Crusades; Series of wars during which Christians tried to recapture the Holy Land from Muslims
2. Archaeologist; Scientists who study objects used by early humans
3. Muhammad; Prophet of Islam
4. Polis; Greek word for city-state
5. Confucius; Mali ruler who made Timbuktu a center of Islamic thought
6. Charlemagne; Greatest Frankish king
7. Pax romana; Period of Roman Peace
8. Cuneiform; Sumerian form of writing
9. Kiva; Underground chamber used for Anasazi religious ceremonies
10. Confucius; Leading philosopher during China’s Zhou dynasty
11. Icons; Religious images considered holy by Byzantines
12. Shogun; Top general who was the real power in medieval Japan
13.Identify What four river valleys became important during the rise of civilization? Answer ; The nile river the euphrates river the indus river and the yellow river
14.Summarize Describe three states that dominated Mesopotamia.
15. Elaborate How did the rise of Hinduism affect ancient India?
Answer; hinduism caused a lot of oppression and decreased the amount of religious tolerance in the country.
16. What was one difference between the governments of Athens and Sparta? answer;They are different because Athens was a democracy and Sparta was a strictly-ruled military state.
17.Why was the Arabic language important for the Muslim caliphate?
Answer; The language is very important in islam, because Muslims believe that Allah (God) used it to talk to Muhammad through the Archangel Gabriel (Jibril), giving him the Quran in arabic
18.How were trade routes influential in West Africa? in East Africa?
Answer; East: Arabic plus Bantu – Swahili language, cities grow, luxurious upper class life with luxury goods, Muslim sultans rule cities, Islamic law and literacy, slavery for trade, tax on traders leads to wealthy city states. West: kingdoms rich through tax on trade goods, market towns and cities, officials preside over trade, control of trade routes leads to powerful bureaucracy unified through infrastructure, mosques, Qur’an study, literacy, Islamic law
19.In addition to the feudal system, what system shaped the economic structure of Europe during the Middle Ages?
Answer; Manorialism, also called manorial system, seignorialism, or seigneurial system, political, economic, and social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe Were rendered dependent on their land and on their lord.
20.How did the Black Death affect life in Europe during the High Middle Ages?
Answer; the Feudal system that had previously dominated Europe begins to collapse.
21.Renaissance; A name of the time periods between 14th century to the 17th century.
22.Humanism; The term is applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm during the renaissance period.
23.Leonardo da Vinci; a painter, architect, inventor, and student of all things scientific.
24.Johannes Gutenberg; a german blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.
25.Albrecht Dürer; introduced classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of italian artist and german humanist
26.William Shakespeare;Influenced that period of time through his writings.
27.Protestant Reformation; a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
28.Martin Luther; protested the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church. He wrote his 95 Theses mainly to protest them. When Luther would not change his mind the Pope reacted by excommunicating him.
29.Indulgences; a method to reduce the amount of punishment one must undergo for his or her sins.
30.Henry VIII
31.Catholic Reformation;
32.Council of Trent;


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