EVOLUTION OF NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING- James Watson

EVOLUTION OF NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING-
James Watson & Francis Cric k in 1953 discovered double helix structure of DNA which is considered as root of NGS development. In 1964-65 Robert Holley sequenced nucleic acid, long DNA sequencing was developed by Frederick Sanger & Walter Gilbert. Therefore for this pioneer works all of them were awarded with Nobel prize – Watson & crick got Nobel in 1962, holey got Nobel in 1968, sanger & gilbert got Nobel in 1980; The real development of NGS took place in late 20th and early 21st century, MASSIVE PARALLEL SIGNATURE SEQUNCING (MPSS) WAS FIRST NAME OF NGS launched by a USA based Lynx Therapeutics Company in year 2000 and company named illuminia took over this company. Illuminia was big player in sequencing market.
454 LIFE SCIENCES launched a similar kind of sequencing technology in 2004 that was comparatively cheap and cost reduced than typical Sanger method after MPSS. Later ROCHE COMPANY acquired Life sciences. At period of 2005-06 454 GS 20 ROCHE PLATFORM was launched which was capable of producing 20Mbp, GS FLX replaced this model in 2007, which was capable of producing 100Mbp and which got modified up to 400Mbp up to year 2008. Roche 454 GS-FLX got upgraded to 454 GS-FLX + Titanium Sequncing Platform which had ability to produce 600Mbp and could read length of up to 1000bp and Roche produced platform named GS JUNIOR which was easy to handle and can be placed on bench.
SOLEXA was the company who introduced GENOME ANALYZER in year 2006 but was acquired by Illuminia in 2007. The sequence of 1 Gbp was able to be done by Solexa sequencer in single run.
During past years Mi-seq & Hi-seq platforms has been developed by Illuminia; 15Gbp can br sequenced by Mi-seq & 600Gbp can be acquired by Hi-seq, Hi-seq 2500 can sequence human genome in 24 hrs, first SOLiD sequencing system was launched in 2007 & then SOLid 5500w, 5500lw in year 2010. The latest version of SOLid4 is able to sequence between 35-50Gbp with max read length between 35-50 bases.
In 2011 LIFE TECHNOLOGIED ION TORRENT SEQUNCER got released which uses method of by-synthesis & emulsion PCR and does not use technique of florescence which is used by other sequencing methods but in this technique during base incorporation+ ion is released .
It has following models like-
PGM 314, PGM 316 & PGM 318
P1 & P2, P2 GOT LAUNCHED IN 2015 which was able to read length of 100 bases and had sequencing capability of 64Gbp; in NGS market which provide NGS services of complete genomic platform is unique . Human whole genome sequencing is their main point of interest so currently theu don’t have interest in applications of Exome ; RNA seq or ChIP-seq or any other. Complete genomics platform is able to acquire sequencing rate of 3000Gbp/run with max reading length of 70 bases; Complete genomics is going to launch its first commercial product ‘ THE REVELOCITY SYSTEM’ which have been designed to provide total end to end genomic solution.

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