NAME: JAVERIA AMIR
CLASS: BS 1
SUBJECT: BIO CHEMISTRY
ASSIGNMENT ON: research articles related to metabolism and oxidative stress and its syndromes
SUBMITTED TO: MISS AZIZ
SUBMITTED ON: 31-OCT-18
Oxidative stress is the imbalancement of oxygen free radicals. It causes many diseases in our body. Some are diabetes mellitus, parkinson disease, alzheimer disease,cancer, aging etc. The scientists have found that the Alzheimer is caused by oxidative stress and accumulation of amyloid (AB) peptides but the reason of neuronal deterioration is still unknown and how these both influence the neurons. It is worthy that OS act as an important role in the development of vascular difficulties in diabetes mainly type-II diabetes. ROS level rise in diabetes may be due to decline in destruction or rise in the creation by catalase (enzymatic or non-enzymatic), superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase antioxidants. Oxidative stress or metabolic stress is also the cause of different cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress increases the risk factor of cardiovascular syndromes. It increases the blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol level of human body. Oxidative stress is also the main reason behind the Parkinson’s disease. In this disease the death of neuron occur and is a neurogical disorder. Oxidative stress works as a pathway of biochemical changes that leads to the cell death. This disease occur in substantia nigra. Cell death occur due to the doperminergic neurons.
DEFINITION: It is the chemical reaction that usually take place in our body and cells of a living being. By this process we get energy for our daily work and cell process.
DEFINITION: It is a variation between stability of O2 and imbalancement of electrons, which damages different cellular organs of our body and disturb their function. 1
OXIDATIVE STRESS CAUSE AGING AND ALZHEIMER DISEASE :
Alzheimer is a disorder also related to aging factor of our body. It is the accumulation of amyloid B –peptide and deterioration of neurons in human brain. This mainly occur in our hippocampus region of brain, which causes continuous cognitive ailment or sickness. Oxidative stress is also the cause of Alzheimer. The scientists have found that the Alzheimer is caused by oxidative stress and accumulation of amyloid (AB) peptides but the reason of neuronal deterioration is still unknown and how these both influence the neurons. 1
Alzheimer is usually cause at the age of 65 onwards. It is the most common cause of disability in people of older age. Oxidative stress is the main process which is increased in brain with aging, it cause the imbalance of certain molecules fluids in our and brain. The brain of patients that are suffering from Alzheimer disease can get extremely damage from oxidative imbalancement. 5
Mainly Alzheimer is a disease that cause problems with memory, thinking, and the behavior become worse. It is a general term for memory loss. It is not a disease of old age people but it is also caused in people of younger age. And at that age Alzheimer is called onset Alzheimer disease. 5
Ceramides act as lead in adjusting an array of physiological processes, together with cell proliferation and variation, and a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Ceramides have been concerned in the pathological death of neurons that take place in ischemic stroke and PD. Ceramides and cholesterol store in brain cells in relationship with OS for the period of normal aging
The main symptoms of Alzheimer disease are:
? Difficulty in planning
• OXIDATIVE STRESS AS CAUSE OF DIABETES MELlITUS :
Like Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome and Scleroderma, Diabetes mellitus is also a set of metabolic syndromes that is considered by high levels of glucose in blood and deficiency in production or deed of insulin made by the pancreas an organ which is present inside the body behind the stomach. Insulin is a protein (hormone) created in ?-cells of pancreas in reaction to several incentives such as glucose and arginine though glucose is the main cause. Long time promotion in blood glucose levels is connected with macro and micro-vascular problems guiding to heart diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney diseases.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus can ordered in two types which are as follow:
• Type-I diabetes (Insulin-dependent)
• Type-II diabetes (Insulin-independent)
Type I Diabetes Mellitus:
In type 1 there is a deficiency of insulin secretion because of the auto-immune damage of ?-pancreatic cells that takes to metabolic turbulences related with IDDM. At the end stage of ?-cell damage characterizes the arrival of disease leading to type-I diabetes mellitus in which there are sensitive monocytes, lymphocytes and a combination of pseudotrophic keys with some cells discharging somatostatin, glycogen and pancreatic polypeptide which then, therefore, over immunogenic process, persuades the syndrome.
Type II Diabetes Mellitus:
In type 2 there are certain processes damaged that keep directive between tissue compassion to insulin which therefore, direct to decreased insulin secretion by the ?-pancreatic cells and decreased insulin action through insulin resistance. In this type of syndrome, multiple genetic defects, and specific natural factors especially obesity are responsible for ?-cell defects and exterior tissue insulin resistance respectively.
Diabetes is such a kind of syndrome in which the persons are at all the time on danger of problems. Difficulties might be macro-vascular (coronary heart disease, outer vascular disease and stroke), micro-vascular (neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy) and both micro and macro-vascular (diabetic foot). The impermanence and injury of diabetes are linked more with macro-vascular disintegration as compared to the dangers of micro-vascular difficulties in older people.
OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES :
It is worthy that OS act as an important role in the development of vascular difficulties in diabetes mainly type-II diabetes. ROS level rise in diabetes may be due to decline in destruction or rise in the creation by catalase (enzymatic or non-enzymatic), superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase antioxidants. The distinction in the grades of these enzymes makes the tissues vulnerable to OS taking to the development of diabetic problems.9
OXIDATIVE STRESS THE CAUSE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES:
Oxidative stress or metabolic stress is also the cause of different cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress increases the risk factor of cardiovascular syndromes. It increases the blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol level of human body. 2
The another cause of CVD is hypomagnesemia, low amount of magnesium in human body, which is most important in cardiovascular diseases. Magnesium is the most essential cofactor in the metabolism of phosphate bonds which are involved in metabolism of glucose. 2
Any disturbance in free radicals increases the oxidative stress and this oxidative stress effect the cardiac system and cause heart failure.
Many oxygen’s free radicals are highly unstable and cause very harmful effect to the tissues and cells including our heart. This oxidative stress also causes structural abnormalities. These oxygen free radicals react with bad cholesterol or unsaturated lipids and start developing lipid chain in the heart arteries and membranes. These free radicals directly affect the heart and cause disfunction of cardiac system. So, oxidative stress is also a main cause of different cardiovascular diseases. An increase oxidative stress result in chronic heart diseases as well as heart failure. The cause of heart failure is characterized by an increase diastolic pressure in left ventricle. At this stage oxidative stress is at its highest rate. As we all know that free radicals are mainly involved in pathogenesis of myocardial infarction, it is a common problem, which is usually occurred in many people of different ages. The free radicals first effect the left ventricle but in chronic stage it also effect the right ventricle. In myocardial patients their end stage is heart failure which is caused by apoptasis or programmed cell death. The patients having heart disease have high rate of oxidative stress. 8
OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A CAUSE OF PARKINSON DISEASE:
Oxidative stress is also the main reason behind the Parkinson’s disease. In this disease the death of neuron occur and is a neurogical disorder. Oxidative stress works as a pathway of biochemical changes that leads to the cell death. This disease occur in substantia nigra. Cell death occur due to the doperminergic neurons. 3
Death of neurons in Parkinson disease is either necrosis or apoptosis. The initiation of glial cells also initiate or cause the cell death process. Some said that the oxidative stress cause the activation of glial cells. The oxidative stress in Parkinson disease is increased in the basal ganglia as compared to normal brain. Oxidative stress also plays an important role in pathogenesis. 3
The change in dopamine results in initiation of nigral cell degeneration which causes oxidative metabolism to enhance oxidative stress in the substantia which results in Parkinson disease .3
A person with Parkinson disease has low dopamine levels. This dopamine level decreases due to increase in oxidative stress. The cells which make dopamine are called dopaminergic neurons. They started to die in the substantia nigra of a person’s brain. 4
It is long term neurodegenerative disorder of our brain. The symptoms of this disease usually come very slowly as you can observe shaking movement of different body parts, slow walking, rigidity, memory loss etc. 4
Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in Parkinson disease. 4
OXIDATIVE STRESS AS CAUSE OF CANCER:
Cancer is deadly disease in which our cell become abnormal and start multiplying. There are many causes of cancer but oxidative stress is found as the main cause of cancer.
Oxidative stress causes chronic inflammation of tissues or cell which causes cancer or other harmful diseases. Oxidative stress imbalances the transcription factors which could affect more than 500 genes and causes inflammation in growth cells, cell cycles etc. 6
Oxidative stress promote the survival of cancer cells. It regulates the tumor, proliferate it and enlarge it, then causes inflammation. Oxidative stress is generally the cause of cancer but at certain time it also inhibit the tumor growth by increasing oxygen level at its highest. Thus it causes cancer as well as rarely inhibit it. 7
Free radicals of oxygen can lead to mutation and damage DNA that can be the most important factor of cancer.
1: Involvement of oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in ceramide and cholesterol metabolism in brainaging and Alzheimer’s disease
Roy G. Cutler*, Jeremiah Kelly†, Kristin Storie†, Ward A. Pedersen*, Anita Tammara, Kimmo Hatanpaa,Juan C. Troncoso, and Mark P. Mattson
2: Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure
Frank J Giordano
4: Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s disease
Javier Blesa, Ines Trigo-Damas, Anna Quiroga-Varela, Vernice R. Jackson-Lewis
Front Neuroanat. 2015; 9: 91. Published online 2015 Jul 8
5: Role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease
WEN-JUAN ZHANG, WEI-WEI CHEN
Biomed Rep. 2016 May; 4(5): 519–522. Published online 2016 Mar
6: Oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer, how are they linked?