EGERTON UNIVERSITY- NJORO MAIN CAMPUS
NAME: MERCY ADHIAMBO OTIENO
REG NO: A112/30344/14
FACULTY: ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
DEPARTEMNT: PEACE, SECURITY AND SOCIAL STUDIES
UNIT TITLE: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT
UNIT CODE: SOCI 410
LECTURER: MR ELIUD OKUMU
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 14TH JUNE 2018
ASSIGNMENT: Discuss the social changes that have taken place in Uasin Gishu county, Kapseret constituency, Racecourse ward, outlining the types, sources and factors that have stimulated the changes.
Social change refers to any alteration or modification in the social organization, social institution or patterns of behavior in the social structure. Social change has traditionally been associated with development problems that occurred in the developing countries; it’s only in the late 1980s and early 1990s that it became a global issue. Over the years, the study of social change and development therefore has been through paradigmatic change.
In the presiding texts, the social changes that have gradually occurred in Kapseret constituency will be clearly addressed. Kapseret constituency is a growth potential constituency with a great number of golden opportunities. The local authorities over the last four years have been implementing priority policies and strategic interventions to unlock this growth potential (Odame ; Muage, 2011).
The strategic priorities the government has been pursuing include; infrastructural development, investing in quality social services, improving food security and agricultural transformation ensuring conducive business governance and good governance and innovations for efficient service delivery. These aspects are meant to achieve county’s long term goals as well as short term goals. This has been achieved through research and extension services as well as good governance.
The local authority has allocated substantial resources to different channels to hasten the infrastructural development in the constituency. Through this, the constituency has been able to make observable good progress as far as development goals are concerned.
Agricultural Transformation and Food Security
There has been ultimate focus in expanding agricultural output to increase food supply, create employment as well as improve incomes. Increased food supply reduces food related prices and brings down the cost of living making it conducive for a wide range population. This has been a drastic positive social change that unlocks agricultural productivity among small holders and livestock farmers as well. There has been wide application of proper technology, research and extension services, soil testing, provision of subsidized fertilizers and high yielding seeds to achieve highest level of production. On the other hand, dairy cooling plants, stock dams with fish and developed hatchery have been prioritized. Markets for farmers’ produce are worked on to enable proper channeling of food to the society (Sambu, 2015).
Uasin Gishu County has an extensive road network comprising of over 300 kms of earth roads. It also has 179km of railway line with 8 railway stations. It also enjoys about 95% phone coverage which is provided by all the major service providers in Kenya. There has been expansion in economic opportunities for employment thus scaling up investment in infrastructure. Investment in agriculture as well as roads will achieve the twin objective of food security and market linkage. Opening up of new roads especially in Kapseret constituency has aided in decongesting urban traffic. Investment in the housing sector is also on high demand. Strategies of developing a low cost of housing scheme to benefit low income earners to own a home is also underway (Lynch, 2014).
There is increased use of ICT for efficient delivery of services and increased capacity for efficiency enhancing time management. There are electronic based operations to relevant operational skills. Throughout the constituency, there has been adoption of street lights along the streets as well as throughout the residential areas. This has positively impacted on the society as it has minimized insecurity cases that were rampant in the area. However, technological sector has experienced quite a number of negative factors such as cyber crimes leading to insecurity of data and information, and the high cost of maintaining technological advancements.
Education and Socio-cultural Services
Kapseret constituency has made positive strides in educational development. However, there are challenges such as inadequate teaching staff and resources, inadequate infrastructure, poor distribution of teachers that are pulling down education sector from reaching its goal of providing efficient education services. Many schools however have not adopted effective approaches thus are unable to provide proper management and quality education. Poor primary school infrastructure is a barrier to improving access to primary education due to shortage of permanent classrooms and a backlog of infrastructure. The local government should put more efforts on this sector to ensure the goal of providing quality education is achieved (Tuitoek, 2005).
Water, Sanitation, Energy and Environmental Changes
The main water resources in the constituency include dams, rivers, boreholes, shallow wells and springs. There are dams that supply water for most households while most houses have shallow wells to provide water for domestic use in places with no piped water. These sources of water are also facing challenges such as destruction of water catchment areas and deforestation. Sosiani River also suffers pollution from sewerage discharge.
The water supply schemes in the constituency include ELDOWAS (Eldoret Water and Sanitation) whose role is to restore and improve water supply.
Disposal of waste in the urban areas has been a challenge over time that led to mushrooming of initiatives that work hand in hand with the government to curb the problem. Proper sewer systems have been adopted and garbage collection which helps in cleaning the environment. This is a total observable change that is positive among the people of the constituency.
Access to health services has made improvement in terms of improving the health facilities as a way of offering services to consumers. Availability of health personnel including doctors, clinical officers is critical determinant of quality and access to health services. Reproductive health services that focus on safe motherhood as well as effective family planning methods have been adopted. The burden of communicable diseases have been tried to be reduced by ensuring vaccination of the children to reduce mortality rates. All the best efforts have been adopted in the health sector to ensure there is effective health services administered to all.
It’s evident that through the decade, Kapseret constituency has made a great improvement in its developmental strategies. Through devolution, the leaders have closely worked hand in hand to ensure efficiency in offering services to the society as well as collaboration and partnership with other constituencies. Although much has been done, it is still expected that development plan will support growth within sustainable paths of public spending. This will allow financing of all expenditures from constituency expenditure.
However to finance any shortfalls in development expenditure the constituency will seek to mobilize external resources. In a nutshell, it’s clear within the mushrooming of positive changes that have been gladly embraced by the society that Kapseret constituency is on the way towards achieving a remarkable goal.
Lynch, G. (2014). Electing the alliance of the accused: the success of the Jubilee Alliance in Kenya’s Rift Valley.” Journal f East African Studies, 8(1), 93-114.
Odame, H., & Muange, E. (2011). Can Agro-dealers deliver the Green Revolution in Kenya? Ids Bulletin 42, No.4 (2011). pg 78-79.
Sambu, L. (2015). Social support in promoting resilience among the internally displaced personsafter trauma: a case of Kiambaa village in Uasin Gishu Kenya. British Journal of Research, 3, 23-34.
Sharon, C.W. Impact of urban waste on seasonal water quality of Sosiani River, Eldoretmunicipality, Uasin Gishu County.