Each year

Each year, more than one hundred million animals are killed in U.S laboratories for educational purposes and cosmetic, chemical, and drug testings. The testing animals vary from domestic pets to exotic animals. The animals are taken from their normal living conditions to laboratories and have continuous torture conducted on them. The experimented animals are forced to test potentially toxic chemicals, dissected for educations, and are tortured to death. The effect from a chemical on an animal is not always the same on a human.
Animals are in dull, stressful, and abnormal conditions every day. They are confined and deprived of their normal living conditions. The experiments done on them can lead to prolonging injuries and death. Millions of animals are used in laboratories for biomedical experiments, cosmetic testings, and education purposes. A majority of animals used in testings are rats, mice, and birds. Other animals include dogs, cats, ferrets, rabbits, pigs, sheep, monkeys, chimpanzees, etc. The animals are forced to test new drugs and poison in toxicity testing. The researchers have implanted electrodes into the brains of the testing animals. They are also infected with diseases, burned skin, brain damaged, blinded, maimed, and many other painful experiments. The experiments can have long-term effects of major suffering on the animals. The effects include social isolation, electric shock, prohibiting food and water, and continuous breeding and separation of infants from their mothers. The animals in the toxicity testing are given the substance daily with little to no recovery time. Most animals die before the end of the study. If the animal does not die before the end of the study, they can be killed when the study is finished.
A majority of the experiments have a restraining device to stop the animal from moving. In one research study, the university use rats and mice as the test subjects. The rats and mice were in a tube, shocked by their feet, suspended by their tails, and forced to swim. The researchers said the experiments related to human depression and anxiety. Sometimes the animal is restrained for months at a time. The procedures of anesthetization, intubation, and euthanasia can cause extreme pain and discomfort if performed improperly. If the animal is given the paralyzing agent and not monitored properly, they could actually be in extreme pain. The leading cause of death to animals in laboratories is xenotransplantation, which is when an organ or tissue is removed from one species and transferred to a new species. Genetic engineering takes and destroys animals in an attempt to create specific traits. Many of the animals suffer and die from the abnormalities and diseases from the genetic engineering.
Animals are stuck in cages and are unable to live how they naturally should. Most animals never see the sun or smell the fresh air. Small, crowded cages, loud noises, and bright lights can all cause stress on an animal. The animal can end up showing the physical effects of stress. Several studies have shown that mice can become more stressed if they see other mice in distress. Another research done on chimpanzees explains the lasting effect of living in labs. The chimps were spinning around in their cages, biting open wounds, mutilating themselves, and ripping out their hair. The animals living in confinement become bored, suffer from fear, and continuous emotional stress.
The Animal Welfare Act, AWA, is the only act for animals that covers their protection minimally. The Public Health Service excludes rats, mice, and birds to be bred in laboratories for research. The laws for animals do not help the animals when it comes to experiments. It does not matter what kind of pain, or the amount it causes to the animal, it will not help them in any way. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, IACUC, allows a majority of the experiments to be done, no matter of the pain and suffering it causes to the animal.
The animals are put through the procedures without pain medication. The researchers’ reports on the experiments do not report the amount of pain and stress that is caused to the animal. Pain relief can be held back if the researcher thinks it will interfere with the outcome of the experiment.
The newborn lamb that was left alone was part of an experiment to create a stronger and profitable sheep. The lamb was left without a mother, shelter, and starving. The death was allowed to happen as the scientists wanted to create a stronger breed of sheep. The experiment was to leave lambs alone so they can fend for themselves at an attempt to breed an easier care sheep. Another experiment done to farm animals is that pigs were forced into steam chambers for scientists to study the appetites. At the farm in Nebraska, thousands of animals were allowed to be starved to death. The Animal Welfare in Agricultural Research Endeavors Act, AWARE, introduced a bill that absolved he use of farm animals in experimentation.
The FDA and several other U.S government groups support the idea of alternative toxicology and chemical testing, The FDA is supposed to make sure that cosmetics are properly labeled and safe to use for customers. The act does not require animals to be used in testing but suggests to the cosmetic company to use whatever testing they need to use to make sure the chemical is safe. Companies say animal testing is necessary to use to test the products to make sure they are safe before marketing. The FDA wants the most amount of scientific information with the smallest amount of animals used. The FDA also supports the Animal Welfare Act and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The FDA supports the use of alternative testing and the humane way of testing.
The new ways of testing are supposed to be safer for humans and for animals. The FDA’s goal of the new advanced testing is to replace animal testing completely. One method for replacing animals in toxicity testing of drugs and chemicals is the organs-on-chips method. This method provides the safety of animals and the more protection for human health. The organs-on-chips is supposed to be accurate with the physiology and mechanical experiences on a cell in the human body. The flexibility of the chip allows breathing motions and muscle contractions. The chip is transparent, which allows researchers to see the organs function, behavior, response, and molecular levels of the cell as it is being tested with the drug or chemical. The chips can be connected together for researchers to compare the effects on the cells from the different chemicals or drugs. A variety of tools and instruments are used to examine the effect of the chemical.
