Communication can generally be defined as exchange of thoughts. Communication and information stuck between two or more person, throughout a medium in a behavior that the sender and the receiver be aware of the message in the common sense that is they widen common accepting of the message.
The word communication is described as of Latin word ‘communicare’, which means to share, convey, participate, substitute, and transmit or to make common. It emphasizes on distribution common information, ideas and message. IT (Information Technology) is not just issuing information and instructions.
Ramah (1985) defines communication as “the transmission and reception of ideas, feelings and attitudes verbally or non-verbally to produce a favorable response”.
“Communication is the art of mounting and attaining understanding between people. It is the process of exchanging information and thoughts between two or more people and it is necessary to effective management.
Nature of Communication:
1. Two – way process:
Communication is a process of understanding two-way between two or more persons – sender and receiver. A person cannot communicate with himself.
2. Continuous process:
Exchange of ideas and opinion amongst people is an ongoing process in business and non- business organizations. Continuous interaction promotes understanding and exchange of information relevant for decision- making.
3. Dynamic process:
Communication between sender and receiver takes different forms and medium depending upon their moods and behavior. It is, thus a dynamic process that keeps changing in different situations.
Communication is a pervasive activity. It takes place at all levels (top, middle, low) in all functional areas (production, finance, and personnel, sales) of a business organization.
Communication involves exchange of ideas and opinions. People interact and develop understanding for each other.
6. Means of unifying organisational activities :
Communication unifies internal organizational environment with its external environment. It also integrates the human and physical resources and converts them into organizational output.
7. Verbal and non- verbal :
Though words are active carriers of information, gestures can sometimes be more powerful than words. Facial expressions, sounds, signs and symbols are the non- verbal forms of communication.
8. Goal – oriented:
Communication is goal-oriented. Unless the receiver and sender know the purpose they intend to achieve through communication, it has little practical utility.
9. Foundation of management:
Though communication is directing function, it is important for other managerial functions also .Designing plans and organization structures, motivating people to accomplish goals an controlling organizational activities all require communication amongst managers at various levels.
10. A means , not an end:
Communication is not an end. Effective communication is a means towards achieving the end, that is, goals accomplishment. It smoothens managerial operations by facilitating planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling functions.
Role of Communication:
Right from the time a child is born, communication plays an important role in is life. Speaking, listening and writing are the common forms of communication. A large part of our time is devoted to communication as we share our thoughts and feelings with individuals and groups of people. Communication helps to develop an organized society with defined roles for each individual.
In the business world, managers perform their tasks and responsibilities through communication. Communication provides the basis for effective implementation of plans, assigning jobs to people, carrying out directions and activities and facilities control.
Management functions can be performed successfully when managers communicate face-to face, telephonically or electronically with their superiors, peers, subordinates, customers, suppliers, competitors etc. Even when they are not talking they are busy reading or writing reports, memos and letters which are different forms of communication. Communication has reduced geographical distances into storable and confidential forms and has facilitated a large number of people to interact with each other.
“It is the process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended”. Effective communication, thus takes place when receiver understands the message in the same sense as the sender wants to convey.
Communiation is the foundation for human interaction that develops common understanding amongst two or more persons. This promotes common objectives through coordinated efforts amongst people belonging to different functional departments
Importance of Communication:
The want to meet people and get shaped into prepared groups necessitates the need for communication. In the fast varying world, managers communicate changes in technology, arrangement or people to the subordinates. If the communication system is well organized, it becomes easier for subordinates to understand furthermore act upon the message. Communication plays central role in the lives of folks and organizations.
1. Basis for planning:
Arrangement is the fundamental role of management. If strategies are well planned and communicated for their implementation, it leads to directorial success. Preparation requires general ecological scanning and information about interior and exterior association elements. A successful system of communication helps in obtaining this information. Implementing the plans requires communicating then to everyone in the organisation. Communication is thus, the basic of planning.
2. Inspiration to work:
Employees are motivated to work if their needs are satisfied. Communication helps managers know needs to their employees so that they can adopt suitable motivators and inspire them to develop positive attitude towards the work environment.
