For many years the classical plant hormones have studied as key regulators of plant growth and development

For many years the classical plant hormones have studied as key regulators of plant growth and development, but in the past few years, research indicate that peptide are also play an important role in plant signaling for plant growth and developmental processes such as defense responses, cell elongation, cell proliferation and differentiation, meristem organization, nodule development, self incompatibility and organ abscission etc. In plants peptides are synthesized by using mRNA as a template and most often go to post translational modifications to yield mature peptide. Here in this review paper we are trying to provide an overview on peptide hormones and their functions in plant growth and development. Signal transduction is very important for the development of multicellular organisms (whether they are animal or plant) and also so for the function of various organ systems. In plants cell signaling is mainly mediated by small lipophilic compounds (so called as classical plant hormones) such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscissic acid1. Later on, some other compounds such as brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylates, strigolactones and karrikins have also been added to the list of plant growth regulators2-3. Research findings of over the last few decades indicate that beside these plant hormones other molecules, including peptide hormones (also known as signaling or secreted peptides), small RNAs and transcription factors are also play an important role in signaling4,5,6. Peptide hormones are now widely accepted as signaling messengers in plants for their involvement in various aspects of plant growth regulation including defense responses, callus growth, meristem organization, self incompatibility, root growth, leaf shape regulation, nodule development and organ abscission etc.1. Most of these peptides have been identified by biochemical purification and genetic studies. Peptide hormones often produced as larger molecular weight precursors that are proteolytically cleaved to the active form of the hormone and are water soluble. Plant peptides are active in the nanomolar to picomolar range7,8. Although the first peptide signal in plants was reported in 1991, little documentation is available for peptide signaling in higher plants compared with the documentation available for signaling in animals. In this review paper some peptide hormones are discussed with their importance in biological processes of plant development and growth.

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