-Identify legislation that governs the use of medication care settings in social care setting
The Misuse of Drugs (safe Custody) Regulation 1973 as amended 2007
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
The Health and Social Care Act 2008
The Misuse of Drugs Regulation 2001
The Control of Substances Hazardous to health (COSHH) Regulation 2002
Care Quality Commission Guidelines
Nursing and Midwifery Council Guidelines
Royal Pharmaceutical Society Guidelines
-Outline the legal classification system for medication
The legal classification of drugs falls into three categories under the Medicine Act 1968.
Prescription only medication(POM): These are medications got from the pharmacy by way of a doctor or legal practitioner’s prescription. This includes antibiotics, controlled drugs enormous quantities of paracetamol and inhalers.
Over the counter medication (OTC or P): These are medications available from the pharmacy without a prescription. The pharmacist must be present for the medication to be dispensed and not necessarily prepare. These include medicines such as paracetamols in small packs, eye drops, aspirin and Imodium.
General sale list (GSL): These are medicines that can be bought from any shop without the presence of the pharmacist. These are medicines like antacids, massaging ointment like deep heat and many more.
-Explain how and why policies and procedures or agreed ways of working must reflect and incorporate legislative requirements
Policies and procedures or agreed ways of working forms part of guidelines so that once followed accordingly, results are achieved, and one cannot go wrong. Since it is a legal requirement for a prescription carry vital information about the one issuing; name, address and signature of the issuer. The prescriber must make sure the prescription is being issued to the right person, setting out the right dose, the frequency to administer, the route by which medication should be taken and any special instructions for the safe use.
Know about common types of medication and their use
2.1 -Identify common types of medication
Antibiotics: Used in the fight of bacterial infection.
Anticoagulants: Used to prevent blood clots.
Diuretics: Used to get rid of excess fluids in the body.
Analgesics: Used for pain relief.
Psychotropics: Used for the treatment of depression.
Antihistamines: used in the treatment of allergy.
Cytotoxic: used in the treatment of cancer.
2.2 -List conditions for which each type of medication may be prescribed
Antibiotics: For persons suffering from bacterial infection.
Anticoagulants: For persons at risk and prevention blood clots.
Diuretics: For persons who have excessive fluid retention in the body.
Analgesics: For persons suffering from pain.
Psychotropics: For people suffering from depression.
Antihistamines: For persons suffering from allergy.
Cytotoxic: For persons suffering from certain types of cancer.
2.3 -Describe changes to an individual’s physical or mental well-being that may indicate an adverse reaction to a medication
Some individuals can react to medications, this is many as varied.
Physically some may take medications prescribed by a doctor or a general practitioner either a start or a change in medication which may results in drowsiness, nausea, breathing difficulties and many more.
People with mental health issues are quick to react to changes in medication especially when the dose is increased or decreased. Some become hyperactive other get confused until the effect of the medication has taken a balance in their system.
Understand roles and responsibilities in the use of medication in social care settings
-Describe the roles and responsibilities of those involved in prescribing dispensing and supporting use of medication.
The role of the doctor to assess what is wrong with an individual and prescribe the right medicine. It is the responsibility of the doctor to prescribe the correct medication and the right dose to be taken by the individual based on many factors ranging from age, weight and the suitable route of administration.
The role and responsibility of the pharmacist is to dispense the prescribed medication as instructed by the doctor, making sure the right quantity has been dispensed.
The role and responsibility of the carer is to make sure the right medication , the right dose and the right quantity for the right person has been received from the pharmacy, checked and administered the right quantity of medication as per the instruction of the doctor, checking the right route of administering also making sure the instructions on the MAR sheet has been followed and signed.
-Explain where responsibilities lie in relation to use of ‘over the counter’ remedies and supplements
Responsibility for the use of over the counter drugs lies in the hands of the pharmacist. It is the responsibility of the pharmacist to make sure an individual is buying the right medication and not exceeding a certain quantity.
Understand techniques for administering medication
4.1 -Describe the routes by which medication can be administered
Oral: The most common way of taking in medication. This is by way of mouth.
Transdermal: Administering by way of skin patch.
Rectal: This is the route of administering by inserting medication through the rectum
Intravenous: Medication administered through injection into the veins.
Intramuscular: Medication administered by injecting into the muscle.
Topical: This is the administering of use of creams and gels
4.2 -Describe different forms in which medication may be presented
Medication can be presented in different forms depending on how it suits the user.
These are in form of oral liquid suspension to be drunk by the user.
Tablets: Though oral but are in a solid form.
Suppositories: These are semi solid formed and are administered through the rectum.
Inhalers: These are gaseous compressed into canisters and has a mask applicator though which the medication in form of spray is administered through inhalation.
Patches: Medications that are on a sticky material and this is administered through the skin.
4.3 -Describe materials and equipment that can assist in administering medication
Equipment that assist in the administering of medication is the use of the Monitored Dosage System (MDS). This is a system that has the solid medication; tablets put into the dose required for an individual ready to be administered.
The use of the use of Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is another way through which to administer for individuals with complex needs. This form of medication is normally in a liquid state.
Know how to promote the rights of the individual when managing medication
6.1a -Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication – consent
Before medication gets administered to an individual, if with capacity, the individual needs to be talked and explained through as to what medication, what its meant to treat or control. It is at this point the individual will agree or reject to take in the medication therefore the individual’s consent. It must be explained to the individual what the consequence of their refusal can bring about in the state of their health. Once refused, this needs to be recorded , put the refused put the said medication in an envelope and return to the pharmacist, also a report needs to be made to the Doctor who will advice what needs to be done.
Where the individual lacks capacity to decide, in accordance with the Mental Capacity Act 2005, a best interest meeting and a decision made to suit their best interest.
6.1b -Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication – self-medication or active participation
An individual has the right to keep their medication always unless the individual lacks the capacity to. Some individuals who are independent like to get involved with doing things for themselves as part of their activity, all they need is getting prompted at the time they need to take their medication Some individuals cannot do any but only participate by bringing out the package of medication from its storage, and being supported to take them once processed. So, doing the individuals are not being denied of active support.
6.1c -Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication – dignity and privacy
Some individuals may not be happy taking their medication in the presence of others in communal areas and will like to take their medication privately or in their rooms. It is therefore the choice of the individual to decide how, and where they want to take their medication
6.1d -Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication – confidentiality
Individuals medication are as equal as their records and will have to be kept at the strictest confidence. Their medical history must never be discussed and passed onto who ever does not deserve to know about the individual. This must be made available to people who are working in support of the individual.
6.2 -Explain how risk assessment can be used to promote an individual’s independence in managing medication
It is good to identify the possible hazards in the managing of medication of an individual from the receiving, checking, storing and administering though risk assessments will not eliminate the risk. Maximum care must be taken, and the necessary actions plans put in place.
6.3 -Describe how ethical issues that may arise over the use of medication can be addressed
Ethically when it gets to medication, one needs to be very calm than be agitated. The correct procedures of medication issues ranging from under dose, over dose, missed medication, crossed medication need to follow the agreed protocol or agreed way of dealing with the said issues.
Call the doctor or pharmacist explaining what went wrong.
Write an incident report.
Contact the Safeguarding Team.
Report to your manager what happened and what actions have been taken.