3. Job satisfaction:
Exchange of information develops trust, confidence and faith amongst managers and subordinates. They understand their job position better and, thus perform better. People are committed to organizational objectives which promoters job satisfaction.
4. Commitment to organizational objectives:
Managers who follow an effective system of communication understand employee’s needs, adopt suitable motivators to satisfy them, appraise their performance and provide them regular feedback. The employees all work with commitment towards organizational objectives.
Communication coordinates organizational resources (human and non- human), individual goals with organizational goals and internal environment with external environment. Coordination is the key to organizational success and communication is an active contribute to coordination.
Process of communication:
Communication process is a sequence of activities where message sent is understood by the receiver in its intended meaning. For example, execution of a purchase order or conversation through telephone shall be complete if the desired result is achieved, that is supplier sends the desired goods and receiver of phone call acts as desired by the maker of the describe .
Communcaition is a process that connects the sender with the receiver of the message. It is a process systematic series of actions, operations or series of change directed to some end. However, in real life situations, communication process is more complex than is sounds. It consists of a series of elements which results in sharing of meaning by sender and receiver.
These elements are discussed below:
Sender is the person who initiates generates and sends the message. He represents the source of message. The communication process begins when the sender develops an idea or message he wants to transmit. He must arrange the ideas in manner that can be understood by the receiver. A lecturer delivering a lecture in the classroom is the sender of the message r a manager addressing his team in a meeting is sender of the message.
Message is the idea or information that the sender wants to convey. He may convey it verbally (by writing or speaking) or non- verbally (through gestures or body language).Whatever the form, the message would be clearly formed so that desired objective is accomplished.
Once the sender is clear of what message to transmit, he decides the code through which the message shall be transmitted. The message is abstract and intangible and therefore, has to be converted into some form (words, gestures, pictures etc,) to make it meaning full. Encoding means converting the message into symbols.
Encoding gives meaning to the message or converts ideas into codes which can be understood by the receiver. Encoding means translating the message into words (written or spoken) symbols or gestures. It may be a combination of the three. The code should be appropriate to the situation that is, interpreted by the receiver in the manner intended.
Transmission involves selecting the medium or channel of communication. Once decided that the message has to be sent in writing, the sender may select the electronic channel and the medium of e-mail or fax. Short messages can be transmitted through telephone lengthy messages can be sent through letters or circulars.
Choice of channels depends upon the message to be conveyed, personal biases of the sender and nature of information. Short messages are generally sent through telephone. Where drawings, charts and illustrations form part of the message, it should be sent in writing. Personal biases include sender’s preference for a particular channel.
Some senders prefer to communicate in writing however short the message may be and therefore, prefer the written channel of transmission. Nature of information refers to immediacy and confidentiality of information. Confidential information where immediate feedback is required is generally transmitted orally.
Receiver is the person or a group of persons to whom the message is conveyed. In case of telephonic conversation, the sender can send message to one receiver but in case of group discussions, seminars and conferences, receivers cab be more than one. The message must be designed; encoded and transmitted in a manner that receiver can understand it easily. Use of technical words, jargons and complicated symbols should be avoided. Depending on the channel selected, receiver may be listener, viewer or a reader.
Decoding means giving meaning full interpretation to the message. On receiving the message, the receiver translates the symbols into meaning full information to the best of his ability. Communication is effective f receiver understands the message in the same way as intended by the sender. The receiver must therefore, be familiar with the codes and symbols used by the sender.
It represents the disturbing factor in the process of communication. It interferes with effective communication and reduces clarity of the message. The message may be interpreted differently than intended by the sender. Conversing near a machine making sounds , disturbance in telephone line, physical ailment to mental distress of sender or receiver , physchological barriers ( degree of trust , fear , perception etc,.) are the common forms of noise that obstruct the quality of message transmitted from sender to the receiver.
Feedback is receiver’s response to sender’s message. The receiver communication his reaction to the sender through words, symbols or gesture. It is the reversal of communication process where receiver becomes the sender and sender becomes the receivers. Unless the receiver responds to the message, communication process is incomplete.
