Mental states of man
Mental states are integral characteristics of mental activity for a certain period of time. Changing, they accompany the life of a person in his relationships with people, society, etc. In any mental state, three general dimensions can be distinguished: motivational-motivational, emotionally-valued and activation-energetic (the first dimension is the determining one).
Along with the mental states of an individual, there are also “mass-like” states, i.e. mental states of certain communities of people (micro- and macro-groups, peoples, societies). In the sociological and socio-psychological literature, two types of such states are specially considered: public opinion and public mood .
Mental states of a person are characterized by integrity, mobility and relative stability, interrelation with mental processes and personality traits, individual identity and typicality, extreme diversity, polarity.
The integrity of mental states is manifested in the fact that they characterize in a certain period of time all mental activity as a whole, expressing a concrete relationship of all components of the psyche.
The mobility of mental states is their variability, the presence of stages of percolation (the beginning, a certain dynamics and the end).
Mental states have relative stability , their dynamics are less pronounced than in mental processes (cognitive, volitional, emotional). At the same time, mental processes, states and properties, individuals are closely interrelated. Mental states affect mental processes, being the background of their course. At the same time, they act as a “building material” for the formation of personal qualities, primarily characterological. For example, the state of concentration mobilizes the processes of attention, perception, memory, thought, will and emotions of a person. In turn, this condition, repeatedly repeating itself, can become a quality of personality – concentration.
Mental states are characterized by extreme diversity and polarity. The latter concept means that each mental state of a person corresponds to the opposite state (confidence – uncertainty, activity – passivity, frustration – tolerance, etc.).
The mental states of a person can be classified according to the following reasons:
1. depending on the role of the individual and the situation in the emergence of mental states, personal and situational ;
2. Depending on the dominant (leading) components (if they clearly appear) – intellectual, strong-willed, emotional, etc .;
3. Depending on the degree of depth – the state (more or less) is deep, or superficial;
4. Depending on the time of flow, short-term, prolonged, prolonged, etc .;
5. Depending on the influence on the personality, positive and negative, sthenic, increasing life activity, and asthenic ;
6. Depending on the degree of awareness, states are more or less conscious ;
7. depending on the reasons that cause them;
8. Depending on the degree of adequacy of the objective situation that caused them.
One can single out the typical positive and negative mental states typical of most people, both in everyday life (love, happiness, grief, etc.), and in professional activities associated with extreme (extreme, unusual) conditions. This should include mental states of professional fitness, awareness of the importance of their profession, the state of joy from success in work, the state of volitional activity, etc.
The mental state of professional interest is of great importance for the effectiveness of labor activity .
The state of professional interest is characterized by: awareness of the importance of professional activity; the desire to learn more about it and to act actively in its field; focus on the circle of objects associated with this area, and while these objects begin to occupy a dominant position in the mind of a specialist.
The diversity and creative nature of professional activity make it possible for an employee to develop mental states that are close in content and structure to the state of creative inspiration inherent in scientists, writers, artists, actors, musicians. It is expressed in a creative upsurge; aggravation of perception; increase the ability to reproduce previously captured; increasing the power of imagination; the emergence of a number of combinations of original impressions, etc.
The psychological state of readiness for it as a whole and for its separate elements, in particular, is of great importance for the effectiveness of professional activity .
Along with positive (stenotic) states, negative (asthenic) mental states can arise in the person in the process of his life activity (activity, communication). For example, indecision as a mental state can arise not only in the absence of self-reliance, self-confidence, but also because of the novelty, ambiguity, confusion of a particular life situation under extreme (extreme) conditions. Such conditions lead to the emergence of a state of mental tension .
One can and should talk about the state of purely operational (operator, "business") tension , i.e. tensions that arise as a result of the complexity of the activity performed (difficulties in sensory discrimination, alertness, difficulty in visual-motor coordination, intellectual load, etc.) and emotional tension caused by emotional extreme conditions (working with people, including patients, offenders, etc.).