The horrific testings the lab animals have to go through are changing from new ways of testing. The alternative testing methods for cosmetics can not only be cost-effective for the companies but can also lead a quicker and higher accuracy rate than when testing animals. Two new methods created are artificial tissue testing and test tube testing. The tissue is grown in a laboratory and provides better results on skin irritation on a human than it would on an animal. The method of test tube testing keeps animals from being poisoned to differentiate toxic from non-toxic ingredients.
Rabbits, hamsters, mice, and other lab animals are forced to breathe in poisonous chemicals, have the chemicals poured into their eyes, and have it rubbed into their skin. No pain relief is given to the animals before the testing happens. The lab animals will eventually die from the testings in cosmetics. Animal testing is said to be outdated and does not provide reliable results for the chemical that was tested. The effect it has on an animal can differ from the effect it would have on a human.
Most animal data is unreliable and accepted by the authorities while the non-animal testings are less likely to be accepted. The animal testing is unreliable because the animals can have a different effect of the chemical than a human would. The different effect is false information and can lead to the effect on a human much worse than it was on the lab animal. The new device created by scientists can test drugs without the use of animals. Most countries have banned the use of animals in the testing for cosmetic products. The new modern methods of testing predict better results for human safety than what the results from the lab animal would be.
The use of non-rodent lab animals has not changed much. The scientists use five to six million animals per year. The scientists created the mice to be transgenic to make them conductive in experiments. The chemicals and products can have side effects that do not show on the animals during experimentation. Most companies use chemicals that have already been tested on animals so they can claim they are cruelty-free. Rats, mice, dogs, cats, and monkeys were the most used animals in chemical testing. Many of the dogs that were used in chemicals testing came from the pound or bred. A majority of that mice, rats, and monkeys were bred by the scientists. A few of the monkeys used in the experiments came from the wild.
Rats and mice used as subjects are put through painful and harsh testing. The rats, mice, and other lab animals are poisoned to produce information on the chemical safety that scientists already have. The rats and mice are fed the toxic substances through a tube in their stomachs. They are also sealed into jars and are forced to breathe in the potentially toxic chemicals. In some cases, the chemicals are rubbed into the animals’ skin. After the animals are affected by the chemicals, they are dissected and euthanized to see what effect the chemicals had. The lab animals are given bigger doses of the toxic substances than what is put into the cosmetic products.
Not all the drugs tested on the animals goes on to human clinical trials. A majority of the drugs fail because of the species it was tested on. A drug that may not have been effective to an animal may end up being effective on a human. About five of every ten-thousand drugs tested on animals goes into the human clinical trials.
The new approach on chemical testing is collecting, analyzing, and sharing the biological information to predict what the chemicals will do to humans without having to test the chemicals on animals. The research relies on databases and software for existing biological information to stimulate chemical exposures to see the effect it can have on a human. The new approach sharply limits the testing of industrial chemicals, pesticides, drugs, cosmetics and other toxic substances on animals.
Most companies rely on animal testing for the chemicals going into their products. The animals are given a higher dose of the potentially toxic substance than what a typical human would be exposed to. The lab animals suffer and are put through stressful situations with the testing. The effects of the chemicals from the animals does not provide much information about the changes in the health effects. The effect the chemical has on an animal is different from how the chemical effects a human.
The new ways of testing provide a less expensive and faster way to produce information of the potentially toxic substances. The new methods can also reduce the need for animal testing. The scientists can replace animals with human cells, cellular components, and tissues, which can provide a more effective result than from an animal. With the new advances in the fields of biology, biotechnology, etc., the scientists can take potentially toxic chemicals from low areas in the environment and evaluate the health risks the chemicals can cause.
Many universities use animals for their class experiments. The universities are breaking the federal law by neglecting and abusing the animals. The animals in laboratories become afraid of people, as they know when they see a certain type of person, that an experiment can happen. The experimenters, in some procedures, shove tubes down an animal’s nose and throat. An experiment done at the University of Pennsylvania showed experimenters, that was caught on tape, causing massive head injuries to baboons. The baboons then struggled with the brain injuries. They were dangled by their arms while the experimenters laughed and called them names.
Harry F. Harlow created the maternal- deprivation experiments in the 1950s. The experiment included self-mutilated, rocked, and other signs of deep depression and anxiety. In the 1950s’, the principle of animal models were thought to reflect issues of maternal care and depression in a human. The infant monkeys used in this type of experiment are raised in partial or total isolation, away from their mothers. The experiments caused the monkeys depression, anxiety, and self-mutilated acts. Monkeys are still forcefully separated from their mothers by laboratory researchers and are put through stressful situations where they can leave them emotionally and physically traumatized.
