MUHIMBILI UNIVERSTY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES SCHOOL OF NURSING RESEARH PROPOSAL TITLE

MUHIMBILI UNIVERSTY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES
SCHOOL OF NURSING

RESEARH PROPOSAL
TITLE: KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG WOMEN ABOVE 18 YEARS ATTENDING BUGURUNI REPRODUCTIVE AND CHILD HEALTH CLINIC IN DAR ES SALAAM
NAME: NEEMA HUSSEIN MUSHI
REG NO: 2015-04-08772
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MIDWIFERY
SUPERVISOR: STELLA MUSHY
COURSE COORDINATOR: DR. LILIAN T. MSELE
23 AUGUST 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTSContents
TOC o “1-3” h z u TITLE PAGEREF _Toc518491843 h iTABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc518491844 h iiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc518491845 h ivDEFINITION OF TERMS PAGEREF _Toc518491846 h vTABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc518491847 h viCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc518491848 h 11.1. Background PAGEREF _Toc518491849 h 11.2. Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc518491850 h 31.3. Goal PAGEREF _Toc518491851 h 31.4. Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc518491852 h 41.5. Research questions PAGEREF _Toc518491853 h 41.6. Research hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc518491854 h 41.7. Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc518491855 h 41.8. Variables PAGEREF _Toc518491856 h 41.9. Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc518491857 h 5CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc518491858 h 6CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc518491859 h 83.1. Study design PAGEREF _Toc518491860 h 83.2. Study site PAGEREF _Toc518491861 h 83.3. Study setting PAGEREF _Toc518491862 h 83.4. Target population PAGEREF _Toc518491863 h 83.5. Study population PAGEREF _Toc518491864 h 93.5.1. Inclusion criteria PAGEREF _Toc518491865 h 93.5.2. Exclusion criteria PAGEREF _Toc518491866 h 93.6. Sample size PAGEREF _Toc518491867 h 93.7. Sampling procedure PAGEREF _Toc518491868 h 103.8. Data collection tools PAGEREF _Toc518491869 h 103.9. Data collection procedure PAGEREF _Toc518491870 h 113.10. Data management PAGEREF _Toc518491871 h 113.11. Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc518491872 h 113.12. Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc518491873 h 123.13. Dissemination of findings PAGEREF _Toc518491874 h 123.14. Study limitations PAGEREF _Toc518491875 h 13References PAGEREF _Toc518491876 h 14Budget and Justification PAGEREF _Toc518491877 h 16Work plan PAGEREF _Toc518491878 h 17Appendices PAGEREF _Toc518491879 h 18Appendix 1: Ethical clearance letter PAGEREF _Toc518491880 h 18Appendix 2: Permission letter PAGEREF _Toc518491881 h 19Appendix 3: Participant’s informed consent form PAGEREF _Toc518491882 h 20Appendix 4: Fomu ya ridhaa kushiriki katika utafiti PAGEREF _Toc518491883 h 22Appendix 5: English questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc518491884 h 25Appendix 6: Dodoso la Kiswahili PAGEREF _Toc518491885 h 27
ABSTRACTBackground
The problem of rising population, caused by high fertility rates and aggravated by low contraceptive practice has taken a frightening dimension in most developing nations, including Tanzania, hence different authors have voiced their concerns and advocated ways out of the dilemma as a means of having a better society by promoting knowledge and the practice of modern family planning methods.

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Objective
The objective of this study is to determine knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni RCH Clinic in Dar es Salaam.

Methodology
A cross-sectional study will be conducted among 62 women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni RCH Clinic using simple random sampling method after an informed consent being obtained from the participants. A questionnaire with close-ended structured questions will be used. Ethical clearance will be obtained from ethical review of MUHAS. Data analysis will be done by using computer program SPSS, version 20. Chi-square, 95% CI, and p-value of 5% will be used to state the association of variables.

BudgetThis study will require five hundred thousand Tanzania shillings (500,000/=), which will be funded by HESLB. This amount of money will help to run all costs required for proposal development, data collection, and preparation of the research report.

DEFINITION OF TERMSFamily planning methods: These are artificial and natural techniques or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”9780323074292″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lowdermilk”,”given”:”Deitra Leonard”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”edition”:”Tenth Edit”,”editor”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carter”,”given”:”Robin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”number-of-pages”:”1025″,”publisher”:”Jeff Patterson”,”publisher-place”:”St. Louis”,”title”:”Maternity & Women ‘ s Health Care”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cbccac8c-059d-469e-b15c-2485aa579d97″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lowdermilk, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lowdermilk, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lowdermilk, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lowdermilk, 2012).

Family planning: The process of deciding on the number of children one or a couple wants to have, intervals between their births, and when to start having children ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Ofonime Effiong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9bdaa605-b0fd-40d7-ae83-42ad88163132″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johnson, 2016).

Knowledge: The information and skills acquired through experiences or through education ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Karki”,”given”:”Kshitij”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Al Meen Journal of Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”24-29″,”title”:”O R I G I N A L A R T I C L E Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC , Nuwakot district , Nepal Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of K”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”9″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ccc217bd-f7b9-4b23-b088-169e95221111″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Karki, 2016).

Modern family planning methods: These are medical procedures or techniques that interfere with the reproduction from acts of sexual intercourse. Modern family planning methods include combined oral contraceptive also called pills, progestrogen only pills, implant, progestrogen only injectable, IUD device (copper contain),male and female condom ,tubal ligation and emergence contraceptive ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha, Mgimwa, & Msuya, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha, Mgimwa, & Msuya, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha, Mgimwa, & Msuya, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha, Mgimwa, ; Msuya, 2017).

Practice: An actual utilization or application of planned method as opposed to theories relating it ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lwelamira”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mnyamagola”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msaki”,”given”:”M M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Current Research Journal of Social Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=80509822-6ea6-4f93-93cf-26f7210e6f13″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lwelamira et al., 2016).