Feedback helps the sender to transform his message, if needed. It also allows the receiver to clear doubts on the message, ask questions to build how confidence and enables the sender to know efficiency of the message. Feedback makes the communication process complete.
In face –to-face communication, the sender can immediately receiver the feedback but in written communication, it takes time for sender to receive feedback on the message. A written notice sent by manager to the employees to work seven days a week instead of six can be implemented when everybody has read and signed the notice. Subordinates will give feedback on the notice and recommend changes, if required. Managers can implement the notice only if it is accepted by the subordinates, unless it is order.
Feedback increases efficiency and applicability of communication.
Feedback plays important role in two way communication. In one- way communication, sender communicates with the receiver without getting any feedback but in two – way communication receiver provides feedback to the sender. Through on e-way communication takes less time and is more orderly (it avoids noise and chaos), feedback in two-way communication makes it more accurate and precise.
Feedback offers the following benefits:
1. I t allows senders it improve communication with the receiver.
2. It allows receiver to clarify doubts on the message and therefore, perform better.
3. Allowing receivers to ask questions builds confidence and they are more confident of their performance.
4. It enables the sender to know efficiency of his message; whether or not the receiver has understood the message in its right meaning. Feedback makes the communication process complete.
5. In response to receiver’s understanding and suggestions on the message, sender can adjust the subsequent messages.
The communication process can be represented as follows:
Channels of Communication:
Communication channel is the path through which information flows from sender to receiver.
Two main communication channels are:
1. Formal communication channel and
2. Informal communication channel.
Formal Communication Channel:
It is the official of communication controlled by managers in their official capacity. Official information and decisions follow this channel of decisions follow this channel of communication. This channel is officially recognized by the organization structure, follows the formal chain of command for passing information, suggestions, orders, etc., and defines authority-responsibility relationships amongst members of the organization.
It is a deliberately created path of communication. Information flows vertically, horizontally and diagonally along this path of communication ‘through proper channel’, that is through various levels in the organizational hierarchy.
Vertical communication representes flow of information from one level to the other in the organization hierarchy. It can be downward and upward. In downward vertical communication, information flow from top to middle – level managers, lower-level managers, supervisors and workers.
The information is related to goals, policies directions instructions etc, in upward vertical communication, information flows from lower-levels to higher levels. It relates to reports about subordinates’ work, achievements and progress, work -releated problems, suggestions to improve the style of working etc.
Horizontal communication flows amongst people at the same level. It does not follow the official chain of command. When manager of marketing department discussed issues related to production and sale of goods, with the manager of production department, it is said to be horizontal communication. Diagonal communication is similar to horizontal communication that takes place amongst people of different departments at different levels rather than the same level.
Informal Communication Channel:
It is an unofficial channel of communication that arises out of socio-psychological needs of people to interact with each other. It is an important and spontaneous outgrowth of formal channels of communication. It emphasizes more on the person the position. It arises when people of common nationality, caste or religion interact within each other or when they share a car pool or meet each other regularly in canteens, libraries, bus stands etc,.
It is an unofficial communication set of connections where information flows freely throughout the organization. Grapevine is the most common form of informal communication. It connects people in the organization and transmits information in every direction: vertical, horizontal and diagonal.
It cuts across formal positions and facilities social, personal and psychological interaction amongst people. Through it travels faster than formal communication channel, it also carries gossips and rumors with it. Grapevine communication normally occurs when some change is introduced in organizational policies (change in office, automation etc.) and people are located close to each other (as individuals or groups) in order to discuss matters.
Features of grapevine communication:
i. It connects almost everybody in the organization.
ii. It flows in every direction – vertical, horizontal and diagonal.
iii. It does not follow the official chain of command.
iv. It is fast channel of communication.
v. It generally occurs at the work site, though it may occur outside the organization also.
vi. It arises out of social and personal interaction amongst people in the organization.
vii. It is based on the people than task.
viii. It generally occurs orally.
ix. It occurs in various forms known as communication chains.
Patterns of grapevine communication –
Grapevine communication chain represents the pattern in which information flows in different directions.