The experiment was done at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, conducted by head psychologist Stephen Suomi, the infant monkeys are often taken within hours of birth from their mothers. The experiment has the monkeys with no cage mates to play with for twenty-two hours a day and twenty-four hours on the weekend. The lack of social organization interferes’ with the monkeys’ natural way of living.
The infants in the experiment undergo stressors, such as being intentionally frightened when alone, that are designed for the researchers to watch the monkey’s reactivity. The experiment is for the researchers to understand the development factors to mental illness in humans. Reports that came from the LCE stated that the infants suffer from behavioral and biological issues of their lives, including poor health, increased stress, maternal incompetence, and abnormal aggression. Animal models do not replicate human mental health well. Mental illness in humans requires attention to the real stressors that cause mental illness. Not the ones that infant monkeys experience.
In the past decade, high-tech primate facilities for biomedical research have been created across China. Some centers are promoted as primate-research hubs where scientists from around the world can travel there and use the latest tools of the trade. A report from Nature, a science journal, stated that the centers can provide scientists with monkeys in large numbers and high-quality animal care. China holds a large population of wild macaques, which are the main primate breed used in research. A large number of the macaques are farmed and genetically manipulated. The Yunnan Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research has 1,500 monkeys bred for research. The animals are used as tools for biomedical research and discovery. China supplies the monkeys for the experiments done in laboratories across the world. Many western scientists work with the Chinese in order to use the monkeys in the tests they want to conduct.
New technology that has been created offers a faster and humane way for testing the harmful products. A project created to develop models of skin using keratinocytes can replace animals in experiments of skin testing. The skin that was created models human skin, which can generate a more accurate result of the chemical. The skin can also test the corrosiveness of the chemical. Another non-animal test that was created replaced the Draize test. The test chemical is placed into a synthetic mixture, which replicates the cornea in the human eye. Color gradations were created to signify the irritation effects the chemical has on the tissue. The Agarose Diffusion Method is a screening eye test that does not involve animals. The test is done by applying the test product to filter paper discs and then placed on the agarose surface. The effect the chemical has on the cell determines if the test is positive or negative. This test can be used on the products that are liquids, pastes, creams, and powders. The cell tissue test is another test that can be done, in replace of the Draize test. The transepithelial electrical resistance is, a cell tissue barrier, decreases in a certain way each time the chemical is applied. Over time, the TER produces a signature that can roughly tell the eye irritancy of the product. Corneal epithelial cells, which are usually taken from rabbits, and mast cells can be another alternative to non-animal testing.
The LD50 test identifies the toxicity of cosmetics, household products, pesticides, and food additives. The test uses a large number of animals that do not provide an accurate representation of how it would affect a human. A continuation of the LD50 test is the Draize Eye Irritancy and Skin tests. The chemical is placed in the eye of the restrained animal, which is usually rabbits. The effects the chemical has on the rabbit can be seen from the blood vessel breakdown or in corneal bulging and opacity. With the Draize test for the irritancy of skin, the guinea pigs or rabbits are restrained, shaved, and painted with the testing chemical daily for weeks at a time. The test chemical can also be injected into the animal, which can produce blisters and swelling on the skin. Another way for this testing is the use of mice. The mouse’s ear is painted with the test chemical and the lymph nodes tissues are examined for a reaction.
Scientists at universities across England have created experiments where animals are repeatedly given cocaine, ecstasy, and other drugs to see how the brain works before being put down. Researchers from four different universities have said this research is important because it provides an insight into the effects the drugs have on humans. Research papers produced by the scientists prove their work is more cruel than informational. Mostly guinea pigs, rats, and mice are the testing animals usually used in the university laboratories.
Multiple experiments were conducted by researchers at several universities in England. In one experiment conducted at a university, the researches put small tubes into the skull of live rats and infused their brains with cocaine. The experiment was conducted to understand which parts of the brain are involved with addiction. In another experiment done to test drugs and their effect, 70 rats were subjected to injections of amphetamine and morphine into their brains and abdomens and had an electric shock to their feet. In an experiment done at Bristol, mice were injected with high doses of morphine or had morphine pellets implanted repeatedly. Graeme Henderson, a professor at Bristol, said the animals are sacrificed so scientists can look at their brains to see what happened. An experiment that was done at Surrey University, involved mice being given hourly doses of cocaine and a nicotine-related drug over the course of a week. The experiment was to mimic human “binge” consumption and its links with cigarette smoking. The experiments revealed little about the effects of drugs on the human brain. The differences between animals and humans are too great to determine what the effects of something can be in a human.
The results of a study done on an animal are not always accurate. The animals are put through endless torture and ruthless experiments for a result that will not matter. There are more efficient ways to test chemicals and the effect than using animals. Over the years, several companies have created different ways to test potentially harmful substances that are safer for animals and humans. Fewer animals are used each year as new ways of testings are created.


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