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONSS/N Abbreviation Long term
1 AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
2 CI Confidence Interval
3 FP Family Planning
4 HESLB Higher Education Students’ Loan Board
5 HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
6 IUD Intra Uterine Device
7 MDG Millennium Development Goal
8 MoHCDGEC Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly, and Children
9 MUHAS Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
10 RCH Reproductive and Child Health
11 SPSS Statistical Package of Social Science
12 SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
13 UFS Under Forward Signature
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1. BackgroundFamily planning (FP) is among the indicators of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). FP prevents unwanted pregnancies and eliminates recourse to abortion ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017). Also, it allows individual and couples to anticipate and attain their desire number of children and the spacing and timing of the birth ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Ofonime Effiong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9bdaa605-b0fd-40d7-ae83-42ad88163132″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johnson, 2016). Contraceptive methods and treatment of involuntary infertility are used to achieve the purpose. Spacing and limiting pregnancies has a direct impact on women health and well being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancyADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Ofonime Effiong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9bdaa605-b0fd-40d7-ae83-42ad88163132″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johnson, 2016).
Family planning methods have many benefits which include prevention of pregnancy related health risks in women, reduction of infant mortality rate, and prevention of HIV/AIDS ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Ofonime Effiong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9bdaa605-b0fd-40d7-ae83-42ad88163132″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lwelamira”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mnyamagola”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msaki”,”given”:”M M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Current Research Journal of Social Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=80509822-6ea6-4f93-93cf-26f7210e6f13″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016; Lwelamira, Mnyamagola, & Msaki, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016; Lwelamira, Mnyamagola, & Msaki, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016; Lwelamira, Mnyamagola, & Msaki, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johnson, 2016; Lwelamira, Mnyamagola, & Msaki, 2016). Additionally, family planning methods reduce adolescence pregnancy and slow population growth ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dangat”,”given”:”Celina M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Njau”,”given”:”Bernard”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Tanzania Journal of Health Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , attitude and practices on family planning services among adolescents in secondary schools in Hai District , northern Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”15″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=44af77ef-08f9-435e-874b-31183366fbb8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Dangat & Njau, 2013). But, inadequate knowledge and practice regarding modern family planning methods can lead to increase of the population and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestation age and prenatal death ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dangat”,”given”:”Celina M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Njau”,”given”:”Bernard”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Tanzania Journal of Health Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , attitude and practices on family planning services among adolescents in secondary schools in Hai District , northern Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”15″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=44af77ef-08f9-435e-874b-31183366fbb8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Dangat & Njau, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Dangat & Njau, 2013).

Family planning methods are divided into two groups; modern family planning methods that include combined oral contraceptive also called pills, progestrogen only pills, implant, progestrogen only injectable, IUD device (copper contain),male and female condom ,tubal ligation and emergence contraceptive ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015; Mosha et al., 2017). And natural family planning methods that include calendar method, lactation amenorrhea; coitus interrupts and other practices, which have a direct impact on fertility that have been used including postpartum sexual abstinence, which are probably used child survival and child spacing rather than for limiting family size ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017).
In 2015, the United Nations report on Trends in Contraceptive Use Worldwide, it was reported that contraceptive use has increased in several parts around the world, including Asia and Latin America ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017). Similarly, the report showed that the contraceptive use continues to be low in sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, the use of modern contraceptive has risen slightly, from 54% in 1990 to 57.4% in 2014 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017). Looking at Africa it was revealed that contraception went from 23.6% to 27.6%, in Asia from 60.9% to 61.6% ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017).
Many sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have persistently high rates of unmet need for family Planning and low rates of contraceptive use estimated at 51.4%. The low levels of contraceptive use in SSA are results of both the limited capacity of the health system and the structure within which contraceptive services are provided ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Karki”,”given”:”Kshitij”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Al Meen Journal of Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”24-29″,”title”:”O R I G I N A L A R T I C L E Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC , Nuwakot district , Nepal Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of K”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”9″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ccc217bd-f7b9-4b23-b088-169e95221111″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Karki, 2016).
In the 1990s, Tanzania had one of the largest annual increases that were two percentage points per annum in contraceptive prevalence rates in the East Africa region ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015). The contraceptive prevalence rate has, however, slowed considerably since the 1990s, during which the annual increase in the use of any method dropped to 0.2 percentage points per year, with prevalence reaching only 26.4 percent in 2004/2005 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015).

Low rate of use of contraceptives in Tanzania are due to shortage in some of the available and used methods, limited numbers of family methods’ skilled service providers, insufficient/ low level skills of these staff, low education to users especially on modern contraceptive methods, fear of social disapproval, side effects posed by these methods to users’ health, partner’s disapproval, preference for large family sizes and other cultural concerns ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lwelamira”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mnyamagola”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msaki”,”given”:”M M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Current Research Journal of Social Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=80509822-6ea6-4f93-93cf-26f7210e6f13″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lwelamira et al., 2016).

Many studies have revealed that knowledge of modern methods of contraception and where the methods could be obtained is good; for example, many women could mention at least one method of contraception and state that modern contraceptive methods could be obtained from a health facility ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lal”,”given”:”Mohan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Health Sciences and Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”8″,”title”:”Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Urban Slums of Amritsar City International Journal of Health Sciences and Research Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e495f270-59c9-401f-a34b-7d57b25d40d1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lal, 2015). However, the substantial gap between knowledge and adoption in contraceptive methods was found in the study population.

The study aims to assess knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years who attend at Buguruni RCH Clinic so as to see their level of knowledge and uptake of modern FP method. This will help the policy makers to know the knowledge gap and easen implementation so as to increase FP uptake.
1.2. Problem statementIn Tanzania, adherence to modern family planning methods among women is still low despite the availability of different types of modern family planning methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 – 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 – 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 – 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 – 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 – 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kidayi”,”given”:”Paulo Lino”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd”,”given”:”Jim”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuya”,”given”:”Chuki Christina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mtuy”,”given”:”Tara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahande”,”given”:”Michael Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Sexual Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”43-52″,”title”:”Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania : Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a5bb7a-2641-45f3-8573-0636135fb7b1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kidayi et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kidayi et al., 2015). The rate of modern family planning methods utilization among women of reproductive age is around 34% in Tanzania ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017). Low rate of use of contraceptives in Tanzania are due to shortage in some of the available and used methods, limited numbers of family methods’ skilled service providers, insufficient/ low level skills of these staff, low education to users especially on modern contraceptive methods, fear of social disapproval, side effects posed by these methods to users’ health, partner’s disapproval, preference for large family sizes and other cultural concerns ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017).

