Kelly

Kelly ? ?Su 11/28/17
HW#17: ? ?Intellectual ? ?change ? ?in ? ?Asia ? ?1450-1750 Period ? ?6

The ? ?continued ? ?spread ? ?of ? ?Islam ? ?in ? ?the ? ?early ? ?modern ? ?era ? ?was ? ?due ? ?to ? ?people ? ?like ? ?Sufis ? ?or
Islamic ? ?scholars ? ?who ? ?educated ? ?their ? ?community ? ?and ? ?provided ? ?a ? ?connection ? ?to ? ?Islam. ? ?For
example, ? ?they ? ?offered ? ?literacy ? ?in ? ?Arabic ? ?and ? ?founded ? ?informal ? ?schools. ? ?The ? ?emergence ? ?of ? ?reform
and ? ?renewal ? ?movements ? ?within ? ?the ? ?Islamic ? ?world ? ?was ? ?due ? ?to ? ?orthodox ? ?Muslims ? ?who ? ?were
offended ? ?by ? ?religious ? ?syncretism ? ?in ? ?the ? ?eighteenth ? ?century. ? ?In ? ?Southeast ? ?Asia, ? ?ordinary ? ?Javanese
people ? ?believed ? ?in ? ?the ? ?more ? ?tolerant ? ?traditional ? ?animistic ? ?practices ? ?of ? ?spirit ? ?worship ? ?while
merchants ? ?worshipped ? ?a ? ?more ? ?orthodox ? ?version; ? ?Orthodox ? ?Muslims ? ?felt ? ?the ? ?Middle ? ?Eastern
traditions ? ?from ? ?Muhammad ? ?and ? ?the ? ?Quran ? ?should ? ?be ? ?followed ? ?strictly. ? ?In ? ?Arabia, ? ?Muhammad
Ibd ? ?al-Wahhab ? ?believed ? ?deviations ? ?from ? ?the ? ?pure ? ?faith ? ?of ? ?early ? ?Islam ? ?caused ? ?the ? ?problems ? ?in ? ?the
Islamic ? ?world ? ?and ? ?some ? ?deeds ? ?of ? ?the ? ?Muslims ? ?were ? ?forbidden ? ?by ? ?God; ? ?as ? ?a ? ?result, ? ?idols ? ?were
eliminated. ? ?In ? ?addition, ? ?women ? ?had ? ?more ? ?rights ? ?and ? ?freedom ? ?in ? ?the ? ?patriarchal ? ?hierarchy ? ?like
divorce. ? ?These ? ?religious ? ?movements ? ?constantly ? ?influenced ? ?the ? ?Islamic ? ?world.

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Cultural ? ?changes ? ?occurred ? ?in ? ?China ? ?and ? ?India ? ?during ? ?the ? ?early ? ?modern ? ?era ? ?as ? ?well. ? ?In
China, ? ?Wang ? ?Yangming ? ?established ? ?that ? ?anyone ? ?could ? ?accomplish ? ?a ? ?virtuous ? ?life ? ?by
introspection ? ?and ? ?contemplation ? ?without ? ?the ? ?proper ? ?education ? ?or ? ?improvement. ? ?Chinese
Buddhists ? ?suggested ? ?that ? ?laypeople ? ?at ? ?home ? ?could ? ?also ? ?participate ? ?in ? ?practices ? ?by ? ?monks ? ?in
monasteries, ? ?and ? ??Kaozhing ?? ?meant ? ?using ? ?critical ? ?analysis ? ?instead ? ?of ? ?conventional ? ?Confucianism
such ? ?as ? ?for ? ?ancient ? ?historic ? ?texts. ? ?The ? ?commoners ? ?played ? ?a ? ?role ? ?in ? ?plays, ? ?paintings, ? ?short ? ?stories,
books, ? ?and ? ?more ? ?art. ? ?In ? ?India, ? ?the ? ?Mughal ? ?emperor ? ?Akbar ? ?combined ? ?Islam, ? ?Hinduism ? ?and
Zoroastrianism ? ?to ? ?create ? ?a ? ?synthetic ? ?religion; ? ?he ? ?was ? ?very ? ?tolerant ? ?of ? ?other ? ?religions. ? ??Bhakti, ? ??a
devotional ? ?form ? ?of ? ?Hinduism, ? ?aimed ? ?to ? ?unite ? ?with ? ?the ? ?Indian ? ?deities ? ?which ? ?appealed ? ?to ? ?women ? ?in
particular. ? ?Finally, ? ?Guru ? ?Nanak, ? ?the ? ?founder ? ?of ? ?Sikhism, ? ?mixed ? ?Islam ? ?and ? ?Hinduism ? ?with ? ?only
God.

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