How to make effective use of grapevine communication:
Since grapevine or informal communication channel cannot be eliminated, managers should use it effectively to attain the formal organizational goals.
The following steps can help managers in this regard:
i. Mangers should personally inform employees about organizational goals, plans, policies, etc., besides communicating them through the formal channel. This will avoid spreading rumors and gossips. While communicating with subordinates, managers should maintain closeness with them.
ii. Enhance group discussions and activities so that people openly discuss their formal and informal problems.
iii. Managers should fix some time, in a week or month, to personally meet the employees and discuss various formal and informal problems with them.
iv. Managers should win the confidence of group leaders so that group goals are not contrary to individual goals.
v. As much as possible, decision – making should be participative in nature.
vi. Managers should keep asking the employees about organizational plans and policies. Regular feedback can improve the organization’s state of affairs.
vii. Managers should be good listeners. If they want to be listened to, they should also listen to others.
Distinction between Formal and Informal Communication Channels:
Formal communication channel Informal communication channel
It can be oral and written It can also be oral and written
It is rigid. It is flexible.
It is an impersonal form of communication It is a personal form of communication
It aims at organizational goals. It aims at personal goals.
The information is authentic and accurate Information distortions are likely to take place
It is a slow means of communication It is a fast means of communication
It is deliberately created. It arise spontaneously along with the formal channel..
It flows in vertical, horizontal and diagonal directions. It flows in every possible direction.
It is task-oriented It is people-oriented
It is based on formal relationships amongst people. It is based on informal relationships.
It follows the official chain of command or organizational hierarchy It cuts across the formal chain of command and does not follow organizational hierarchy.
Every organization has been established with certain objectives to achieve. These objectives can be achieved by utilizing the resources like men, machines, materials and money. All these resources are important but out of these the manpower is the most important. It plays an important role in performing tasks for accomplishing the goals. The question arises that how these resources are utilizes by manpower. Further, the business environment is changing drastically. The environmental factors are uncontrollable. These are beyond control of management of the firms. One has to adjust with the external factors to do the business in the market. Every environmental factor like social, cultural, legal, political, economic, technology and competition gets changed very fast. For effective working the knowledge of these factors is must otherwise the plan will misfire. In present situation it is difficult to predict about anything. It is uncertain to say that what will happen tomorrow. Again the need for highly skilled and dedicated manpower is felt who can give the best output. Nowadays the markets 28 are also very competitive and there is cut throat competition. For every organization it is difficult to start, survive, stabilize and excel in the business. The firm that gets the advantage over other competitors through their talented and dedicated manpower can take the lead in the market. The contribution of employees on job is the most important factor for development and excellence in business. The performance of employees on different jobs in close coordination is needed for success of the unit. Employees are performing different jobs in an organization depending upon the nature of the organization. They mainly perform tasks like production, storage, manufacturing, transportation, marketing, purchasing, distribution, promotion of business, finance and accounting, human resource, research and public relations. All these activities are inter-related to achieve the targets. These are to be performed by the employees properly so they can give their best out put at the job. This will have great impact on the total production, sales, profit, progress and market position of the company in the market. Various factors like skills, training, motivation, dedication, welfare, management policies, fringe benefits, salary and packages, promotion, communication etc. are responsible to encourage the people to work sincerely and give their best output. The importance of employees’ performance must be understood by the management and sincere efforts must be put in that direction. The management of the company taking timely steps in that direction will be in position to develop and motivate the people to do so. Finally the company may take the lead the market and grab the opportunities available in the market.
An employee’s performance measurement differs from job to job.
Employee performance will be measured using the following indicators to performance:
1. Employee output (Quantity and quality) : The number of units produced, processed and/or delivered is good objective indicator of performance.
2. The quality of work performance can be measured by several means. The percentage of work output that must be redone or is rejected is one such indicator.
3. Timeliness: How fast work is performed is another performance indicator. This means a fast turnaround time for processes and hence fast delivery of service.
4. Cost- Effectiveness: The cost of work performed should be used as a measure of performance only if the employee has same degree of control over costs.
5. Adherence to policy: Deviations from policy indicate an employee whose performance goals are not well aligned with those of the company.
