In 1910 and 1913

In 1910 and 1913, Gouy and Chapman both observed that capacitance was not a constant and it depended on the applied potential. In Gouy’s opinions, the counter ions are tend to diffuse into the liquid phase rather than rigidly held (LucaRighetto, 1995). The counter ions kinetic energy will, in a way, which affect the thickness of the resulting diffuse double layer.
Gouy and Chapman developed the theories by adding the diffuse layer, the detail structure is shown in Fig 3(b). The counter ions concentration change ions near a charge surface follows the Boltzman distribution (Stojek, 2002).
The further distance from the surface will have lower concentration of the oppositely charged ions, this region is called the diffuse double layer.
Although this theory considered the ion diffusion, it is still not entirely accurate. In the experiment, the double layer thickness is generally found to be greater than calculated valve. This may result by the Boltzman distribution cause this equation made an assumption on the molar concentration, the approximation is applicable for bulk solution but not to be true near a charge surface.

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