SEMINAR REVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL FROM SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS I TITLE PAGE II DECLARATION III CERTIFICATION IV DEDICATION V ACKNOWEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENT 1

SEMINAR
REVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL FROM SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
I TITLE PAGE
II DECLARATION
III CERTIFICATION
IV DEDICATION
V ACKNOWEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION&LITERATURE REVIEW
1.2 SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
1.3 OCCURENCE OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
1.4 LOCATION OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
1.5 MINING OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
1.6 MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
1.7 ANALYTICAL METHODS
1.1.0 TYPES OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
1.1.1 USES OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
1.1.2 BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
1.1.3 TYPES OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
1.1.4 PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
1.1.5 USES OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS FROM SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 CONCLUSION
3.2 RECOMMENDATION
3.2 REFERENCE
1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Solid mineral raw materials in Nigeria,there are deposits of brown coal,uranium,manganese,tungsten,gold,copper,molybdenum,lead ans zinc,mining chemical raw materials,oil,natural gases,coal,iron ore,tin ore,rare metals(niobium,tantalum).etc
Each of these minerals have thier various uses;for example(COAL),energy fuel,raw materials for metallurgical and chemical industry,Clay(KAOLIN),basis of pottery,sphere of cosmetology,ceramics and production of paint,etc.

The problems of the solid mineral mining is that the industry is underdeveloped,currently accounting for 0.5% of the countrys GDP,and leading to importation of commodities that can be produced locally .

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LITERATURE REVIEW
The development of analytical chemistry in the past decades has provided the raw materials industry with a wealth of new methods and procedure for the characterization of raw ,intermediate and final products.The greatest advances were made in trace and micro analytical methods.These are now routinely available at reasonable cost and turn around times.Equally significant for the industries is the development of process analytical methods for bulk properties that provide crucial information for successful automation of complex processes.Analytical methods is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research covering the development of analytical techniques.It is also a generic process combining the power of the scientific method with the use of formal process to solve any kind of problem.

The preparation of basic industrial chemicals;the chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impringe on virtually every aspect of our lives,while many products from the industry such as detergents,soaps,and perfumes are purchased directly by the consumer,others are used as intermediates to make other products.For example,in Europe,70% of chemicals manufactured are used to make products by other industries including other branches of the chemical industry itself.The industry uses a wide range of raaw materials from air to mineral to oil.The products of the chemical industry can be divided into three categories
­­­i)Basic chemicals
ii)Specialty chemicals
iii)Consumer chemicals
Outputs range widely,with basic chemicals produced in large(millions of tonnes)and some specialty chemicals produced in modest kilogramme quantities but with very high values
BASIC CHEMICALS
The term “petrochemical” can be misleading as the same chemicals are increasingly being derived from sources other than oil,such as coal and biomass.An example is methanol,commonly produced from oil and natural gas in the US and Europe but from coal in China.Another example is ethene,derived from oil and gas in the US and Europe but increasingly from biomass in Brazil.

Basic chemicals,produced in large quantities,are mainly sold within the chemical industry and to other industries before becoming products for the general consumer,For example
1. Ammonia is made from natural gas which is imported by pipeline from the north sea
2. Some ammonia are used to make nitric acid
3. Ammonia and nitric acid are used to make fertilizer,Ammonium nitrite
4. Ammonia is also converted into hydrogen cyanide
5. Hydrogen cyanide is used in the process to make methyl 2-methyl propenoate,a key monomer in the manufacture of various acrylic polymers
SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
A mineral is a naturally occuring substance that is solid and inorganic,representable by a chemical formula,usually abiogenic and has an ordered atomic structure.There are different types of solid minerals;for example;sapphire,aquamarine,topaz,coal,clay,soil,gypsum,magnetite,kaolin,rutile,limestone,columbite,etc.

