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The digital divide is the gap that exists between those who have access to technology, those who do not have access and those with limited access.
This challenge includes the lack of access to internet that includes network connections, technology devices and to software and applications. There are gaps in high-speed internet access that have important effects on media access. Therefore, narrowing the digital divide requires providing adequate infrastructure and services both in the poorest places and poorest areas of the country.
Strengthening the middle mile involves liberalizing the market for building and operating backbone networks, encouraging open access to the incumbent’s network, requiring all major infrastructure programmes (such as roads, railways, pipelines and energy distribution) to include provision for an optical fibre link, setting up internet exchange points and creating local caches for frequently used content.
Government policies can encourage the provision of last-mile connectivity by permitting competing facilities, especially for intermodal competition (between cable, wireless and digital subscriber lines), and mandating the incumbent to make local access lines available to competitors at wholesale prices.
Technology is dynamic, and so should be education. This holds true for relations between digital skills and digital technology. As technology progresses, some skills become obsolete. Workers in companies must acquire new skills that help them to become more productive. Adjustments may take time and will not be comfortable for many, but this is how economy progresses. Policies and regulations should make sure that education is equally received, especially for those underprivileged such as people living in remote areas and having insufficient resources to access education.
Education is a key factor in providing a solution to the digital divide. Colleges and universities must provide technology training to those enrolled in their programs. Technology training in community education should be encouraged. This offers training at a reduced cost and offers classes at night so that those who work during the day can attend. High schools must also make efforts by adding computer labs to the schools and many have obtained technology sponsorship to buy laptop computers for each student.
If our government together with private sectors can work together to ensure digital villages, South Africa would do very well in terms of its educational system as well as infrastructure is concerned. The government must develop policies to adapt the education system to changing labour markets and encourage digital skills training for everyone at an affordable price.
This challenge is about affordability, due to the higher costs of acquiring necessary devices and services. Many people in our country still do not have a smart mobile phones, which is the easiest way in emerging economies to get connected. Therefore, bridging the digital divide requires making the internet accessible for the poorest people.
Government subsidies or policies together with service providers can be designed to make internet devices such as smartphones so cheap that everyone can own one, the internet service can become affordable by pricing the services based on service regions and income levels.

1. Huawei (2016), Digital Enablement (
2. Poushter, J, (2016), “Smartphone Ownership and Internet Usage Continues to Climb in Emerging Economies ‘Pews Research Centre, 22 October 2018.
3. Jensen, M. 1999. The status of African information infrastructure. Online. Available at (Accessed 19 October 2018).
4. Furstenburg, E, A, 2005. Bridging the digital divide: A South African perspective on minimally invasive education, University of Pretoria. Pages 21.

1. Notebook
Features of the Notebook
• CPU (Intel Pentium 4 processor) – the processor is the brain of your computer. In terms of power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. Processors are difficult to upgrade, it’s important to choose a processor that will be able to meet your needs now and in the future. In addition to performance, battery life is also an important consideration when choosing a notebook processor.
• Wireless technology (WI- Fi 802.11ac) -Wireless technology can greatly enhance the mobility and productivity advantages of your notebook. You need to be able to connect to a wireless network at work and at thousands of free or fee-based public wireless access points anywhere you go.
• Productivity software (Microsoft office 365) – it includes applications that allow you to do things like create word documents, write memos, create a spreadsheet, build a database, maintain a contact list, and more.
• System and Graphics Memory (RAM 8GB) – Random Access Memory is the driving force behind the performance of your computer. The amount of RAM you have determines how many programs can be executed at one time and how much data can be readily available to a program. It also helps determine how quickly your applications perform and how many applications you can easily toggle between at one time.
• Operating system software (Windows 10 Home) – it runs the basic functions of a personal computer. It controls the user interface, instructs the PC on how to interact with internal and external peripherals, and handles networking with other computers.

• Battery life 8+ hours – it is ideal to have a long life battery span for your notebook especially for travelling. A good notebook that has power management settings to control power consumption.

