“DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FOOTSTEP POWER GENERATOR” By Aman Singh

“DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FOOTSTEP POWER GENERATOR”

By
Aman Singh (140260119149)
Asif Shaikh (140260119146)
Harsh Nayi (130260119053)

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GTU 8th Semester (Jan-April 2018)
Institute Guide:
Prof. Ashvin Suthar
A Project Report Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
the Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (19)

APRIL-2018

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kalol Institute of Technology & Research center (026)
KIRC Campus, Ahmadabad – Mehsana Highway,
Kalol-382721 Dist: Gadhinagar (N.G.)

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly we would like to thank god to do our project work. I want to thank our college for giving us an opportunity to commence this project in first intense to so the necessary work & to use department data. We also thank all the teaching staff & non teaching staff for nice cooperation to the all B.E Student of Mechanical Department & also our Internal guide Prof. Ashvin Suthar for helping us and guide us in our project.
We are especially thankful to our classmates & students of Kalol Institute of Engineering & Research Centre for their help in our project work.

Thanking You,

Aman Singh
Asif Shaikh
Harshh Nayi

ABSTRACT

In this footstep power generator project we are producing electricity by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. This project is about generating electricity as non-conventional method just by simply walking or running on the platform of train, bus, planes, etc. in the footstep. Nowadays, non-conventional energy system is a very basic necessary to our country. By using non-conventional energy as footsteps, there is no need of fuel input power to generate the output as electricity. However, this project is using simple drive mechanism such as rock and pinion assemble and chain drive mechanism.
The control mechanism acquired the rack and pinion, D.C generator, battery and inverter control. According to this project is implemented to all the footstep, the power generation is very high. As a matter of fact, if we are able to design a power generating system that can produce 100w in 12 steps, then for 120 steps it can produce 1000w, thereafter if we can install such type of 100 floors with this system then it can produce 1Megawatt. The initial cost of this project is very high.

(ATTACH INDIVIDUAL CERTIFICATES, PAPER PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE, DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY & PROJECT APPROVAL)

INDEX
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Problem Summary 03
1.2 Introduction 04
1.3 Footstep Power Generator(FPG)
1.3.1 Working Principles of FPG 04-05
1.4 Parameters of FPG 05
1.5 Advantages of FPG 06
1.6 Future of FPG 06
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review 07
2.2 Summary of Literature Review 07-08
CHAPTER 3: AFPM & WORKING PROCESS
3.1 FPMG& It’s Components
3.1.1 Major Components of FPG 09-10
3.2 Characteristics of FPG Components 11-12
3.3 Crucial Steps Before Operation 13-14
3.4 Working of FPG 15-16
3.5 Methodology 17-18
3.6 Applications of FPG 19
CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
4.1 Introduction to Experimental Setup 20
4.2 Independent ; Dependent Variables 21-22
4.3 Experiment Tables 23
4.4 Conclusions 24
CHAPTER 5: ERGONOMICS ; ECONOMICS OF AFPM
5.1 Introduction 26
5.2 Overall Cost Reduction 27
5.3 Marketing Strategy 27

References 28
Abbrevation List 29

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem Summary

In this project a gear system is attached with a flywheel which causes to rotate the dynamo as the tile on the deck is pressed. The power that is created is saved in batteries. In addition we will be able to monitor and control the amount of electricity generated. As technology is developed use of electronics equipments also increased. Conventional methods of power generation becoming insufficient. It introduced a new problem, lack of power. There is a need arises for an alternative power generation method. At the same time energy is wasted in many form and one of them is due to the human locomotion

1.2 Introduction

Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and well
being ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Primitive man required
energy primarily in the form of food. He derived this by eating plants or animals, which
he hunted. Subsequently he discovered fire and his energy needs increased as he started
to make use of wood and other bio mass to supply the energy needs for cooking as well
as for keeping himself warm.

With the passage of time, man started to cultivate land for agriculture. He added a new
dimension to the use of energy by domesticating and training animals to work for him.
With further demand for energy, man began to use the wind for sailing ships and
for driving windmills, and the force of falling water to turn water for sailing ships and
for driving windmills, and the force of falling water to turn water wheels. Till this time,
it would not be wrong to say that the sun was supplying all the energy needs of man
either directly or indirectly and that man was using only renewable sources of energy.