1.2 SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin (not produced by life processes).A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids.The study of minerals is called mineralogy.Each distinct type of mineral is also known as a mineral species.there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association(IMA).Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species,which were determined by the mineral’s geological environment when formed.Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals.Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety,for example amethyst,a purple variety of the mineral species quartz.Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit,hardness,lustre,colour,streak, tenacity,cleavage, fracture,parting,specific gravity,magnetism,taste or smell,radioactivity,and reaction to acid.Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification.Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth’s crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals.The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth’s crust.

Rocks,ores and gems
Minerals are not equivalent to rocks. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.Some rocks,such as limestone or quartzite,are composed primarily of one mineral—calcite or aragonite in the case of limestone,and quartz in the latter case.Other rocks can be defined by relative abundances of key (essential) minerals;a granite is defined by proportions of quartz,alkali feldspar,and plagioclase feldspar.The other minerals in the rock are termed accessory,and do not greatly affect the bulk composition of the rock.Rocks can also be composed entirely of non-mineral material; coal is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of organically derived carbon.In rocks, some mineral species and groups are much more abundant than others; these are termed the rock-forming minerals.The major examples of these are quartz, the feldspars,the micas,the amphiboles,the pyroxenes,the olivines,and calcite;except the last one,all of the minerals are silicates.Overall,around 150 minerals are considered particularly important,whether in terms of their abundance or aesthetic value in terms of collecting.Commercially valuable minerals and rocks are referred to as industrial minerals.For example,muscovite,a white mica,can be used for windows (sometimes referred to as isinglass),as a filler,or as an insulator.Ores are minerals that have a high concentration of a certain element,typically a metal.Examples are cinnabar (HgS), an ore of mercury,sphalerite(ZnS),an ore of zinc,or cassiterite(SnO2),an ore of tin.Gems are minerals with an ornamental value,and are distinguished from non-gems by their beauty,durability,and usually,rarity.There are about 20 mineral species that qualify as gem minerals,which constitute about 35 of the most common gemstones.Gem minerals are often present in several varieties,and so one mineral can account for several different gemstones;for example,ruby and sapphire are both corundum,Al2O3.

Schist is a metamorphic rock characterized by an abundance of platy minerals.In this example,the rock has prominent sillimanite porphyroblasts as large as 3 cm (1.2 in).

1.3 OCCURENCE OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
Minerals form in all geologic environments and thus under a wide range of chemical and physical conditions,such as varying temperature and pressure.The four main categories of mineral formation are: (1) igneous,or magmatic,in which minerals crystallize from a melt,(2) sedimentary,in which minerals are the result of sedimentation,a process whose raw materials are particles from other rocks that have undergone weathering or erosion,(3) metamorphic,in which new minerals form at the expense of earlier ones owing to the effects of changing—usually increasing—temperature or pressure or both on some existing rock type (metamorphic minerals are the result of new mineral growth in the solid state without the intervention of a melt, as in igneous processes), and (4) hydrothermal, in which minerals are chemically precipitated from hot solutions within the Earth.The first three processes generally lead to varieties of rocks in which different mineral grains are closely intergrown in an interlocking fabric.Hydrothermal solutions,and even solutions at very low temperatures(e.g., groundwater),tend to follow fracture zones in rocks that may provide open spaces for the chemical precipitation of minerals from solution.It is from such open spaces, partially filled by minerals deposited from solutions,that most of the spectacular mineral specimens have been collected.If a mineral that is in the process of growth (as a result of precipitation) is allowed to develop in a free space,it will generally exhibit a well-developed crystal form,which adds to a specimen’s aesthetic beauty.Similarly,geodes,which are rounded, hollow,or partially hollow bodies commonly found in limestones, may contain well-formed crystals lining the central cavity.Geodes form as a result of mineral deposition from solutions such as groundwater.

