Musculoskeletal system is an organ system. It is commonly known as the locomotor system. It is made up of two organ systems. The two systems are the muscular systems and skeletal systems. The two systems are both voluntary and involuntary.
The muscular system is made up of skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. A skeletal muscle is a muscle that is connected to the skeleton to form part of the mechanical system that moves the limbs and other parts of the body (Oxforddictionaries.com 2018 Oxford University Press). It is a voluntary muscle. A smooth muscle is a muscle tissue in which the contracting fibers are occurring in the gut and other internal organs. These muscles are involuntary. The cardiac muscle is the heart muscle. It is found in the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscle.
The skeletal system is made up of several bones. Humans are born with more than 300 bones that make up the skeletal system. Some bones fuse together as humans grow older. Most adults have 206 bones because of the skeletal bones fusing together. The skeletal system gives structure and shape to the body. It stores calcium and phosphorus in the skeletal system. The muscular and skeletal system binds together as one system. The musculoskeletal system gives support, form, solidity, and balance to the body. The purpose of the musculoskeletal systems is to give the body the power to move using the muscular and skeletal system combined and support. It protects important organs with the body and circulates blood throughout the body.
The musculoskeletal system is made up of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. The sytem can be grouped into two categories hard tissues (bones and cartilage) and soft tissues ( muscles, tendons, ligaments and connective tissues).This system provides our bodies form, support, stability, and also movement to the body. This system is also responsible for protecting the organs in our bodies such as the lungs, liver and heart. The skeletal portion is the main storage system for calcium.
Bones are a major part of the musculoskeletal system. The skeleton is divided into two parts the axial skeletal bones and appendicular skeletal bones. The skeleton is divided two parts the axial skeleton and and the appendicular skeleton. The bones provide several important functions in the body such as structure, protection, mobility, blood cell production, and storage.
The muscles primary job is to move the bone in our bodies muscles are also responsible for enabling the heart to beat and make up the walls of other important hollow organs. There are three types of muscle tissue Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle is the muscle that makes up the movement in the body. There are over 600 skeletal muscles in our body and it accounts for 40% of our body weight. Cardiac Muscle is an involuntary muscle, it makes up the wall of the heart and is responsible for the steady pulsing that pumps blood through the body. This muscle also creates the electrical impulses that produce the heart’s contractions. Smooth muscle makes up the walls of hollow organs, respiratory passageways, and blood vessels. Its movements propel things through the bodily system, such as food through your stomach or urine through your bladder. Like the cardiac muscle smooth muscle is also involuntary. The tendon is a tough, flexible band of connective tissue that connects muscles to bones
The ligament is elastic tissue. Ligaments connect the ends of bones together in order to form a joint. Ligaments may also restrict some actions: movements such as hyper extension and hyper flexion are restricted by ligaments to an extent, ligaments prevent certain directional movement.
Joints are what connect bones and may allow bones to move against each other to cause movement. There are three kinds of joints, diarthroses; amphiarthrosis, and synarthroses.
The cartilage is smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a main component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body parts. It is not as hard as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle.
The musculoskeletal system provides structural support and protection of internal organs. The axial skeleton, is a very important group of skeletal bones because it protects vital organs. In order for our body to perform correctly and healthy, we need to have oxygen flowing into it and to every part our tissues. The rib cage in the body protects the heart and the lungs, which are both very vital to sustain health.
The respiratory system includes gas exchanges, when we are breathing inhaling and exhaling. When we breathe in oxygen, inhaled in by the lungs; the rib cage of the musculoskeletal system protection lungs. Breathing in oxygen is important because our body needs oxygen to keep the tissues active, healthy and at a metabolic cellular level. Oxygen being taken in from the respiratory system works with the musculoskeletal system because oxygen is needed to convert glucose into energy, which is needed in the muscles fibril cells to provide movement.
For the body to move mechanically, the body provides solely on the musculoskeletal system, which gets its movement from impulses of the nervous system. The musculoskeletal system rely mainly on the spinal cord and the frontal motor cortex of the brain. In this area of the brain, is the motor for moving our joints and muscles, which are electrical impulses from nerves. The musculoskeletal system is also important to the blood because inside the bone, is a substance called “Bone Marrow”. Bone marrow is responsible for making new blood cells in the body. Red blood cells are vital because they are needed to transport oxygen throughout the body.
There are many medical problems/diseases associated with the musculoskeletal system. Related to the bones Talipes is a congenital abnormality of hind foot involving the talus also known as club foot. Club foot may be diagnosed during an ultrasound scan but is normally diagnosed after a baby is born. With the birth defect of club foot, both feet points inward with the phalanges touching and the soles of the feet facing backward. The cause of club foot is unknown but there may be genetic connections as to why club foot occurs.
Some risk factors of clubfoot may include cerebral palsy and spina bifida. The most common treatment for club foot is the Ponseti method, this includes training your babies foot into the correct position, then putting it into a cast. This is continued every week for 5-8 weeks. After casting is complete, most babies have an operation to loosen the tendon at the back of the ankle called Achilles tendon. After treatment is complete boots that are molded onto a medal bar will prevent the return of club foot.
Lyme disease is a disease associated with the joints of the body. Lyme disease is recurrent arthritis, myalgia, malaise and neurologic and cardiac symptoms; often marked by a “bull’s eye” rash at the site of the tick bite. Lyme Disease is caused by a tick from a bite by a bacteria, Borrelia Burgdorfelli. Symptoms include headache, fever, body aches, stiff neck, and fatigue. Complications include neurological symptoms, abnormal heart rhythm, cognitive defects, and chronic joint inflammation. Risk factors include spending time in wooded or grassy areas, not removing tick in a timely matter, or having exposed skin. Treatment includes amoxicillin or cefuroxime antibiotics for 14-21 days, after treatment is complete there still may be symptoms such as muscle aches and fatigue.
Polymyositis is an uncommon inflammatory disease that cause muscle weakness affecting both sides of the body. Polymyositis is most commonly found in women rather than men and in blacks rather than whites. With Polymyositis Disease there is muscle weakness in your neck, shoulders, arms, hips, and thighs. Gradually symptoms worsen. The cause of this disease is unknown, but the disease is similar to autoimmune disorders. Complications include aspiration pneumonia, breathing problems, and difficulty swallowing.
Risk factors associated with this disease include, Lung Disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although there is no cure for Polymyositis, treatment for symptoms include corticosteroids, corticosteroid-sparing agents and Rituximab. Treatment also includes physical therapy, speech therapy, and dietetic assessment. Therapy treatment helps strengthen muscle weakness and speech impairment associated with Polymyositis. A surgical procedure known as intravenous immunoglobulin which contains healthy antibodies that blocks the damaging antibodies that attack muscle in Polymyositis.