Corruption

Corruption, which is defined as “the abuse of public power for private gain”, is taken as a universal social issue faced by all the countries in the world, which is more common in developing countries that need to fight (Altiner, 2016). Manjari (2017), mentions that corruption has become daily activity that people now are averse to thinking of public life with it. Transparency International (2014) considered corruption as a phenomenon that weakens government quality and efficiency of public policies and hinders the development of the country. Corruption has grown fast in every sphere of life, namely business administration, politics, and services (Suwan, 2011).
The diversity of corruption makes it complex and difficult concept to define (Keita, 2011). However, it is observed in the theoretical studies in which the factors contributing to corruption are researched that there exists a general acceptance that corruption is influenced by numerous factors (May, 2011). Corruption is a complex concept, which cannot be easily measured by just using a single variable and due to the fact that those who are involved in corruption are actively seeking to hide their behavior for fear of punishment, (Anti-Corruption Indicators 2017, http://www.pccb.go.tz/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/National-Anticurruption-Indicators-may-2017.pdf).
Corruption reached new heights, despite the introduction of the Anti-Corruption Commission (Gaomab II, 2005). Altiner (2016), says that to combat corruption, firstly, the factors that influence corruption must be identified. Corrupt behavior causes outrage to victims and civil society at large; it impedes good governance and administrative practice. The policy challenge in reducing corruption is to identify the component parts of behavior and the risk-reward profiles of offenders (Rajaei, 2016). Due to its complexity, corruption is hard to be measured, indices on corruption are usually based on surveys which capture the perceived level of corruption in a country, such as the TI Corruption Perception Index (CPI).
1.2 Problem statement
The ACC has over time developed and implemented mechanisms to address the problem of corruption in the country. According to Atuobi (2008) as cited in Genemo (2014), despite the numerous innovations in tackling corrupt practices in both the private and public sectors, the evils continues to manifest prominently in public procurement. Corruption is a universal cancer and a plague that invades all sectors of society both in developed and developing countries, though to different degrees (Atuobi, 2008) as cited in Genemo, 2014). So it is very helpful to check whether the corrupt act or behavior differ by demographic.
Corruption has been spreading like a disease all over Namibia as well as abroad and it has become one of the most speedily increasing social issues in the Namibian society (Gaomab II, 2005). The president of Namibia, Dr. Geingob (2018) declares an all-out war against poverty whereby corruption is acknowledged as number one factor that contributes to poverty in Namibia. To tackle this social issue, the proper measures must be in place. Fighting corruption, investigation of the individual’s differences in perceptions towards corruption of household’s sociodemographic characteristics is essential. In that respect, the policymakers and ACC need to know how the perception towards corruption differ by the household’s sociodemographic characteristics in the country. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine if perception on corruption differ by socio-demographic characteristics of households in Namibia.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The general objective of the study was to investigate whether there is a varying in the perceptions of Namibian households with different characteristics towards corruption. The specific objectives of the study were:
1. To examine whether household’s perceptions on corruption differ by gender.
2. To evaluate if household’s perceptions on corruption differ by household’s levels of income.
3. To assess if household’s perceptions on corruption differ by household’s age group.
1.4. Hypotheses
1. There is no difference in perceptions on corruption between males and females.
2. There is no difference in perceptions on corruption between age groups.
3. There is no difference in perceptions on corruption between levels of incomes.
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1.4 Scope of the study
The study focused on the perception of corruption and the socio-demographic factors affecting household’s perception of corruption in Namibia. The study examined the demographic factors affecting the perception of corruption and how these demographic factors related to the perception of corruption.
1.5 Significance of the study
Fighting corruption is not a one-time campaign. In the same way, without fighting corruption we cannot realize the expected dream of economic growth in Namibia. Consequently, despite the fact that very much is expected from Namibian households and that awareness about corruption is the only means to achieve this expectation, but little is known, about the differences in perceptions towards corruption by household’s sociodemographic characteristics. It is clear that corruption is committed by households and affect households too. Therefore, to fight corruption, examining the individual’s differences in perceptions towards corruption of households is important. Accordingly, this study will have the following significances:
? Serving as an input for policymakers and ACC Namibia to know the differences among households socio-demographic in perception on corruption for effectively educating the nation about corruption.
? Serving as a source of reference for others who would like to know more about the differences in perceptions towards corruption of households socio-demographic
? It may also serve as a commencing for further studies in the area.
1.6 Limitation of the study
Since this topic is a very sensitive topic, the information about it is confidential; hence, insufficient data on the topic. Firstly, this study used secondary data, which is collected for the other purpose; thus they may not respond to the objectives of the study. Secondly, the research was only done in two months, which was not enough for the researcher to review the reasonable quantum of literature done on the study. Thirdly, even if time was sufficient, publications on the subject matter are limited. The absence of previous studies concerning our country has made this study to start almost from scratch.

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