Also, the poor correspondence between knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods has drawn attention to women’s perception about the positive and negative aspect of modern contraception noted that the reluctance to use modern family planning methods stemmed from fear that uses might cause infertility, producing damaging side effects e.g., IUD (Intra Uterine Device) leads to heavy menstrual flow ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stephen”,”given”:”Obalase”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biomed”,”given”:”Babatunde”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Res”,”given”:”Tech”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Babatunde”,”given”:”Obalase Stephen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Evelyn”,”given”:”Joseph Uchenna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Scientific and Technical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”1″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fb9e8c1-0a0b-4123-8084-e01d639ca481″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lal”,”given”:”Mohan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Health Sciences and Research”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”8″,”title”:”Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Urban Slums of Amritsar City International Journal of Health Sciences and Research Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e495f270-59c9-401f-a34b-7d57b25d40d1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015; Stephen, Biomed, Res, Babatunde, & Evelyn, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015; Stephen, Biomed, Res, Babatunde, & Evelyn, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015; Stephen, Biomed, Res, Babatunde, & Evelyn, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lal, 2015; Stephen, Biomed, Res, Babatunde, ; Evelyn, 2017). Also, partners disapprove and religion beliefs contribute to little utilization of modern family planning methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stephen”,”given”:”Obalase”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biomed”,”given”:”Babatunde”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Res”,”given”:”Tech”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Babatunde”,”given”:”Obalase Stephen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Evelyn”,”given”:”Joseph Uchenna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Scientific and Technical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”1″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fb9e8c1-0a0b-4123-8084-e01d639ca481″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Stephen et al., 2017).

Based on these, there is inadequate knowledge and practice among women of reproductive age therefore, if this study will not be conducted in Tanzania may lead to persistent of low knowledge and practice of women to modern family planning methods that in turn will lead to rapid population growth. The aim of this study is to increase adequate knowledge and practice of women on modern family planning methods and hence, decrease of unplanned pregnancies.
1.3. GoalTo determine knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women ages above 18 years attending Buguruni RCH Clinic in Dar es Salaam from December 2018 to March 2019.1.4. Specific objectivesTo determine the proportion of women aged above 18 years using modern family planning methods who attending at Buguruni RCH.
To determine the level of knowledge of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 attending at Buguruni RCH clinic. 1.5. Research questionsWhat is the proportion of women aged above 18 years using modern family planning methods?
What knowledge women aged above 18 years have on modern family planning methods among those attending at Buguruni RCH Clinic?
1.6. Research hypothesis
Knowledgeable women above 18years on modern family planning methods will be more likely to use FP than women with no knowledge.

There is association between knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending at Buguruni RCH.

1.7. Significance of the studyThis study will address more on the need for increasing the level of knowledge on modern family planning methods and uptake among women. Similarly, this study will provide appropriate strategies towards increasing the utilization of modern family planning methods among women in Tanzania. In addition, this study will help the policy makers to know the knowledge gap and easen implementation so as to increase FP uptake. Furthermore, the information that will be obtained from this study might be useful by Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children to formulate and implement different strategies towards modern family planning utilization.
1.8. VariablesIndependent variable is knowledge on modern family planning methods; Dependent variable is practice on modern family planning methods.

1.9. Conceptual frameworkThis conceptual framework has been constructed with reference to different literatures that describe the knowledge and practice of reproductive age women regarding modern family planning methods. Practice of women on modern family planning methods seem to be influenced by their knowledge on the modern family planning methods.

Practice of women on modern family planning methods

Inadequate knowledge on modern family planning methods
Adequate knowledge on modern family planning methods

Figure 1: Conceptual frame work of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEWThis chapter reviews the literatures related to modern family planning methods in family planning across the world. Many studies that have been reviewed in this chapter are relevant as they provide a premise to the understanding of knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among reproductive age women.

Family planning is often discussed in term of its impacts on women’s physical health because it’s one of the effective action that support women’s right to safe motherhood. Different authors have used the term family planning synonymous with birth control. However, family planning does not just involve contraception. Family planning in which the major component is the use of contraceptive methods is a key fundamental of health services whose benefits are health and wellbeing of women, men, children, families, and their communities ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Ofonime Effiong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9bdaa605-b0fd-40d7-ae83-42ad88163132″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johnson, 2016).

A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Mpwapwa district, Dodoma among 160 randomly selected rural women from eight villages aiming at determining knowledge and use of modem contraceptive methods revealed that knowledge of modern methods of contraception and where the methods could be obtained was good (98.8%), for example, many women could mention at least three methods of contraception and stated that modern contraceptive methods could be obtained from a health facility ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lwelamira”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mnyamagola”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msaki”,”given”:”M M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Current Research Journal of Social Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=80509822-6ea6-4f93-93cf-26f7210e6f13″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lwelamira et al., 2016). However, only 25% of the respondents were using modern contraceptive methods and this was accounted as poor practice ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lwelamira”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mnyamagola”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msaki”,”given”:”M M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Current Research Journal of Social Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=80509822-6ea6-4f93-93cf-26f7210e6f13″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lwelamira et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lwelamira et al., 2016).

Another study conducted in 2014 in Iringa, Tanzania with the purpose of assessing knowledge, perception and factors associated with use of modern contraceptive methods among 96 women aged 15-49 years in which data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions and documentary reviews showed that knowledge of modern FP was almost universal (100% percent), although 17 (17.7 %) claimed to have not been using modern contraceptives methods due to perceived side effects, religion beliefs, and partner disapprove ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mosha”,”given”:”Peter Elia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgimwa”,”given”:”Christina Abel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Stanslaus Mbonea”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”335-340″,”title”:”Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=96a9d8f1-04bf-4d63-9807-4d84afdb44fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mosha et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mosha et al., 2017).