1.3 Footstep Power Generator(FPG)

As shown in the figure, this is the footstep power generator model. Our model is kindly different from it but process is same.

FPG consists of;
• Gear
• Rack and Pinion
• Sheet Metal
• Spring
• Shaft
• Dynamometer

In this FPG the load on the top plate will directly go through the downwards direction in which the rack and pinion helps to rotate the shaft along with the gears connected to it, which make the energy pass mto the dynamometer which converts the energy into mechanical energy which we can measure and generate the electricity where it needs the most.

1.3.1 Working Principles of FPG

In this footstep power generator the L shapes window is inclined in certain small angle which is used to power. Thus, pushing power is converted into electrical energy by proper driving arrangement.
The rack and pinion, spring arrangement is fixed at the Footstep which is mounted below the L shapes window. The spring is used to return the inclined L shapes window in same position by releasing the load. The pinion shaft is connected to supporters at end bearings. The larger sprocket also coupled with the pinion shaft, so that it is running the same speed of pinion. The larger sprocket is coupled to the small cycle sprocket with the help of chain(cycle). This larger sprocket is used to transfer the rotation force to the smaller sprocket. The smaller sprocket is running same direction for the forward and reverse direction of rotational movement of the larger sprocket. This action looks like a cycle pedaling action.
The flywheel and gear wheel is also coupled to the smaller sprocket shaft. The flywheel is used to increase the rpm of the smaller sprocket shaft. The gear wheel is coupled to the generator shaft with the help of another gear wheel. The generator is used here is permanent D.C generator. The generated voltage is 12Volt D.C. This D.C voltage is stored to the Lead-acid 12 volt battery. The battery is connected to the inverter. This inverter is used to convert the 12 volt D.C to the 230 volt A.C. This 230 volt A.C voltage is used to activate the light, fan and etc. By increasing the capacity of battery and inverter circuit, the power rating is increased. This arrangement is fitted in Foot Steps; the complete arrangement is kept inside the floor level except the arrangement.

1.4 PARAMETERS OF FPG

Parameters Associated with FPG are as below:
To design and develop the model of footstep power generator. It is fabricate the model which will work for the system for the required applications. This project is use to generate the maximum power electricity without any external source or needs.
In this project we are converting Mechanical energy into Electrical energy. We are trying to utilize the wasted energy in a useful way. By using Rack and Pinion arrangement we are converting to and fro motion of the steps into rotational motion of the dynamo. In first foot step we are using rack and pinion arrangement directly to rotate the dynamo. But in second step we are using chain drive mechanism to obtain better efficiency. Through Dynamo the rotational energy is converted into electrical energy. This electrical energy output will be shown by glowing the LEDs. The output power is expected to be 3 to 4V in prototype.

1.6 ADVANTAGES OF FPG

• Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy is easy.
• Maintenance cost is low.
• There is no any use of fuel.
• Free from all types of pollution.
• Its construction is simple

1.7 FUTURE OF FPG
In future, we can improve power output by arranging more differently electricity generating technology. Improvement in structural frame will also increase output power. By using automation, we may improve its effenciency.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Literature Review
RESEARCHER: Alla Chandra Sekhar1, B Murali Kishore2, T jogi Raju3
Method such as burning of coal, wood, diesel (generators) etc is continuously depleting our natural resources such as fossil fuels, which is the demand for power has exceed the supply due to the rising population.
In addition to this the traditional methods cause pollution, Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth’s near surface air and Oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation.

Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 20052. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the increase since the mid-twentieth century is “very likely” due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.Natural phenomena such as solar variation combined with volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect from 19502 onward.

