In the first diagram we can clearly see that the majority of gender-marked slang words are nouns

In the first diagram we can clearly see that the majority of gender-marked slang words are nouns. This applies both to Ukrainian and English slang expressions. 91 instances of noun words were found in Ukrainian language, while there were 69 of those in English. Second largest group (even though it is not that large, only 8 cases) are adjectival words. The last ones in quantity are participial phrases (6). There is no verbal gender-marked slang found in Ukrainian language. By contrast, the number of verbal words in English equals 3 phrases.
We have also spotted some gender-marked interjections in both languages. These are ????!, ????! in Ukrainian and Son of a gun!, Son of a bitch!, Mother of God!, Who’s your daddy?, Man! in English. Truth be told, we expected to find more of these, since slang is rather expressive component of language, very often characterized by emotional charge.
Few (3) acronyms were noticed as well.
Moving on to the morphemic analysis, since we saw a lot of compounds in English sample, we decided it wise to group them according to the respective types. The biggest group, and it comes as no wonder, turned out to be NOUN + NOUN type (43). Then follows ADJECTIVE + NOUN group (20 expressions). The instance of NOUN + ADJECTIVE is fem-fatale.
17 examples of clipping are present in our research, almost the same in Ukrainian and English – 9 and 8 respectively. The number of blended words is identical in both languages – two in each.
Talking about gender-marking formation process it is important to note that Ukrainian, in contrast to English, has grammatical gender. Therefore, the formation processes are different. In the case with English, the most productive ones turned out to be syntactic markers which include the male and female reference lexemes (49). Pronouns are used in 3.8% of slang words. 4.8% are honorifics.
The number of cases of using morphological markers equals the number of pronouns, which is 4.
Something we found interesting is the combination of gender reference lexeme and morphological cases, whatever insignificant they might be – 3 to be exact.
The most effective tool in gender-marking in Ukrainian, however, is affixes –??/-? and the ones which denote person’s activity or occupation (14 and 40 respectively). Worth stating is the fact that a great deal of Ukrainian slang words are borrowings from Slavic languages mainly, therefore their formation ways might remain unknown.
Diminutive and augmentative forms turned out to not be so popular when it comes to slang (only 5.6 %).
Apparently, there exists a fashion for using proper names regarding gender marking. 19% (20) of gender-marked English slang uses own names, which is the figure twice as big as that in Ukrainian language.
Nonetheless, we believe the most interesting part of the research to be the semantic analysis. Before starting summing it up we would like to say that the insights we come to are very much prone to subjectivity. We would like to provide an example and explain why it is so. Let’s take the word ‘???????????’, for instance. Among Russian and Polish people it is considered to be derogatory and is understood as ‘Ukrainian-German nationalist’, which obviously all Ukrainians are. The actual meaning is ‘a member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, headed by Stepan Bandera’ which took place in 1940s. That is why one should always keep in mind the possibility of broader context of the information given below.
As it was said before, an abundance of slang words, especially Ukrainian, are borrowings from either Russian or Polish vocabularies. We found 10 Russian loanwords and 3 Polish. In some cases these are not even borrowings, but ‘surzhyk’, the result of merging of two or more languages without the compliance with literary language. One of the reasons behind that is historical background. Ukraine belonged to different countries throughout its history, Poland and Russia included, hence the so-called ‘contamination’ of the language.
Besides it, we have also discovered a bunch of English-based loanwords. To be precise, 8. And there is a reason for that as well. Today everyone talks about English as the international or possibly universal language. English words penetrate the vocabulary of every country on an everyday basis. Every line of work is literally soaked with English neologisms. So it is only natural that it also made it to layman’s speech.
Meanwhile, we can draw a conclusion that English is giving more words to other languages than it is absorbing, since we detected only 2 Spanish slang words and 1 French. The driving behind this is the acceptance of words from Latin (mostly by way of French) by England and the days of Mexican and Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U.S. Southwest.
After the thorough studying of all the gender-marked slang words we noticed similar semantic patterns and grouped them according to the shades of meaning. The first and quite sufficient one is the phrases denoting people of certain nationality or inhabitants. There are 12 found instances of such in Ukrainian and almost half less in English. We tend to believe that these are created due to the political and historical situation in the country and the prejudices one may hold towards the nation.
Out of the gender-marked slang words that we collected, 18 are used to describe person’s mental abilities. The representation of those in Ukraine is about three times bigger than the English ones. Even though out of Ukrainian only ????? is female-marked, all are universal and can be applied to women as well, for this language is characterized by grammatical gender. In English the representation of male and female abilities is equal – 2 to 2.
The biggest category marked by gender-marked slang words is personality traits. We found a total of 65 instances – 30.6% in each. In Ukrainian almost all of them are used in negative meaning and are mostly applied to men. In English, however, the tendency shifts a little bit, with half of them being neutral and women being more often described with those. The reasoning behind this could be the fact that generally people tend to pay more attention to unfavorable factors and concentrate more on downsides.
Gender-marked slang words for people’s appearance are used half as much as personality traits. In Ukrainian out of 11 words 7 are used to address women, whereas in English the numbers are 11 out of 16. The leaning towards objectification, women’s in particular, is no new phenomenon in the modern world. Using controversial language nowadays has become more dangerous and we clearly see from our findings that there is a 70% chance of offending someone with those words.
In Ukrainian 5 slang words are specifically related to alcohol abuse. At the same time in English we find 9 words which denote certain type of drugs. We believe this to be the reflection of current issues country is dealing with – in Ukraine people are more inclined to consume alcohol, while abroad people may suffer from drugs addiction.
The last group we talked about was sexual orientation. Once again, it is supposed to have formed under countries’ own attitudes and reservations in regard to this issue. From the statistics we can conclude that the Soviet vestiges are still palpable and Ukraine cannot fully forget about the orientation issue with 90% of the slang words being disapproving. Meanwhile, the west is more liberal in that sense and we found only 2 words in our research that address one’s sexuality.
Since slang is viewed upon as simple language, it was absolutely logical that we encountered some cases of expressions that are either derogatory or offensive. Among Ukrainian slang words we recommend to refrain from using 31.5% of them, while in English this figure is 21.2%. We expect that people are much more frivolous when it comes to everyday, non-official language. Therefore, they tend to say straight what they think (again, there is definite expressive charge to slang) without much consideration. For the record, we also would like to state that women are not the only ones who are approached with demeaning phrases; the number of those applicable to men is precisely the same.
To add, gender-marked swearwords are not a novelty in the world of slang either. The motivation behind it is the same as mentioned above – after all people

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