Hemodialysis Tech

Hemodialysis Tech| PRISCILLE GuillaumeProf: Melissa LambOctober 8th ,2018Urinary System1)The kidneys are two-sided organs of the urogenital system. They are in the retroperitoneal region of the abdomen, and their main function is to remove excess bodily fluid. Salts, and by products of protein metabolism. The kidneys produce erythropoietin, a hormone that excites red blood cell. The body of the kidneys can be divided functionally into renal cortex, renal medulla renal artery, renal vein.Renal cortex is the external portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In adult, it structures a continuous smooth outer one with several projections (cortical columns) that range down between the pyramids. The renal cortex is the portion of the kidney where ultra-filtration occurs. “The cortex contains clusters of blood vessels, known as glomeruli.” These structures form upper of each nephron. The function of the cortex is the filter blood and to remove the waste products.Renal medulla is the internal most part of the kidney. It has loop of Henle and collecting ducts from nephron. The renal medulla is divided up into several sections, known as the renal pyramids blood pass in the kidney via the renal artery, which then separations up to for the interlobar arteries. Renal medulla holds the structures of nephron responsible for maintaining the salts the salts and water balance of the blood.The renal pyramids are any of the triangular units of tissue that constitute the medulla or inner substance, of the kidney. The pyramids contain mainly of tubules that transport urine from the cortex, or outer, part of kidney. The renal pyramids are visible in cross sections of kidney tissue as relatively dark cones in the substance of medulla. The of each pyramid, named the papilla, projects into a small cuplike hole called a minor called a minor calyx.The ureters are a pair of muscular, “tubular structures responsible for taking urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder for storage, prior to excretion.” They are folding S-shaped to channels, each about 25cm in length. They are broadest at the renal pelvis and narrow gradually as they enter the urinary bladder. The lumen of each ureter is wrinkled by a mucosal a layer of transitional epithelium that put up the increases in pressure when the volume urine parting the kidney increases minimizing the risk of rupturing the ureters. These conduits have exposes infoldings caused by multiple lays of smooth muscle through ureteralThe bladder is a deep muscular distensible organ of the urogenital system and it’s situated inferior to the peritoneum with the lesser pelvis. The main purpose the bladder is collect urine, that is to late avoid by urination. In general, “It can hold anywhere from 400 to 1000 milliliters of urine.” The wall of the bladder is composed of thick muscle called the trouser muscle. Urine that originates into the bladder from the kidneys via the ureters is collect in the body of the bladder. The urethra is used for the elimination urine out from the body.2)Urine is formed by three methods in nephron: Filtration, reabsorption, secretion. “The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney.” At one end of the nephron is the cup-shaped
“Bowman’s capsule”. Nephron is the element functional of the kidney This is where the blood separation and urine formation take place. The filtered blood is then collected in to a sequence of larger veins and exits the kidney through the renal vein. The urine is collected in collecting ducts and leaves the kidney through the ureters. “Each kidney contains over a millions nephrons..”A nephron contains of two major parts; a capsule identifies as glomerular capsule, or Bowman’s capsule; and a long renal tubule. Renal tubules of several nephrons connect to common collecting duct. second, the tubular re-absorption. Third, secretion happen in the tubule. Water conservation happens in the collecting ducts. Blood enters the Bowman’s capsule thru the afferent arteriole, passes through a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus, and leaves via efferent arteriole. The afferent arteriole is expressively larger than the efferent arteriole, producing a blood flow with a larger inlet small outlet. As result, the blood hydrostatic compression in these capillaries is much higher than normal. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressures initiative water and solutes from blood plasma through a filtration membrane into the capsular space of nephron. The filtration membrane turns like a sieve allowing only small molecules to pass through. These contain water, inorganic ions, glucose, amino acids and various metabolic wastes such urea and creatine. This fluid is named glomerular filtrate. The quantity of filtrate produce per minute is called glomerular filtration rate, GFR. Is saved at a stable value by several feedback mechanism within the kidneys. This is identified as renal auto regulation. The GFR is also under sympathetic and hormonal control. GFR control is normally achieve by constriction or dilatation of the afferent arteriole, which causes the glomerular blood pressure to fall or rise individually.In a heathy person, the total filtrate volume capacities between 150 and 180 litters a day. However, only about 1% of this is eliminate waste as urine the rest 99% is re -absorbed back the blood