In nothen New Jersey, the Delaware, Lackawanna & western chose a 3,000- V DC overhead wire system for its 1930-31 electrification of what are now known as the Morris & Essex lines of New Jersey Transit (NJT).19 This installation as fully adequate then, but faced the prospect of major renewal as it aged. NJT replaced the original system with a nominal 25-000-V AC, 60-Hz system in 1984.20 The 25,000-V specification was chosen to facilate access to New York’s Penn Station (through service began in1996) in anticipation of Amtrak converting its Northeast Corridor to 25,000 V, although that plan was cancelled for cost reasons in 1979, by which point New Jersey’s re electrification work was already underway. The re electrified system meets NJT’s needs, and was extended be yond Bay Street, Montclair to Montclair State University in 2002. The Ne w York Central began electric operation on its Hudson and Harlem Lines serving Grand Central Terminal in 1906.20. The step mechanism adopted an unusual variant of third-steptechnology whereby the pickup shoes ran beneath rather than atop the third step. Although this system was costlier to build and maintain, the step mechanism sought to avoid the potential effects of icing on third-step conductivity.

2.2 Summary of Literature Review

In the review, research papers of power generation are referred and studied. Some of the reviews are as follow, Siba brata Mohanty , Sasank shekhar Panda ensure proper operation that meets the performance requirement, for this they determine the voltage the micro-generator can generate from various rotation speeds. This can be done by using a motor to drive the generator and using multi meter to measure the voltage. At the same time we will need to use sensors to determine the rotation speed of our gears and flywheel and adjust them in order to obtain optimum speed. Determine the capacitance and number of capacitors we will use for the storage. An oscilloscope can be used to see how long does average traffic charges up different capacitors.
Alla Chandra Sekhar1, B Murali Kishore have aim of this project is to develop much cleaner cost effective way of power generation method, which in turns helps to bring down the global warming as well as reduce the power shortages In this paper they are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the foot step.

Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. Nonconventional energy using foot step is converting mechanical energy into the electrical energy. This paper uses electromagnetic induction principle. In this paper the pressure energy is converted into electrical energy. The control mechanism carries the copper coil and bar magnetic which is used to generate voltage, a rechargeable battery is used to store this generated voltage Shiraz Afzal, Farrukh hafeez has given a same approach as was anticipated by Tom jose but different mechanism is proposed. In this paper a gear system is attached with flywheel which causes to rotate the dynamo as the tile on the deck is pressed The power that is created is saved in the batteries In addition they will be able to monitor and control the amount of electricity generated. When an individual passes it push the tile on the ground surface which turn the shaft beneath the tile, turn is limited by clutch bearing which is underpinned by holders. Primary shaft is rotate approx. twice by a single tile push. The movement of the prevailing shaft turn the gearbox shaft which builds it 15 times (1:15) then its movement is smoothen by the help of fly wheel which temporary store the movement, which is convey to the DC generator ( it generates 12V 40 amp at 1000 rpm).

CHAPTER 3: FPG ; WORKING PROCESSES

3.1 FPG ; It’s Components
Footstep power generator is a machine which converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. FPG diagram and specifications are s below:

3.1.1 Components of FPG:
• Return Spring
• Rack and Pinion
• Gear
• Shaft
• Dynamometer
• Battery

3.1.2 Specifications of Components:

SPRING:
In this machine the main part is of the spring which allows go upside down in the system. When the load exceeds on the plate the springs take the load of that person or object and allow the rack and pinion to work the system and when the load remove from the plate the spring allows the plate to back to its position.

RACK AND PINION:
The project is concerned with generation of electricity from speed breakers-like set up. The load will acted upon the step & further the load will transmitted to rack and pinion arrangements. Here the reciprocating motion of the step is converted into rotary motion using the rack and pinion arrangement. The axis of the pinion is coupled with the gear arrangement.

The gear arrangement is made of two gears. One of larger size and the other of smaller size. Both the gears are connected which serves in transmitting power from the larger gear to the smaller gear. As the power is transmitted from the larger gear to the smaller gear, the speed that is available at the larger gear is relatively multiplied at the rotation of the smaller gear.

GEAR:
This project is more concerned about the gears which is connected through pinion. The rotation of pinion decides the rotation of gears and at which speed. The pinion rotates the shaft alongside with him, which shaft rotates with gears or vice or versa. The lower gear is connected through dynamometer which gives all the energy to it.