A cross-sectional study conducted in 1600 houses selected randomly in four slum areas of Amritsar city aiming at determining the knowledge and practice of modern contraceptive methods among reproductive age group (15-49 years) portrayed that knowledge about different contraceptive methods was present among majority (96.2%) of respondents. But, only 48.2% respondents were using modern contraceptive methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lal”,”given”:”Mohan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Health Sciences and Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”8″,”title”:”Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Urban Slums of Amritsar City International Journal of Health Sciences and Research Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e495f270-59c9-401f-a34b-7d57b25d40d1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lal, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lal, 2015).

Furthermore, a descriptive cross-sectional study done in Kakani, Nepal with quantitative methods among 109 reproductive age and married women to assess the knowledge and practice on modern family planning methods. More than half (56.9%) had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents had been using modern family planning methods. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning, use of contraceptive methods was accounted to be low ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Karki”,”given”:”Kshitij”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Al Meen Journal of Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”24-29″,”title”:”O R I G I N A L A R T I C L E Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC , Nuwakot district , Nepal Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of K”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”9″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ccc217bd-f7b9-4b23-b088-169e95221111″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Karki, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Karki, 2016).

Additionally, the cross-sectional study conducted in Delta state, Nigeria using a descriptive survey design to investigate the knowledge and practice of family planning among 582 women of child bearing age, indicates that women have very high knowledge of family planning methods (93.2%) which tilted towards condom (91.3%), pills (72.3%), and injectables (64.2%) with relatively low contraceptive use prevalence (31.2%), thus indicating a wide gap between knowledge and current usage promoted by expectations of side effects of family planning methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”D”,”given”:”Andrew G Onokerhoraye Ph”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Egbemudia”,”given”:”Johnson”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ph”,”given”:”Dudu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”8″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”66-75″,”title”:”Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning by Women of Childbearing Age in Delta State , Nigeria .”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8633a380-bd91-4cd7-af41-7fd8e3e2f7c4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(D, Egbemudia, & Ph, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(D, Egbemudia, & Ph, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(D, Egbemudia, & Ph, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(D, Egbemudia, & Ph, 2016).

A descriptive cross-sectional survey carried out among 200 women attending post-natal clinic in Ayeka, Nigeria to explore knowledge, attitude and practice of modern family planning methods. Majority 157 (78.5%) have heard about contraceptive while 55(27.5%) heard the information from government hospital/health care ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stephen”,”given”:”Obalase”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biomed”,”given”:”Babatunde”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Res”,”given”:”Tech”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Babatunde”,”given”:”Obalase Stephen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Evelyn”,”given”:”Joseph Uchenna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Scientific and Technical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”1″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fb9e8c1-0a0b-4123-8084-e01d639ca481″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Stephen et al., 2017). However, about 56.2% of the study respondents were not using modern family planning method ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stephen”,”given”:”Obalase”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biomed”,”given”:”Babatunde”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Res”,”given”:”Tech”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Babatunde”,”given”:”Obalase Stephen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Evelyn”,”given”:”Joseph Uchenna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Scientific and Technical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”1″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fb9e8c1-0a0b-4123-8084-e01d639ca481″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Stephen et al., 2017). The major barrier to the usage of contraceptive was husband’s refusal and misconception ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stephen”,”given”:”Obalase”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biomed”,”given”:”Babatunde”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Res”,”given”:”Tech”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Babatunde”,”given”:”Obalase Stephen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Evelyn”,”given”:”Joseph Uchenna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Scientific and Technical Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”1″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fb9e8c1-0a0b-4123-8084-e01d639ca481″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Stephen et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Stephen et al., 2017).

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY3.1. Study designStudy design is an overall plan for addressing a research question, including a description of an invention accompanying an application for enhancing the study’s truthfulness ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Polit , &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Polit , &Beck, 2012). This study will employ a descriptive cross-sectional study design involving the use of quantitative approach of data collection. This study design is suitable for this study because; the researcher seeks to determine the knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years at a particular point of time. 3.2. Study siteStudy site is the place where a study is conducted that must meet criteria put onwards by regulatory organization ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Polit, &Beck, 2012). This study will be conducted at Buguruni Health Centre found in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study site is selected for the study because of easiness on accessing the study participants.

3.3. Study settingStudy setting is the specific physical environment or the actual place where the data for the study are collectedADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Polit, &Beck, 2012). This study will be conducted at the RCH Clinic found at Buguruni Health Centre. This setting is selected because; the sample for study will be obtained from reproductive age women who attend to that clinic.

3.4. Target populationTarget population is the entire population in which the researcher is interested and to which he or she would like to generalize the results of a study ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, & Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, & Beck, 2012). The target population of this study is all women who are within reproductive age because women of reproductive age who are sexually active are eligible to have knowledge and practice on modern family planning methods.

3.5. Study populationStudy population is the population from which the sample for the study is chosen ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit &Beck, 2012). This study will involve women aged above 18 years attending at Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic.

3.5.1. Inclusion criteriaInclusion criteria are specific characteristics for the study participant must meet in order to be recruited in the study ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). The population under this study will include all women with the age ranging within (18-49) years; women who will volunteer to participate in the study after an informed consent being obtained from them, and women who will be physically and mentally ok by the time and date of data collection will also be recruited in the study.
3.5.2. Exclusion criteria
These are the specific characteristics that make an individual illegible to be recruited in the study ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). This study will not recruit women aged from 18 years to 49 years who will not accept to voluntarily participate in the study. Also, women who will be found to have communication problems such as the women with impaired hearing and mute will not be included in the study. Additionally, women who will not be available at the day of data collection as well as the severely ill women aged above 18 years will be excluded from the study.3.6. Sample sizeSample is a subset of a population, selected to participate in a study. Sample size is a total number of individuals required to participate in the study ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). This study will recruit a total of 62 women aged above 18 years and not more than 49 years. Sample size of this study is obtained by using the statistical formula below:
n = z2p (100-p)
?2
n= Sample Size. In this study will be the number of lactating mothers who will be recruited in the study.