1.4 LOCATION OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
Below is a list of minerals and natural resources in Nigeria and the location they can be found
ABUJA
-Marble
-Clay
-Tantalite
-Cassiterite
-Gold(partially investigated)
-Lead/Zinc(traces)
-Dolomite
ABIA STATE
-Crude oil
-Lead/Zinc
-Gold
-Limestone
-Salt
ADAMAWA
-Kaolin
-Bentonite
-Gypsum
-Magnetite
AKWA IBOM STATE
-Lead/zinc
-Clay
-Limestone
-Salt
-Lignite(traced)
-Uranium(traced)
ANAMBRA STATE
-Lead/Zinc
-Glass sand
-Iron ore
-Limestone
-Clay
-Phosphate
-Gypsum
-Salt
-Crude oil
-Lignite(partially investigated)
BAYELSA STATE
-Clay
-Limestone
-Manganese
-Lignite
-Gypsum(partially investigated0
-Uranium(partially investigated)
-Lead/Zinc(traces)
BAUCHI STATE
-Gypsum
-Lead/Zinc(traces)
-Uranium(partially investigated)
-Amethyst(violet)
BENUE STATE
-Limestone
-Clay
-Iron ore
-Coal
-Salt
-Gypsum
-Marble
-Barytes(traces)
-Gemstones
BORNO STATE
-Diatomite
-Clay
-Limestone
-Bentonite
-Kaolin
-Gypsum
-Hydrocarbon(oil and gas)
CROSS RIVER STATE
-Limestone
-Manganese
-Crude oil
-Uranium
-Salt
-Lead/Zinc
-Lignite
DELTA STATE
-Marble
-Lignite
-Kaolin
-Iron ore
-Gypsum
-Glass sand
EBONYI STATE
-Gold shocked
-Lead
-Salt
EDO STATE
-Marble
-Clay
-Lignite
-Iron ore
-Limestone
-Crude oil
-Gold
-Bitumen
-Glass sand
-Gypsum
-Dolomite
-phosphate
EKITI STATE
-Syenite
-Granite
-Tatium
-Feldspar
-Kaolin
ENUGU STATE
-Coal
-Limestone
-Lead/Zinc
GOMBE STATE
-Gypsum
-Gemstone
IMO STATE
-Lead/Zinc
-Limestone
-Lignite
-Phosphate
-Marcasite
-Gypsum
-Salt
-Crude oil
JIGAWA STATE
-Butytes
KADUNA STATE
-Copper
-Gemstone
-Lead/Zinc
-Tantalite
KASTINA STATE
-Kaolin
-Marble
-salt
KEBBI STATE
-Gold
KOGI STATE
-Iron ore
-Kaolin
-Gypsum
-Feldspar
-Coal
-Marble
-Dolomite
-Talc
-Tantalite
KWARA STATE
-Gold
-Marble
– Iron ore
-Cassiterite
-Tantalite
-Feldspar(traces)
-Mica(traces)
LAGOS STATE
-Glass sand
-Clay
-Bitumen
-Crude oil
NASSARAWA STATE
-Beryl(Emerald)
-Heliodor
-Dolomite/Marble
-Sapphire
-Tourmaline
-Quartz-Amethyst(topaz,garnet)
-Zircon
-Tantalite
-Cassiterite
-Columbite
-Lamanite
-Gallena
-Iron ore
-Barytes
-Feldspar
-Limestone
-Mica
-Cooking coal
-Talc
-Clay
-Salt
-Charcopyrite
NIGER STATE
-Gold
-Talc
-Lead/Zinc
OGUN STATE
-Phosphate
-Clay
-Feldspar(traces)
-Kaolin
-Limestone
-Gemstone
-Bitumen
ONDO STATE
-Bitumen
-Kaolin
-Gemstone
-Gypsum
-Feldspar
-Granite
-Clay
-Glass sand
-Dimension stones
-Limestone
-Coal
-Crude oil
OSUN STATE
-Gold
-Talc
-Tourlamine
-Columbite
-Granite
OYO STATE
-Kaoline
-Marble
-Clay
-Silimanite
-Talc
-Gold
-Cassiterite
-Aqua marine
-Dolomite
-Gemstone
-Tantalite
PLATEAU STATE
-Emerald
-Tin
-Marble
-Granite
-Tantalite/Columbite
-Lead/Zinc
-Barytes
-Iron ore
-Kaolin
-Belonite
-Cassiterite
-Pyrochlore
-Clay
-Coal
-Wolfram
-Salt
-Bismuth
-Flouride
-Molybdenite
-Gemstone
-Bauxite
RIVERS STATE
-Glass sand
-Marble
-Clay
-Lignite(traces)
-Crude oil
SOKOTO STATE
-Kaolin
-Gold
-Limestone
-Phosphate
-Gypsum
-Silica sand
-Clay
-Laterite
-Potash
-Flakes
-Granite
1.5 MINING OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
The main mineral resources in nigeria include oil,natural gas,coal,iron ore,rare metals(norbium,tantalum).There are also deposits of brown coal,uranium,manganese,tungsten,gold,copper,,molybdenum,lead and zinc.The solid minerals can be relied upon to expansd the economic base of the country once its potentials are duly enhanced.To get a head on solid minerals development,exploration is essanntial and mandatory.The full exploration of these minerals would achieve the following objectives.

