Humans

Humans, quick thinkers we are, yet easily slowed down when misdirected. In the following experiment, we test how a cue, in this case, an arrow and the direction its pointed to can affect the reaction time in human brain processing. Ristic and Kingstone (2017) found that the response time in predictive arrows was faster compared to that of nonpredictive arrows. Predictive arrows mean to define that the direction in which the arrow is pointing is where the stimuli will appear. It is important to understand the differences between covert and overt attention before conducting this experiment. Covert attention and what our experiment is testing is the view around our peripheral. While Overt attention is what we are directly looking at. Testing covert attention becomes difficult, like what Posner (1980) concludes that differentiating between the two is difficult and to do so you would have to mislead the attention of participants. Just as done in our experiment we use an arrow becoming the cue that misleads participants, pointing every now and then in a direction where a stimulus wouldn’t appear. McDonald, Bennett, Chambers, and Castiello (1999) found that when performing this experiment, participants would score faster when the cue was coherent to where the stimuli will appear, compared to when the cue didn’t indicate the direction in which the stimuli will appear. Therefore, in regards to our experiment participants should show a faster reaction time in pressing the m key when the cue is consistent with the asterisk and a slower reaction time when an inconsistent trial is presented.
Method
Participants
The participants in this experiment included students from Brooklyn College enrolled in Experimental Psychology during the Fall semester of 2018. Students ranged between the ages of 18 and 30 years old, consisting of both males and females. No participant was discouraged or prohibited from performing this experiment due to any eye weaknesses since this experiment did not test the strength of one’s vision.
Materials and Design
Participants sat in front of a computer screen and performed the experiment using a program called Psychopy. All that was required from the participants was to have them press the m-key as instructed, every time an asterisk would appear on their screen. The program started out by informing the participants to focus on the cross centered on the screen at all times. Then an arrow would appear. What followed differed, occasionally an asterisk would appear, however, no asterisk did happen at times leaving a blank screen for the participants to look at.
Procedure
Participants came into their seats and were told to turn on the Psychopy program. After opening the program an instruction page opened telling them how the experiment is to be performed and what to look forward to. After pressing space, the experiment begins. First, a fixated cross appears at the center of the screen for 680ms. Then an arrow which serves as an indicator, pointing in the right or left direction appearing for 600ms. Finally, an asterisk or blank screen came on. If asterisk was shown it was only shown for a maximum of 2700ms. Time of asterisk shown would stop at an earlier time when the participant would press the m key. A blank screen was shown at times for 530ms instead of the asterisk. There are three different feedbacks the participant can receive while performing the experiment. If participants pressed the m key when the asterisk was shown the screen would read correct with reaction times. This feedback was shown for only 10ms. If the participant pressed the m key when shown the fixated cross or when shown the arrow, the screen would read “press m key when you see *”. This too was only shown for 10ms. Not informed, participants performed 160 consistent trials, 40 inconsistent trials, and 20 catch trials, a total of 220 trials all happening at random. Consistent trials were those that had the asterisk follow in the same direction the arrow was pointing. Inconsistent trials were those that had the asterisk on the opposite side of the direction of the arrow. Catch trials were those where an asterisk didn’t appear on the screen. This was used to test if the participants are clicking the m key habitually or only when the asterisk is shown. A participant’s data would be rejected on two different occasions. Both times consist of the participant pressing the m key at the wrong times. In catch trials and when the fixated cross is being shown, if the participant pressed the m key more than fifty percent of the time, that is 11 or more of the catch trials and 111 or more of the trials combined, this is when that participant’s data becomes rejected.

x

Hi!
I'm Dora

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out
x

Hi!
I'm Barry!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out