Counterproductive work behaviors

Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) can be defined as any volitional acts by employees that potentially violate the legitimate interests of, or do harm to, an organization or its stakeholders (Bernd, O. Anita , Stephanie, Alexandra , & Oliver , 2013). Any employee behavior that goes against the goals and interests of a business are consider as a counterproductive work behavior. Counterproductive work behaviors come in many different forms such as theft, destruction of property, misuse of information, misuse of time and resources, unsafe behavior (workplace bullying), poor attendance, poor-quality work, alcohol and drug use, inappropriate verbal action and physical action (sexual harassment). It has a wide ranges from minor offences such as stealing a pen to serious offences such as embezzling millions from an organization. Employees who has the these types of behavior not only bring affect on the quality of work produced but also can negatively affect the product. Employee who engages in one act of counterproductive work behavior is also more likely to engage in other counterproductive behaviors.
The problem identify from counterproductive work behavior is that unsatisfied employees are more likely to engage in CWB (Dr. Muhammad , Dr. Mohsin , & Naveed , 2017). Unsatisfied employees are tending to break rules, take long breaks and work slowly etc. Decreasing counterproductive work behavior should be the focus of management in organization in order to maintain and improve the performance of employees and improve the motivation level of employees. Thus, the issues arise due to the counterproductive work behaviors of the employees will be overcoming. Job satisfaction is a pleasantly emotional which state that results from the appraisal of one’s job experiences. On the other hand, job dissatisfaction is an opposite concept which an employee has an unfavorable feeling towards their job situations. Job dissatisfaction is a form of negative emotional reaction of an employee towards their own job and it is most commonly recognized as employee feels unhappy in their working. Employee will have less motivation to work and become unproductive because of the job dissatisfaction. In addition, employees who are highly dissatisfied at work are more likely to engage in counterproductive work behavior to express their resentful.
Counterproductive work behaviors such as work overload and abusive supervision will impact the organization to be low productivity, lost or damage property and decreased turnover (Egheosase ; Callistus , 2017). Work overload refers to too much responsibilities are given to an individuals in the organizational setting.It might likewise refer to a circumstance whereby the organizational resources are grossly insufficient to effectively execute organizational orders for acknowledgment of organizational goals. Abusive supervision describes the threatening activities of managers toward their subordinates. When subordinates are mishandled by their supervisors, they look to coworkers and their unions for support. These types of behavior will bring negative impact to the organization because employees play an important role in helping organization to grow rapidly. For example, if employees are abuse by their supervisors which given them many work to do and no time for break, they will feel stress and unhappy with their job. Thus , the productivity and turnover of the organization will be affected.
Furthermore, personal factors and human resource factors also influences the likelihood of an employee engaging in CWB. The employees who has a higher level of conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness and agreeableness are less likely to involve in activities that may harm other employees and the organization. This is because they will have attributions about the causes of outcomes. Based on the theory of attributions, different individual has different personality factors which will determine whether the individuals will engage counterproductive work behavior or not. The employees who are high on sensitive emotion will experience high levels of distressing emotions such as anger, disappointment, fear, hostility, and anxiety when confronted with stressful conditions. This is because these employees are more likely dissatisfied with themselves or their working environments, interpret the conditions as irritating and undermining, perceive disequilibrium and may view negative outcomes as permanent and stable.
Moreover, counterproductive work behaviors displayed by cabin crew can cause deviations in the service processes resulting in a decrease in airline efficiency and productivity (K. Gülnaz ; Prof. Nalan , 2017). Service is an activities which involve face-to-face communication with others. In the air transportation field, the cabin crew employee group has the longest interaction with passengers while on the airplane. Thus, they have a crucial importance on the perception of service quality. Counterproductive work behavior may cause the cabin crew to have low job motivation and performance, which directly affects the quality of service. Furthermore, cabin service involves teamwork, so it is not possible for a cabin crew member to work individually. Besides that, individuals who score highly on self-centered impulsivity (SCI) should be more likely to engage in Counterproductive work behavior (Nora Schütte, Rachel , Andreas , ; Ingo , 2015). The self-centered impulsivity (SCI) component of psychopathic personality shows that such individual are excite looking for, lacking determination, and unconcerned with deadlines or responsibilities. As a function of this impulsivity and irresponsibility, individuals with exalted self-centered impulsivity often pursue means to satisfy their immediate needs. Moreover, such individuals always blame others for what comes to pass for them; they won’t think their actions and struggle to forge meaningful, lasting relationships with others.

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