6. Personal Appearance/Grooming: Inappropriate appearance and grooming should be spelled out, their effects upon the employee’s performance and that of others explained, and corrective actions defined.
7. Performance indicators must be assessed by some means in order to measure
Performance itself. Here are some of the ways in which performance will assessed from the aforementioned indicators.
a. Manager Appraisal: A manager appraises the employee’s performance and delivers the appraisal to the employee. Manager appraisal is by nature top-down and does not encourage the employee’s active participation. It is often met with resistance, because the employee has no investment in its development.
b. Self- Appraisal: The employee appraises his or her own performance, in many cases comparing the self-appraisal to management’s review. Often, self-appraisals can highlight discrepancies between what the employee and management think are important performance factors and provide mutual feedback for meaningful adjustment of expectations.
c. Peer Appraisal: Employees in similar positions appraisal an employee’s performance. This method is based on the assumptions that co-workers are most familiar with an employee’s performance. Peer appraisal is often effective at focusing an employee’s attention on undesirable behaviors and motivating change.
d. Team Appraisal: Similar to peer appraisal in that members of a team, who may hold different positions, are asked to appraise each other’s work and work styles. This approach assumes that the team’s objectives and each member’s expected contribution have been clearly defined.
e. Assessment Center: The employee is appraised by professional assessors who may evaluate simulated or actual work activities. Objectivity is one advantage of assessment centers, which produce reviews that are not clouded by personal relationships with employees.
f. 360-Degree or “Full-Circle” Appraisal: The employee’s performance is appraised by everyone with whom he or she interacts, including managers, peers, customers and members of other departments. This is the most comprehensive and expensive way to measure performance and it is generally reserved for key employees.
g. MBO (Management by Objectives): The employee’s achievement of objective goals set in concert with his or her manager is assessed. The MBO process begins with action statements such as, “reduce rejected parts to 5 percent,” Ongoing monitoring and review of objectives keeps the employee focused on achieving goals. At the annual review, progress toward objectives is assessed, and new goals are set.
There are as many indicator of performance as there are companies and jobs. The various assessment methods can be used in combinations. It is important to choose indicators that align with your company’s goals and assessment methods that effectively appraise those indicators.
Human Resources Management in BESCOM:
Personnel/Human Resource of an undertaking is its important constituent. Efficiency, Profitability and in fact the very existence of the undertaking will depend on this constituents. Co-operation and dedication in performance on the part of its personnel ends in the accomplishment of its objectives. Therefore human resource is of immense importance since it involves matters such as identifying, placing, evaluating, and developing individuals at work and maintains effective communication systems. Human resources along with financial and material resources contribute to production of goods and services in an organization. In short HRM may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner.
2.2 Literature review
A literature review discusses published info in a particular area, and sometimes facts in a specific subject area within a certain time frame. A literature review could be simply a simple summary of the foundation, but it usually has an organizational design and combines both summaries.
Macky and Johnson (2000) pressed that the importance of performance management system is on continuously improving organization performance, and this is achieved by improved individual employee performance. Therefore, improving employee performance by using performance management system is a way to improve organization performance.
• Performance is associated with quality of output, quality of output, timeliness of output, presence/attendance on the job, efficiency of the work completed and effectiveness of work completed (Mathis and Jackson 2009).
• Employee performance may be taken in the perspective of three factors which makes possible to perform better than others, determinants of performance may be such as “declarative knowledge”, “procedural knowledge” and “motivation” (Mc Cloy et al., 1994). HR practices have positive impact on performance of individuals
• Inefficient communication is detrimental for managers, employees and organizations; it can lead to poor performance, strained interpersonal relations, poor service and dissatisfied customers. For an organization to be effective and gain a competitive advantage, managers at all levels need to be good communicators (George, 2011). George j., 2011 Cotemporary Management, McGraw- Hill Irwin.
• Employees are performing different jobs in an organization depending upon the nature of the organization. They mainly perform tasks like production, stages, manufacturing, transportation, marketing, purchasing, distribution, promotion of business, financing and accounting and public relations (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). Borman, W. C. and Motowidlo, S. J. (1997) Task Performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10(2): 99-109.