• Operating System – Windows 10 home.
• Processor – Intel Pentium 4
• Motherboard – North Bridge: Intel 945PM
• Screen – 1280 x 800pixels 14.1-inch Wide TFT WXGA with Super Shine View
• GPU – Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) 950
• Speakers – Sigmatel STAC 9200 Internal Speakers
• User Interface – Touchpad with 2 Buttons, Standard US Keyboard Layout, Remote Control, One-Touch Skype button, Trusted Platform Module, Finger Print Recognition.
• Connectivity – High Definition Audio Modem Agere Athena AM2, Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG, Bluetooth 2.0 high enhanced data rate and Integrated Webcam.
• I/O Interface – 4 x USB 2.0 ports, 1 x IEEE 1394A, 1 x D-Suub 15pin, 1 x Audio/Microphone-in 1x Audio Out, 1 x Modem RJ-11 Port, 1 x RJ-45 Port, 1 x S-Video out, 1 x 4-in-1 Card Reader, 1x CIR and 1 x Express Card Slot

1. Size and portability – It is not large and its lightweight meaning that you can move around with it, it is also versatile and convenient.
2. Accessibility – This refers to the accessibility of a PC software regardless of the type of disability or severity impairment. This includes that the notebook has Keyboard shortcuts and MouseKeys allowing the user to substitute keyboarding for mouse actions. Sticky keys which allows characters or commands to be typed without having to hold down a modifier key (Shift, Ctrl, or Alt) while pressing a second key. ToggleKeys is a feature of Microsoft Windows 95 onwards. A high sound is heard when the caps lock, scroll lock, or number lock key is switched on. A low sound is heard when any of those keys are switched off.
3. Adaptability refers to how easily the system can be built on or modified to broaden its range of uses. A technology that affords hundreds of different, additional kinds of uses beyond its essential application is more adaptable.
4. Transferability it indicates how easily changes in the technology can be conveyed to others. With fully transferable technology, skilled users’ adaptations can be easily conveyed to less skilled others.
5. Ease of mastery is technology’s ease of mastery reflects how easy it is for broad audiences to understand how to adopt and adapt it. Ease of mastery also refers to the ease with which various types of people might deploy and adapt a given technology, even if their skills fall short of full mastery.


3. Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2018). “The Nature of Notebooks: How Enlightenment Schoolchildren Transformed the Tabula Rasa”. Journal of British Studies. 57: pages 275–307.

1. What are the ethical and IPR (Intellectual Copy Rights) issues that the faculty are confronted with?
The faculty is faced with quite a lot of issues, first is that the installed pirated software compromises the integrity of the university and the pirated installed software can infect viruses into the university database or network which puts the university at risk and can damage the university’s network without any technical support. Secondary students commit plagiarism by coping and pasting someone’s work from different internet sites and present them as their own without acknowledging the author or the site. Students violate both Intellectual property rights copyright ethics by not acknowledging the original owners of their work. Students do what they feel is right to them or even wrong in their school whereby they do not consider the sources they have consulted. Students are committing software piracy by coping, distributing and using software without paying. Students violate all ethics especially when they do researches for the school work.
2. What are the steps that the faculty should take to address the ethical and IPR issues?
The steps the Faculty should take is they must begin by uninstalling the pirated software from their computers and destroying any copies in their possession and replace it with legal software. The faculty should create policies to prevent such occurrences’ in the future. The faculty should make clear with all students about ethics code. Students should be taught about how to acknowledge sources consulted in their research work with correct citation. Students should sign the ethics code beginning of every year in the school life and the faculty should deal severely with those who have violated the laws. The faculty teaches should also us methods of plagiarism checkers such as Turn IT In to prevent plagiarism in students work. All students should be taught about the seriousness on the legal implications of plagiarism and the repercussion afterwards.

3. If you were a student who copied and was caught for plagiarism, what are the consequences you would expect?
• If I was one of the students caught for plagiarism I would expect the university to give me a warning as first offense.
• As a student I would expect the faculty to disqualify me and expect to be counselled.
• Penalisation of marks on the assignment or research.
• Disciplinary actions be taken against me.
• I would expect the university to punish me for violating the IPR.
• I would expect the university to suspend me for the committed crime.

1. J. H. Moor; if Aristotle were a computing professional, Computers and Society, Vol. 28, no. 3, pp.13-16 (1998).
2. C de Ridder a L Pretorius b A Barnard c, Towards teaching Computer Ethics, UNISA 2001- 8 pdf, pages 2-3
3. accessed 23 October 2018.


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