as the filtrate flow through the long renal tubule. This is possible because the efferent arteriole after leaving the Bowman’s capsule, branches out to form a network of capillaries known as peri-tubular capillaries, which mount the renal tubule. The first part of the renal tubule- the proximal convoluted tubule, re-absorbs about two thirds of the filtrate. In this process, water and solutes are driven complete the epithelial cells that line the tubule into the extracellular space. They are then reserved up by peritubular capillaries.Sodium re-absorption is the most vital as it creates osmotic pressure that drives water and electrical gradient that drives negatively charged ions. Sodium level exclusive the epithelial cells is kept low thanks to the sodium-potassium pumps that constantly pump sodium ions out into the extracellular space. This makes a concentrate gradient that favors sodium diffusion from tubular fluid into the cells. Sodium is absorbed by symport proteins that also fix glucose and some other solutes. Almost all glucose and amino acids are re absorbed back to the blood at this stage. Approximately half of nitrogenous wastes also re-absorbs back to the bloodstream.The kidneys decrease the blood levels of metabolic wastes to a safe amount, but do not remove them. Some of the re-absorption occurs by the paracellular way through tight junctions between epithelial cells. At the same time, tubular secretion, where extra wastes, drugs and other solutes leaves the bloodstream to join the tubular fluid, also takes place. The methods of re-absorption and secretion continue in the nephron loop- the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. However, these parts of the tubule also take some other important function.
Hemodialysis Tech| PRISCILLE GuillaumeProf: Melissa LambOctober 8th ,2018The main function of the loop Henle is to produce and maintain an osmolarity gradient in the medulla that enables the collecting ducts to concentrate urine at a later stage. The ascending limb of the loop dynamically pumps sodium out making the medulla “salty”. The descending limp of the loop is permeable to water but much less to sodium. As the water leavings the tubule by osmosis, the filtrate gets more and more concentrate as is touched the bottom. “The ascending limb, on the other hand, is permeable ions but not water.” As result, the filtrate drops sodium as it goes up and becomes more diluted at the top of the loop. 3) Damage to the glomerulus and tubule presents the onset of intra renal failure. Some of the frequent sources for intrarenal failure are glomerulonephritis; pyelonephritis; and tubular injury. Post-renal failure develops from things like tumor, or anatomic impediments. Contrary of the acute form, the chronic form has a slow onset that has no initial stage symptoms. It is important to recognize that following an acute episode a chronic renal episode often flows, and at tis juncture the injury is irreversible.Here are many of physical signs and symptoms of kidney disease, but sometimes people attribute them to other conditions. Also, those with kidney disease tend not experience symptoms until they same late stages, when the kidneys are failing or when there are large volumes of protein in the urine. This is one of the reasons 10% of people with chronic kidney disease known that they have it. While the only way to known if you have kidney disease is to get tested. If you are at menace for kidney disease du to high blood pressure, diabetes, a family history of kidney failure or if your older than age 60, it’s important to get tested annually for kidney disease. Be sure to mention any symptoms you are experiencing to your doctor or healthcare practitioner.Acute renal failure happens when renal function suddenly declines to very low levels, so that so that little or no urine is formed, and the substances, with even water, that the kidney normally eliminates are retained in the body. Nearby are two main mechanisms that can produce acute renal failure. When the cardiac output, the sum of blood pumped into the general circulation by the heart. The second common mechanism of acute renal failure is toxic.Many toxins are excreted by the kidney, and in the process, like other urinary constituent, and in concentrated and thus spread levels in the tubular fluid that damage the lining cells of the tubule. In addition, acute renal failure is characterized by acute obstruction of the flow of urine from the kidneys.To sum up, Human body be made up of of the number of systems having their own importance contribution toward keeping human being alive. As blow flows complete the body waste products are deposited into the bloodstream that needs to be removed. The system that prepares this is the urinary system also known as the renal system. It is made up of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra that produce, store and then excrete urine out of the body.
Words cited1. The kidneys and the renal system/edited by Kara Rogers. (The human body)”In association with Britannica Educational Publishing, Rosen Educational Service” p 21,23 (URETHRA), 49 formation of urine.2. The bladder (Human Anatomy): function, location, definition)” WebMD- 02 May 2011http://www.webmd.com/urinary3. “Your Urinary System and How It WORKS “National Kidney and Urologic Disease) May 2011

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