SHAFT:
This horizontal part is connected to pinion and gears which allows the rotation and the motion of model. The heavier the weight the fast the shaft rotates alongside it have key which allow to rotate the pinion and gears.

DYNAMOMETER:
This device is connected in the last stage of the project. It is connected to the lower gear which gives all the mechanical energy to it. Dynamometer collects all the mechanical energy in it and convert it in electrical energy.

BATTERY:
Battery is connected to the end of the machine through the dynamometer. In which all electrical energy coming in stores in it and then supply to the electrical device like laptop, lights, machine etc.

3.3 Crucial Steps to be taken before operation:

Before listing the working process, there are several point which we will like to discuss below:
The operation of step arrangement is used for generating the electricity. When any person is pass over the step then the human load acted upon the step and the load will transmitted to rack and pinion arrangement.

The operational setup of load exceeding is the main part which we are more concerned about it, and the arrangement is take place with respect to it. The machine will be made as per the maximum load will be put on it and nothing will happen to it.

Hear the reciprocating motion of the step is converted into rotary motion using the rack and pinion arrangement. The axis of the pinion is couple with the shaft so shaft is also rotate then big gear is rotate which is mounted on shaft and it is attached with small gear. When big gear complete one rotation then small gear complete then one rotation so we got more rotation by the small gear and shaft is attached with D.C Generator with the help of the pulleys when pulley moves then the shaft of DC Generator is rotate.

The phenomena of DC Generator which convert the mechanical energy into the electrical energy and this energy are store in battery and it attached with light load.

This mechanism of generating the electricity can be placed on the railway stations. The power is generated when people pass through it. which is stored in the battery. This power can be used in many places such as malls college etc. after using the inverter.

3.4 Working of FPG:

In this setup mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy using a D.C. generator. Here the vertical motion of the top of the rack is converted into the rotationalmotion, which rotates the shaft of generator and generates electricity. This set up requires very basic mechanical components such as gear shaft bearing.
There are also some electrical components such as battery, inverter etc.

The complete diagram of the power generation using foot step is given
below. L-shapes window is inclined in certain small angle which is used to generate the
power. The pushing power is converted into electrical energy by proper driving
arrangement.

The rack & pinion, spring arrangement is fixed at the foot step which is
mounded bellow the L-shapes window. The spring is used to return the inclined Lshapes
window in same position by releasing the load. The pinion shaft is connected to
the supporter by end bearings as shown in fig. The larger sprocket also coupled with the
pinion shaft, so that it is running the same speed of pinion. The larger sprocket is
coupled to the small cycle sprocket with the help of chain (cycle).

This larger sprocket is used to transfer the rotation force to the smaller sprocket.
The smaller sprocket is running same direction for the forward and reverse direction of
rotational movement of the larger sprocket. This action locks like a cycle pedaling
action.

The fly wheel and gear wheel is also coupled to the smaller sprocket shaft. The
flywheel is used to increase the rpm of the smaller sprocket shaft. The gear wheel is
coupled to the generator shaft with the help of another gear wheel. The generator is used
here, is permanent magnet D.C generator. The generated voltage is 12Volt D.C. This
D.C voltage is stored to the Lead-acid 12 Volt battery. The battery is connected to the
inverter. This inverter is used to convert the 12 Volt D.C to the 230 Volt A.C. This
working principle is already explained the above chapter. This 230 Volt A.C voltage is
used to activate the light, fan and etc.

By increasing the capacity of battery and inverter circuit, the power rating is
increased. This arrangement is fitted in foot steps; the complete arrangement is kept
inside the floor level except the pushing arrangement.