z= confidence level (Z=1.96)
p=Expected proportion (in this study, the proportion is the prevalence of women aged above 18 years who are expected to have knowledge and practice of modern family planning. From a previous study conducted in Amritsar city by Lal (2015), the proportion of women who had knowledge about modern family planning methods was 96.2%.
?2 Maximum likely error (margin of error). This study will tolerate only 5% maximum likely error.

n=1.96²×96.2(100-96.2)

n= 56
By adding 10% of 56 for likely possibility of non-respondents, the total sample size becomes 62 women.
3.7. Sampling procedureSampling procedure is the way that is used for selecting a part of the study population to represent the entire population ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). The study will employ simple random sampling of women aged above 18 years who will be attending at Buguruni RCH Clinic during the time of data collection. Simple random sampling will avoid bias of the researcher from conveniently selecting some mothers while leaving out the rest. In addition, it will ensure that all women aged above 18 years have an equal chance of being selected to participate in the study. This will be accomplished through listing all women with inclusion criteria, and assigning a random number to each mother, then sample will be obtained by lottery.3.8. Data collection toolsData collection tools refer to the devices that are adapted for data collection ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). The data for this study will be collected by using a simple structured questionnaire with close-ended questions translated in Swahili language. The data collection tool of this study is selected with reference to different literatures explaining on the knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women with reproductive age. The research tool selected is expected to identify the knowledge and practice of women aged above 18 years on the modern family planning methods.
Knowledge and practice of women on modern family planning methods will be ranked according to the scores that will be obtained from each questionnaire. The research data collection tool will contain two parts. Part one will be for biographic data, whereby part two will contain questions aiming at determining the knowledge and practice of women about modern family planning methods.
3.9. Data collection procedureData collection procedure is the procedure that is used in collecting information necessary for addressing a research problem ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). The data for this study will be collected using the Kiswahili simple structured questionnaire that will be filled by the respondents. The Kiswahili structured questionnaire will simplify the process of data collection because; most of the study participants in a selected study site and setting are familiar with Swahili language and not English. This will ensure accuracy of information obtained. The researcher concerned will involve directly in the process of data collection and no any research assistance will be needed in the process of data collection.

A pre-test of the questionnaires to will be done at the same RCH Clinic where the actual data collection will take place so as to check and ensure for the suitability, reliability and validity of the data collection tool. Questions that will be identified as unclear or irrelevant to the participants will be edited or omitted. The researcher will later on clean the data by checking for errors and any other inconsistencies in the collected data and thereafter enter it into the computer.3.10. Data managementData management is an administrative process that includes acquiring, validating, storing, protecting, and processing required data to ensure the accessibility, reliability, and timeliness of the data for its users ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). Data management in this study will be done through reviewing the data collected from the field and all incomplete and missing data will be easily identified and correction will be done accordingly to ensure data completeness. The questionnaire will be coded with numbers, research data will be filled in the note book. The data that will be obtained will be stored in the computer and the names of the participants will not be used for confidentiality.3.11. Data analysisData analysis is the process of transforming raw data into usable information, usually presented in the form of analytical article in order to add value to the statistical yield ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). The data that will be obtained from the study participants, will be coded, entered, cleaned and then be analyzed by using descriptive statistics under the help of computer software program, SPSS window version 20. The knowledge and practice of study participants on modern family planning methods will be categorized as low, moderate and high respectively. But, this will rely on the scores that will be obtained from the questionnaires.
The participant who will get the score below 50% will be put in the category of low knowledge, the one who will get the score ranging from 50 to 67% will be put in the category of moderate knowledge and the one who will have the score ranging from 68 to 100% will be considered to have high knowledge. Likewise, the participant who will score below 50%, 50 to 67%, and 68 to 100% in the questions pertaining to practice on modern family planning methods will be categorized as having low, moderate and high practice respectively.
Frequency distribution tables, graphs, charts and percentage tables will be used to present the data. In addition, Chi-square, 95% CI, and p-value of 5% will be used to state the association of dependent and independent variables. Furthermore, the quantitative methods will be used to state findings clearly. And finally, the researcher will directly involve in the process of data analysis and interpretation. 3.12. Ethical considerationEthical consideration is an accumulation of values and principles that address questions of what is good or bad in human affairs ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). Ethical clearance will be obtained from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences Research and Publications Committee before the study. Also, research conduction permission letter will be obtained from the District Medical Officer in Ilala Municipal Council through the Dean of students, School of Nursing. Furthermore, an informed consent will be obtained from the research participants before being recruited in the study. Confidentiality and rights of the respondents will be considered and maintained. It is important to keep human right into consideration before, during, and after conducting the study and assuring the study respondents about confidentiality.3.13. Dissemination of findingsDissemination of findings is an act of spreading information obtained from the study ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Beck”,”given”:”Demise F. polit &Cheryl Tatano”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”746″,”title”:”NursingResearch Principles and methods”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1840ff48-755e-4166-a7c6-ce73840c9416″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Polit, &Beck, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Beck, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Polit, &Beck, 2012). A printed research report will be submitted at MUHAS, School of Nursing, and Department of Clinical Nursing. Also, the report will be presented to supervisors and students at MUHAS and publication of journals. Apart from that, one printed research report will be submitted Buguruni RCH Clinic. Additionally, the information obtained from this study will be presented to the win and learn event at MUHAS and to the coming MUHAS Scientific Conference. This will facilitate on quick review and implementation of the proposed solutions towards the research problem.

3.14. Study limitationsSelection of only a single RCH Clinic and exclusion of men from the study are the limitations of this study because; they are likely to be the source of selection bias that in turn may affect the generalization of the results to the target population.

ReferencesADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY D, A. G. O. P., Egbemudia, J., & Ph, D. (2016). Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning by Women of Childbearing Age in Delta State , Nigeria . International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 5(8), 66–75.