• According to Trahant (2008), Is operationally stated as the exchange of communication both informal and format between top hierarchy members and employees with an organization. In order words, it exists between leaders, managers and employees – or peer-to-peer, from leader-to-leader or employee-to-employees, for instance
• Beyerlein et al. (2003) states, it is management responsibility to align support systems in the strategic design so that employees can communicate their needs and frustrations, as this will keep an organization functioning effectively and make the most of people who are an organizations greatest resource Openness of communication has direct relationship with employee performance (Dwyer, 2005) Dwyer, J. (2005): Communication in business. (5nd ed.), French’s Forest: Prentice-Hall.
• Supportive communication from fellows has received some attention as a source of employee performance (Ducharme and Martin, 2000). It has been suggested that the persons who are involved in communication processes need to possess both basic skills and abilities, otherwise, the information could but missed to understand appropriately, and furthermore it depends on the facilities available in organizations and the actions of managers to see the acceptability of information in order to have an accurate deliverance (Chen, 2008) In the other hand, (Karatepe, Uludag, Menevis, Hadzimehmedagic ; Baddar, 2006) believes that employee’s self-efficacy, competitive and effort and effort were also found to have a significant positive effect on the job performance of employees serving as from liners.
• Past researchers on job performance such as (Jaramilloa, Mulki & Marshal, 2005; Al-Ahmadi, 2009) found several factors that can influence the employees job performance arranging from individual-related factors, organizational level factors as well as organizational environment factors. For instance, employee’s commitment has found to affect job performance.
• Myers and Myers (1982) defined organizational communication as “the central binding force that permits coordination among people and thus allows for organized behavior,”
• According to Hallway ; Phillips (1982), the workers productivity raises when there is connection within the organization. Besides a great many other things the communication within the business helps the employees to perform their tasks well, to have information regarding the duties they have to perform, and about the goals of the organization. They argue that existence of communication within the business lead to the effective decision making.
• Smidts, Pruyn, ; Riel (2001) define the employee connection as communication transaction within their study. They argues that employees who are up to date about organizational activities as goals and goals, new advancement and achievements can allow the organization’s members to develop such characteristics which differentiates it from other organization . They found that communication climate is a significant variable in the partnership between employee’s conversation and organizational identification. In their point of view having less communication within the organization affect the organizational decision making.
• According to Tayo and Olamigoke (2006) several social psychological theories have helped us to understand the kinds and levels of effects communication has on the employees. One of such theories is the individual differences theory. The theory posits that since individuals are biologically, psychological and physiologically different, they are not bound to react to message in a uniform way.
• According to Balyan (2012) the significance of how well and poorly workers do their job must be known by the supervisors and frank efforts should be put towards it. The people in charge of organization who oversees how well and badly workers do their job will be in position to develop and encourage people to dohttps://www.iacact.com/?q=commfwk.
• Akbar and Jahanzaib (2012) also noted that workers need to know and coordinate their work activities: but if message is not well transmitted to them or they do not interact with one another they comprehend the assignment which leads to confusion and to the job not being done or not completed well. Hence, poor information reduces employees performance
• Organization plan to improve individual member’s performance because of the effect it will have on the organizational performance. This is affected through the setting of clearly defined goals and standards. Provision of necessary resources, guidance and support from the individual employee’s manager (Edwina, 2006) The achievement of any organization is the function of how well or badly workers do their job in the organization; they may or may not relate with customers personally. An organization’s achievement is based on worker’s performance. Poor performance is damaging to organization’s achieving (Ruth 2014, Gabriel 2014)
• Communication at organizational degree helps to transfer organizational objectives and goals to employees and intra-organization groups. On the other hand, communication provides sharing organizational values and believes among employees (Demirel, 2009).
Demirel, Y., 2009. “Örgütsel Ba?l?l?k ve Üretkenlik Kar??t? Davran??lar Aras?ndaki ?li?kiye Kavramsal Yakla??m”, ?stanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8(15), pp. 115- 132.