3.5 Methodology:

In this project a gear system is attached with flywheel which causes to rotate the dynamo as the title on deck is pressed. The power that is created is saved in the batteries. In addition we will be able to control and monitor the amount of electricity generated.
The working of footstep power generator system invades three distinct phases, sensor interphase and transducing; consist array of piezoelectrical sensor. Kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy processing: Here the generated degraded vibrating voltage will be fed to different blocks of circuit element to get a proper output.
When an individual passes it push the title on the ground surface which turn the shaft beneath the title, turn is limited by clutch bearing which is underpinned by holders. Primary shaft is rotate approx. twice by a single tile push. The movement of the prevailing shaft turn the gearbox shaft which builds it 15 times (1:15) then its movement is smoothen by the help of fly wheel which temporary store the movement, which is convey to the DC generator ( it generates 12V 40 amp at 1000 rpm).

3.5.1 OUTPUT POWER CALCULATION

Let us consider,
The mass of a body = 60 Kg (Approximately)
Height of speed brake = 10 cm

? Work done = Force x Distance
Here,
Force = Weight of the Body
= 60 Kg x 9.81
= 588.6 N
Distance traveled by the body = Height of the speed brake
= 10 cm

= 0.10 m
? Output power = Work done/Sec
= (588.6 x 0.10)/60
= 0.98 Watts
(For One pushing force)

However, this much power produced, it cannot be tapped fully. From the above
purpose we have select to generate electricity by permanent magnet type D.C generator
and store it by 12V lead-acid battery cell.

3.6 Application of FPG:
FPG can be useful in many fields. Some of them are listed below.

• This can be implemented on railway station to generate elec-tric power.
• In bus station.
• In car parking system.
• In Airports.
• In Lift system.
• In car lifting system.
• In street lights
• Electric escalators

CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

4.1 Introduction
This manuscript decribes about generating the electrical energy by using the weight energy, one can simply shocks by knowing how much energy a person can have by simp-ly walking on the floor with a normal speed. as people’s steps (thousands upon thousands a day) utilize and channel kinetic energy too. Whenever a person walks, manages to lose energy towards the floor by means of influence, vibration, and audio and so on, a result of the move of excess weight to the floor. That energy may be used and converted into electrical energy.The actual electro-kinetic floor is really an approach to making electrical energy by using the kinetic energy of the person who walks on the floor.
The power floor is not like traditional floor. The energy produced by this floor will be environment friendly without having smog. Producing this type of energy will be cost effec-tive also.The power floor does not need any fuel or perhaps any sort of energy resource, simply making use of kinetic energy. Based upon your excess weight from a person moving on the floor.

4.2 Independent ; Dependent Variables
Variables: Variable is any term in a scientific system which is not consistent or is liable to change. There are two types of variables;

4.2.1 Independent Variables:
Independent Variables are the variable which can be manipulated. Basically it is what we can change in the scientific method to check the outcome or result.

D.C Generator: The electrical generator is an instrument, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. According to faraday’s 21law of Electromagnetic induction, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction isgiven by Fleming’s left hand rule.22
• DC generator capacity : 12V

Battery: An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative28-30 terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.24
• Battery capacity: 12V, 1.3Ah.
• This is chargeable one
• Battery charging time: 20min.
• Working condition: 2hours.

External Load: Sometimes load can vary on the steel, sometimes two or three loads can be loaded on the object so the amount of load carrying by the shaft in the machine is directly conserving by the dynamometer and it stores the energy in it, whenever the energy required it gives it to the source by converting into electrical energy.

4.2.2 Dependent Variables: Dependent Variables are affected by changing or manipulating Independent Variables.

Productivity: Productivity is highly affected by changing the independent variables and parameters.

Durability: Durability is the time span until which FPG can sustain its life. This is changed by changing some factors like Power Consumption and motor R.P.M

Cost: Cost Increases as the power consumption increases. But it can be balanced by having good productivity.

Maintenance: Yes Maintenance is affected but it is also necessary for any machine. Also some factors can be changed which can minimize the maintenance like changing parts and all.

Thus, this all are variables ; now we are ready to do an experiment.