Dangat, C. M., & Njau, B. (2013). Knowledge , attitude and practices on family planning services among adolescents in secondary schools in Hai District , northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 15(1), 1–8.

Johnson, O. E. (2016). Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Knowledge , Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women in a Rural Community in Southern Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 12(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21840
Karki, K. (2016). Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC , Nuwakot district , Nepal Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of K. Al Meen Journal of Medicine, 9(1), 24–29.

Kidayi, P. L., Msuya, S., Todd, J., Mtuya, C. C., Mtuy, T., & Mahande, M. J. (2015). Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania?: Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data. Advances in Sexual Medicine, 5(2), 43–52.

Lal, M. (2015). Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Urban Slums of Amritsar City International Journal of Health Sciences and Research Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning Among Married Women of Reproductive Age. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 5(2), 8.

Lowdermilk, D. L. (2012). Maternity & Women ‘ s Health Care. (R. Carter, Ed.) (Tenth Edit). St. Louis: Jeff Patterson.

Lwelamira, J., Mnyamagola, G., ; Msaki, M. M. (2016). Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District , Central Tanzania Knowledge , Attitude and Practice ( KAP ) Towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproduct. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 235–245.

Mosha, P. E., Mgimwa, C. A., ; Msuya, S. M. (2017). Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila , Tanzania. Science Journal of Public Health, 5(4), 335–340. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.19.

Polit, D. F., ; Beck, C. T. (2012). Resource manual for nursing research. Generating and Assessing evidence for nursing practice. Ninth Edition. China: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Stephen, O., Biomed, B., Res, T., Babatunde, O. S., ; Evelyn, J. U. (2017). Knowledge , Attitude and Acceptance of Modern Family Planning Method Among Women Attending Post – Natal Clinic in Ayeka Basic Health Centre in Okitipupa Local Government Area , Ondo State , Nigeria. Journal of Scientific and Technical Research, 1(4), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000361.

Budget and JustificationThis study will require about five hundred thousand Tanzania shillings (500,000/=), which will be funded by HESLB. This amount of money will help to run all costs required for proposal development, data collection, and research report preparation. The costs are categorized below.

Item Number price per each item Marginal total
Transport 30 800/day 24,000/=
Meal’s allowance 30 8000/day 240,000/=
Ball Pens 30 200/pen 6,000/=
Pencils 2 100/pencil 200/=
Ruler 2 500/ruler 1,000/=
Stapler machine 1 10,000/machine 10,000/=
Stapler pin 2 2,500/box 5,000/=
A4 Papers (plain) 2 10,000/ream 20,000/=
Correction fluid 3 1000/bottle 3000/=
Scientific calculator 1 35000/calculator 35000/=
Note books 2 3,000/note book 6,000/=
Clear bag 2 3,000/piece 6,000/=
Hand bag 1 30,000/piece 30,000/=
Voucher 20 1000/voucher 20,000/=
Report writing 300 200/page 60,000/=
2 12,000/report 24,000/=
Contingency _ _ 9,800/=
Grand total _ _ 500,000/=
Work planActivity July 2018 August 2018 December 2018 January 2019 February 2019 March 2019
Preparation for writing research proposal. Writing and submission of Research proposal Data collection. Data analysis and report writing. Presentation and submission of research report.
AppendicesAppendix 1: Ethical clearance letter MUHAS, SCHOOL OF NURSING,
P.O.BOX 65004,
DAR ES SALAAM
23/08/2018.

DIRECTORATE, RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION,
MUHAS,
P.O.BOX 65001
DAR ES SAALAM
U.F.S: THE DEAN,
SCHOOL OF NURSING,
MUHAS,
P.O.BOX 65004,
DAR ES SALAAM

U.F.S: STELLA MUSHY,
SUPERVISOR
SCHOOL OF NURSING,
MUHAS,
Dear Madam/Sir,
RE: REQUESTING FOR ETHICAL CLEARANCE
Kindly refer to the heading above. I am a third year student taking Bachelor of Science in Midwifery with registration number 2015-04-08772. I am asking for ethical clearance so that I can proceed with my research study entitled “Knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Dar-es-Salaam”.
I hope my request will be kindly considered.

Yours Sincerely,
……………
Mushi, Neema Hussein.Appendix 2: Permission letter
MUHAS
SCHOOL OF NURSING
P.O BOX 65004,
DAR ES SALAAM
23/08/2018.
DISTRIC MEDICAL OFFICER,
ILALA DISTRICT,
P.O BOX, 20590,
DAR ES SALAAM
U.F.S: THE DEAN,
SCHOOL OF NURSING-MUHAS,
P.O.BOX 65004,
DAR ES SALAAM
Dear Sir/Madam,
RE: REQUESTING FOR PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH
I’m a third year student pursuing Bachelor of Science in Midwifery with registration number 2015-04-08772. I am asking for the permission to conduct the research study at Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic entitled “Knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Dar-es-Salaam”. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni RCH Clinic in Dar es Salaam. This research is a partial requirement for fulfillment of my Bachelor of Science in Midwifery award. Ethical clearance letter through the Directorate of Research and Publication, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences is attached.

I hope my request will be considered.

Yours sincerely,
…………………
Mushi, Neema Hussein.

Appendix 3: Participant’s informed consent formIntroduction
Hello, my name is Neema Hussein Mushi, undergraduate student at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, School of Nursing, taking Bachelor of Science in Midwifery. I would like to invite you to participate in the study, for clear reasons of your inclusion in this study, please read the detailed information in this form. If you agree to participate in this study, please sign this form at the end. You can ask me for clarification about this consent form and the study.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni RCH Clinic in Dar es Salaam. If you have agreed to participate in this study you will be given a questionnaire containing multiple choice questions pertaining to your knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods. You will be required to choose the correct answer(s) among the given choices. The questionnaires will be marked with numbers for purpose of data analysis only. The information given and scores obtained will be confidential and protected in which nobody will be able to associate them with your actual information.
Possible Benefits
Your participation in this study will help to evaluate, make suggestions to the MoHCDGEC, and other responsible health stakeholders about how to improve the knowledge and the uptake of modern family planning methods among women. Your responses will be confidential and will be used for health related quality improvement only.

