Insulin is a protein

Insulin is a protein. Protein synthesis involves two processes, transcription and translation. During initiation of transcription, the promoter functions as a recognition site for the RNA polymerase to bind, unwinding the DNA double helix. One DNA strand acts as template while the other strand is non-template. RNA polymerase will start synthesising RNA. Then, elongation occurs. RNA polymerase will add free RNA nucleotides with complementary base pairings as it moves along the DNA template. The double helix DNA repairs at the behind point of mRNA.
Once the RNA polymerase reaches the terminator, the mRNA transcript is released from the strand. The new strand of mRNA includes a region called exons and introns. Introns need to be removed in order for the strand to be used in translation. Spliceosome removes the introns to produce a mature mRNA strand that can leave the nucleus through a nuclear pore. The strand enters the cytoplasm to begin translation.
The nitrogenous bases on the mRNA strand are grouped into triplet bases called codons. Translation begins with a small ribosomal subunit binding to the start codon. The initiation complex is complete with the arrival of large ribosomal subunit. The P site is occupied by initiator tRNA while A site is available for the next tRNA. During elongation, the next tRNA that has the complementary base pair with the mRNA codon binds at A site. The polypeptide chain detached from tRNA in P site will attach to the amino acid of the new tRNA at the A site.
Formation of peptide bond is catalysed which results in empty tRNA in P site. Ribosome will then move to the next codon, translocating the tRNA in A site to P site. The A site is ready to accept new tRNA. Repetition occurs. The protein will receive a release factor that hydrolyzes the bond once it reaches stop codon. The polypeptide is released and the ribosomal subunit dissociates. This is how protein such as insulin is created.

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