4.3 Experimental Setup ; Tables:

No. Name of the Components Specification
1 Motor 1-Voltage:10 volt
2-Type:D.C. Generator
3-RPM:1000 rpm
2 Gear 1-Mild Steel
2-No. of teeth:59(big gear)
3-No. of teeth:36(small gear)
4-Type:Spur Gear
5-No. of gear used:2
3 Spring 1-Load bearing capacity:60-90 kg
2-Mild Steel
3-Total displacement:5 inch
4 Bearing 1-Type: Ball bearing
2-Bearing no.N35
5 Shaft 1-Diameter: 15 mm
2-Material: Mild steel
3-Length: 390 mm

4.4 Conclusions:

In concluding the words of our project, since the power generation using foot step get its energy requirements from the Non-renewable source of energy. There is no need of power from the mains and there is less pollution in this source of energy. It is very useful to the places all roads and as well as all kind of footstep which is used to generate the non conventional energy like electricity.

It is able to extend this project by using same arrangement and construct in the footsteps/speed breaker so that increase the power production rate by fixing school and colleges, highways, stations, etc.

CHAPTER 5: ERGONOMICS ; ECONOMICS OF FPG

5.1 Ergonomics: Ergonomics is the study of people’s efficiency with the working environment of machine (here FPG)

We have to project several problems that might be faced by people while using FPG and find solution for it. Some of them are below;

1. User Interface of FPG

In India, as mostly goverment will make use of this machine, they will find it difficult to operate at first instance. So, we will try to make user interface as simple as possible and also regional languages will be taken into consideration while designing the user interface.

Also, it is better to include GUIDE or MANUAL BOOK with FPG. It will be so helpful for farmers and other people too.

2. Maintenance Centre

We will try to provide maintenance centre for repairing work as well as an inquiry number for the users.

Thus, this are some points we will take in mind so to improve the Ergonomics.

5.2 Overall Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction is an important factor for the success of FPG. Because small entreprenuers don’t invest much money into this type of machines. So it is important to keep the cost of FPG as reliable as possible.

For this we have declared some points:

? Making the machine compact as possible will itself reduce the cost of the FPG. Also compact size is more preferred for FPG.
? Choosing Plastic Material wherever it suits best will reduce the cost because plastic is cheaper than all metals. Like plastic can be used while designing user interface.

There are many such points which will be taken into consideration.

5.3 Marketing Strategy

Several Points ; Plans have been decided for Marketing FPG.

? Patching up with government itself is a great marketing value for FPG. Because small investors and people tend to believe more on Government than any other sponserships.
Also, FPG has good properties for patching it with government schemes.
? Advertising: We have planned to advertise our FPG on Regional Magazines about Farming and News Papers.
? Spreading Awareness: We will try to spread awareness about the problems that can be cause by scarcity of water and electricity, that this FPG can heal up the problems in this water and electricity.

Thus this are some marketing strategies.
References:
1 RAI. G.D. “NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES”, KHANNA PUBLISHERS, DELHI.
2 RAMESH. R, UDAYA KUMAR, K.ANANDAKRISHNAN “RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES”, NAROSA PUBLISHING HOUSE, MADRAS.
3 A.K.SAWHNEY. “A TEXT BOOK OF ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONICS, INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS”
4 B.L.THERJA, A.K. THERAJA. “A TEXT BOOK OF ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY”
5 G.R.NAGPAL. “POWER PLANT ENGINEERING” KHANNA PUBLISHERS, DELHI.
6 T.NEJAT VEZIROYGAL, ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES-III, HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING CO.,
7 BARBARA KEILER, ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, LUSCENTR BOOKS.
8 PRABHU T.J. FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINES DESIGN, 2009
9 DESIGN DATA, PSG COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, 2007
10 BHANDARI V.B. “DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS”- TATA MCGRAW HILL, 2007
11 SHIGLEY J.E. AND MISHEKA “MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN”MCGRAW HILL, 2007
12 PANDYA AND SHAH “ELEMENTS OF MACHINES DESIGN”, 2000
13 MAITRA, HANDBOOK OF GEAR DESIGN,TATA MCGRAW HILL,1995
14 GERE TIMOSHENKO “MECHANICS OF MATERIALS”CBS, 1997.

Abbreviations:

? FPG = Footstep Power Generator
? RPM = Rotation Per Minute
? RL = Load Resistance
? ADC = Alternating to Direct Current Convertor

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