Possible Risks
We don’t expect that any harm will happen to you during and after your participation in this study.

Decision to or Not to Participate in the Study
You are allowed to decide whether to participate or not to participate in the study after reading and understanding the consent form. Your decision will not be fully accepted and respected.
Confidentiality
All information collected through questionnaires will be marked using special identification code number without including your names, and will be kept confidentially. Nobody will be capable to associate the information from the questionnaire with your actual information. The questionnaire and the report of the study will not include your names. Your information will be protected and will remain confidential all the time.

Compensation
Because of professional ethics, I will not be able to provide you any allowance or gift for being in this study.

For any Problem
Wherever you have problem related to your participation in this study or any question pertaining to the study, please contact the researcher, School of Nursing, MUHAS, through phone number 0769141066.

Your rights as a Participant
The study has been reviewed and approved by the MUHAS ethics committee for the purpose of helping in protecting the study participants. For any question concerning your rights as a study participant, you may contact the Directorate of Research and Publication through Tel: +255 22 2152489 or through P.O.BOX 65001, Dar-es-Salaam.

Participation agreement
I have read and understood the above information about the study entitled ”Knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Dar-es-Salaam”. I have been given an opportunity to ask for any question about the study and I have satisfied with clarification about this study. Therefore I agree to participate as a volunteer participant.

—-/—–/——- —- ——————————
Date Participant’s Signature
I certify that the purpose, benefits and possible risks associated with participation in this study have been well explained to the participant above.

____/____/______ _____________________
Date Signature of the researcher
Appendix 4: Fomu ya ridhaa kushiriki katika utafitiUtunguliziJina langu ni Neema Hussein Mushi, mwanafunzi wa shahada ya kwanza katika shule ya uuguzi Chuo Kikuu cha Afya na Sayansi Shirikishi Muhimbili. Ninafanya utafiti juu ya uelewa pamoja na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango miongoni mwa wanawake wenye miaka zaidi ya 18 na wanaohudhuria kliniki ya afya ya mama na mtoto katika kituo cha afya Buguruni, Dar-es-Salaam. Hivyo naomba nikukaribishe kama mshiriki kwenye utafiti huu. Soma fomu hii kujua umuhimu na sababu ya wewe kushirikishwa katika utafiti huu, kisha weka sahihi yako mwishoni mwa hii fomu kama utakubali kuwa mshiriki kwenye utafiti huu. Kama una maswali,maoni, mapendekezo au ushauri kuhusu fomu hii usisite kuuliza.

Lengo la utafiti
Lengo kuu la utafiti huu ni kutaka kujua maarifa waliyonayo pamoja na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango miongoni mwa wanawake wanaohudhuria kliniki ya afya ya mama na mtoto katika kituo cha afya cha Buguruni, Dar-es-Salaam. Kama utakubali kushiriki utapewa karatasi yenye maswali ya kuchagua yanayohusiana na maarifa uliyonayo pamoja na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango.

Faida
Hakutakuwa na faida ya moja kwa moja kwa wewe kushiriki katika utafiti huu. Lakini taarifa utakazotoa zitasaidia katika kufanya tathmini, kuboresha au kutoa mapendekezo na namna ya kutatua changamoto zinazoathiri maarifa na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango miongoni mwa wanawake. Pia matokeo ya utafiti huu yatawezesha wizara ya afya, maendeleo ya jamii, jinsia, wazee na watoto pamoja na taasisi zingine husika kuboresha elimu na kuongeza utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango kwa wanawake.

Madhara
Hatutegemei kuwa ushiriki wako katika utafiti huu utaambatana na madhara yoyote kwako au kwa mtu yeyote.

Haki ya kujitoa katika utafiti
Kushiriki au kutoshiriki katika utafiti huu ni hiari yako baada ya kusoma na kuelewa fomu hii. Uko huru kujibu au kutojibu swali unalodhani kwa namna moja au nyingine si vema kulijibu, pia uko huru kuuliza ili kupata maelezo ya kina kuhusu jambo lolote lenye utata.
Usiri
Taarifa zote zitakazokusanywa katika utafiti huu zitachakatwa na kuhifadhiwa kwa tarakilishi. Taarifa zako hazitawekwa wazi, namba maalumu zitatumika kuhifadhi taarifa hizo. Mtu yeyote hataweza kupata taarifa zako binafsi mfano, jina na mahali unapoishi. Taarifa zote utakazotoa zitahifadhiwa kwa siri.

Fidia
Kwa sababu ya maadili ya kazi, sitaweza kukulipa kiasi chochote au kukupatia zawadi yoyote kama shukrani kwa kushiriki katika utafiti huu.

Mawasiliano
Ukiwa na maswali, maoni, ushauri au mapendekezo kuhusu utafiti huu, unaweza ukawasiliana na mimi kwa namba ya simu 0769141066.
Haki yako kama mshiriki
Iwapo utakuwa na swali lolote kuhusu haki yako kama mshiriki, unaweza kuwasiliana na Kurugenzi ya Utafiti na Machapisho, Chuo Kikuu cha Afya na Sayansi Shirikishi Muhimbili kwa simu namba +255 22 2152489 au kwa anuani, S.L.P 65001, Dar es salaam.

Ridhaa kushiriki katika utafiti
Nikiwa na akili timamu nimesoma na kuelewa fomu maelezo kuhusu utafiti wenye kichwa ‘Sababu zinazopelekea matiti kuwa na usaha miongoni mwa akina mama wanaonyonyesha na wanaohudhuria kliniki ya afya ya mama na mtoto katika hospitali ya Mnazi Mmoja’ pia nimepewa fursa ya kuuliza maswali na kupewa maelezo kuhusu utafiti huu. Nimekubali kwa hiari yangu kushiriki katika utafiti huu.

