of whether or not it did.
5.3.3 Extent that integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach
Findings on the extent to which integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach in Kenya were as presented in the table 5.5 below:
Table 5.5: Extent that integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach
Frequency Percent
Very great extent 30 93.8%
Great extent 1 3.1%
Moderate extent 1 3.1%
Total 32 100

From the findings, 93.8% of the respondents indicated that integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach to a very great extent, 3.1% of the respondents indicated that integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach to a great extent and 3.1% of the respondents indicated that integration of social media by mainstream media widened audience reach to a moderate extent.
5.3.4 Media training institutions took social media as a serious field of study in Kenya
The findings on whether media institutions took social media as a serious field of study were shown in table 5.6 below:

Table 5.6: Social media taken as a serious field of study in Kenya
Frequency Percent
Yes 6 18.8%
No 26 81.2%
Total 32 100

From the findings, 81.2% of the respondents indicated that media training institutions in Kenya did not take social media as a serious field of study, while 18.8% of the respondents indicated that media institutions in Kenya took social media as a serious field of study.
5.4 Effects of Social Media on the Journalism Practice in Kenya
5.4.1 Journalists Must Know How to Use Social Media Effectively
The study sought to find out whether journalists needed to know how to use social media effectively in this digital era. The findings were as show in table 5.7 below:
Table 5.7: Journalists Must Know How to Use Social Media Effectively in this Digital Era
Frequency Percent
Yes 32 100%
Total 32 100

According to the findings, 100% of the respondents indicated that journalists needed to know how to use social media effectively in this digital era.
5.4.2 Extent that Citizen journalism affected the traditional journalism practice in Kenya
The study further sought to establish the extent that citizen journalism affected the traditional journalism practice in Kenya. The findings were as shown in table 5.8 below:

Table 5.8: Extent that Citizen Journalism affected Traditional Journalism Practice
Frequency Percent
Very great extent 22 68.8%
Great extent 6 18.8%
Moderate extent 4 12.5%
Total 32 100

From the findings shown in table 5.8 above, 68.8% of the respondents indicated that citizen journalism affected the traditional journalism practice to a very great extent, 18.8% indicated that citizen journalism affected the traditional journalism practice to a great extent while 12.5% of the respondents indicated that citizen journalism affected the traditional journalism practice to a moderate extent.
5.4.3 Social Media Increased Propagation of Fake News in Kenya
The study sought to determine whether social media increased the propagation of fake news in Kenya. The findings were shown in table 5.9 below:
Table 5.9: Social Media Increased Propagation of Fake News
Frequency Percent
Yes 30 93.8%
No 2 6.2%
Total 32 100

Table 5.9 shows that 93.8% of the respondents indicated that social media increased the propagation of fake news while 6.2% of the respondents indicated that social media did not increase the propagation of fake news.

5.5 Consumption of Media Services in Kenya
5.4.4 Extent to Which Social Media Platforms Are Used to Access Information and News
The study sought to establish the extent to which social media platforms are used to access information and news. The findings were as shown in the table 5.10 below:
Table 5.10: Social Media Platforms as Information and News Sources
Frequency Percent
Very great extent 29 90.6%
Great extent 2 6.3%
Moderate extent 1 3.1%
Total 32 100

According to the findings, 90.6% of the respondents indicated that social media platforms are used to access information and news to a very great extent. 6.3% indicated that social media platforms were used to a great extent to access information and news, while 3.1% indicated that social media platforms were used to a moderate extent to access information and news.
5.4.5 Social Media Enhanced Speed and Immediacy of Breaking News
The study set to establish whether social media enhanced the speed and immediacy of breaking news. The findings were as shown on the table 5.11 below:
Table 5.11: Social Media Enhanced the Speed of Breaking News
Frequency Percent
Yes 32 100%
Total 32 100

According to the findings, all the respondents (100%) indicated that social media enhanced the speed and immediacy of breaking news in Kenya.

5.4.6 Extent that Mainstream Media Audience Use Social Media Platforms to Produce and Consume Information and News
The study set to establish the extent to which audiences use social media platforms to produce, discuss, network and consume information and news. The findings were as shown in table 5.12 below:
Table 5.12: Extent that Mainstream Media Audience Use Social Media Platforms to Produce and Consume Information and News
Frequency Percent
Very great extent 28 87.5%
Great extent 4 12.5%
Total 32 100

The findings show that 87.5% of the respondents indicated that mainstream media audiences use social media to produce and consume information and news to a very great extent, while 12.5% of the respondents indicated that mainstream media audiences use social media to produce and consume information and news to a great extent.
5.4.7 Extent to which Mainstream Media are Considered Credible News Sources.
The study set to establish the extent to which mainstream media are considered credible sources of news in spite of audience being able to access the same on social media platforms. The findings were as shown in table 5.13 below:
Table 5.13 Extent to which Mainstream Media are Considered Credible as News Sources
Frequency Percent
Very great extent 27 84.4%
Great extent 5 16.6%
Total 32 100

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