___/___/_______ _____________________________
Tarehe sahihi ya mshiriki
Uthibitisho
Nathibitisha kuwa mshiriki tajwa hapo juu amepewa maeleezo ya kina kuhusu lengo, faida na madhara yatokanayo na ushiriki wake katika utafiti huu.

____/___/_______ ______________________
Tarehe sahihi ya mtafiti
Appendix 5: English questionnaireI’m a midwifery student from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. I’m conducting a research study entitled “Knowledge and practice of modern family planning methods among women aged above 18 years attending Buguruni Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Dar-es-Salaam”. I request your corporation in order to reach a good and successful health of mothers and children. All information provided will be handled confidentially.

Instructions
Identification number______
Put a tick (?) to the correct choice in bracket(s) below
Part one: Biographic data of the respondent
1. Age of respondent in years
Choice A B C D E F G
Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49
(?) 2. Marital status
A. Single ( ) B. Married ( ) C. Divorced ( ) D. Widowed ( ) E. Separated ( )
3. Parity
A. Zero ( ) B. One ( ) C. Two ( ) D. Three ( ) E. Four and above ( )
4. Educational level
A. Not attended to school ( ) B. Primary ( ) C. Secondary ( ) D. Diploma ( )
E. Higher learning education ( )
5. Occupation
A. Home mother ( ) B. Student ( ) C. Peasant ( ) D. Trader ( ) E. Formal employment ( )
Part two: Knowledge and practice on modern family planning methods
6. Have you ever heard about modern family planning method?
A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )
7. If yes from question 6 above, what do you understand about modern family planning method?
A. Medical procedure that interferes with the reproduction from acts of sexual intercourse ( ) B. Having children at the time convenient for a couple ( )
C. Not having any more children ( )
D. I don’t know ( )
8. What type of modern family planning methods do you know?
A. Pills ( ) B. Injection ( ) C. Emergency contraception ( ) D. Male and female condoms ( ) E. Female and male sterilization F. Implants ( ) G. Intra-Uterine Devices ( )
9. Have you ever used any type of modern family planning methods?
A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )
10. Are you currently using any modern family planning methods?
A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )
11. If the answer is yes from question 9 above, what type of modern family planning methods have you ever used?
A. Pills ( ) B. Injection ( ) C. Female condoms ( ) D. Female sterilization ( ) E. Implants ( ) F. Intra-Uterine Devices ( )
12. If the answer is yes from question 10 above, what type of modern family planning methods are you currently using?
A. Pills ( ) B. Injection ( ) C. Female condoms ( ) D. Female sterilization ( ) E. Implants ( ) F. Intra-Uterine Devices ( )
Appendix 6: Dodoso la KiswahiliMimi ni mwanafunzi wa uuguzi kutoka Chuo Kikuu cha Afya na Sayansi Shirikishi Muhimbili. Ninafanya utafiti juu ya uelewa na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango miongoni mwa wanawake wenye umri zaidi ya miaka 18 wanaohudhuria kliniki ya afya ya mama na mtoto katika kituo cha afya Buguruni, Dar-es-Salaam. Naomba ushirikiano ili kufikia lengo na mafanikio kwa maendeleo ya afya ya mama na mtoto. Taarifa zote utakazojaza zitahifadhiwa kwa siri.

Malekezo
Namba ya utambulisho______
Weka alama ya vema kwenye mabano (?) katika jibu sahihi
Sehemu ya kwanza: Taarifa binafsi za mshiriki
1. Umri wako kwa miaka
Chaguo A B C D E F G
Umri 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49
(?)
2. Hali ya ndoa
A. Hujaolewa ( ) B. Umeolewa ( ) C. Talaka ( ) D. Mjane ( ) E. Umeachika ( )
3. Namba ya watoto uliojifungua
A.Sijajifungua ( ) B. Mmoja ( ) C. Wawili ( ) D. Watatu ( ) E. Wanne na zaidi ( )
4. Kiwango cha elimu
A.Sijasoma ( ) B. Elimu ya msingi C. Elimu ya sekondari D. Stashahada E. Shahada
5. Kazi
A. Mama wa nyumbani ( ) B. Mwanafunzi ( ) C.Mkulima ( ) D. Mfanyabiasha ( ) E. Mwajiriwa ( )
Sehemu ya pili: Uelewa na utumiaji wa njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango
6. Ulishawahi kusikia kuhusu njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango?
A. Ndiyo ( ) B. Hapana ( )
7. Kama ni ndiyo kutoka swali la 6 hapo juu, unafahamu nini kuhusu njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango?
A. Ni utaratibu wa matibabu unaolenga kuzuia mimba kutokea baada ya wenza kujamiiana ( )
B. Kupata watoto katika muda stahili kwa wanandoa ( )
C. Kutokuwa na watoto zaidi ( )
D. Sijui ( )
8. Ni aina zipi za njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango unazozifahamu?
A. Vidonge ( ) B. Sindano ( ) C. Njia za dharura ( ) D. Kondomu za kiume na za kike ( ) E. Kutasisha mwanamke na mwanaume ( ) F. Vipandikizi ( ) G. Lupu ( )
9. Ulishawahi kutumia aina yeyote ya njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango?
A. Ndiyo ( ) B. Hapana ( )
10. Je, kwa sasa unatumia aina yeyote ya njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango?
A. Ndiyo ( ) B. Hapana ( )
11. Kama jibu ni ndiyo kutoka swali la 9 hapo juu, ni aina ipi ya njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango ulishawahi kutumia?
A. Vidonge ( ) B. Sindano ( ) C. Mipira/kondomu za kike ( ) D. Utasishaji ( ) E. Vipandikizi ( ) F. Lupu ( )
12. Kama jibu ni ndiyo kutoka swali la 10 hapo juu, ni aina zipi za njia za kisasa za uzazi wa mpango unatumia kwa sasa?
A. Vidonge ( ) B. Sindano ( ) C. Kondomu/ mipira ya kike ( ) D. Nimetasishwa ( ) E. Vipandikizi ( ) F. Lupu ( )

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