=Invites and attracts investors
=increase revenue to the country
=Provide employment opportunities for the youths
Mining is a capital intensive enterprise as a huge sum of money is needed to construct mines,production facilities and sustain exploration.Mining is central to national development.When we talk about industrialization ,economic growth,mining is central,It is a catalyst that affects other sectors of the economy,It is like a spiral that spreads to agriculture,telecommunication and to industrialization.

All sectors of the economy one way or the other is affected by mining.But the mining sector in Nogeria is still at the scratching level,without mechanized operations.

When we say mining is central;we mean;For example,organic fertilizers is gotten from limestone,which is an industrial mineral.So,this is produced from mining,if we talk about metallic minerals,the raw materials used in cell phones and televisions and other electronic gadgets are gotten from ore and nobium.

It is so central that we cant talk about industrialization without looking at iron ore for road construction,fabrication of machines and machineries.

1.6 MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
An established and well managed solid minerals industry is a path for economic and social growth of the country.The sector,has potentials of providing employments and improve national income earnings far exceeding the peroluem secor if well managed.

Solid mineral industries are supposed to provide local raw materials for other industries and bring vital infrastructure and wealth to rural areas.The commercial value of the countries solid mineral has been estimated to run into hundreds of trillions of dollars.It has also been estimated that the country loses about $40billion annually in unexploited gold alone.Although the country is blessed with an abundant amount of diverse mineral resources,not all of these minerals are available in commercial quantities.The following solid minerals are the chosen as priority for sector development:Coal,bitumen,limestone,iron ore,barites,gold,lead/zinc.

Coal;Nigerian coal has been found suitable for boiler fuel,production of high caloric gas,domestic heating,briquettes,formed coke and the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals including waxes,resins,adhesives and dyes.

Bitumen-bitumen typically occurs on the surface and sub surface.They are processed from imported heavy crudes,in addition to bitumen imported to supplement local consumption,Heavy and extra crude can be extracted from Nigerian tar sand,and sulphur and phenol can be derived from these crude grades.They are also suitable for production of lubricants for plain and roller bearing
Limestone-Most limestone mining activities is mainly cement production.Rich ore constitutes more than 4.5% of the total reserve with medium grades estimated at 85.4% and lean ore at 13.1%.Limestone is estimated to be responsible for about 52% of solid mineral productin.This is as a result of the thriving cement manufacturing industry in the country.

Barites-This is suitable for glass,paints and paper making.Also,it is used in petroleum well drilling.

Lead/Zinc-Lead/Zinc are usually found together.They are often associated with copper and silver,They occur in commercial quantity in some part of the country,They are used in the production of electric cables,batteries,solder glass,and even protective coating for other metals.

There are a great number of investment opportunities in the processing of solid minerals in Nigeria.There is a ready local and international market for mineral ores.The international market is mostly controlled by china,and can yield high profits for an investor.There are opportunities for professionals that have acquired expertise in the mining industry.Services like gelogical survey,preparation of feasibility survey,securong mineral sites and license,equipment procurement,securing export contract,.There are also opportunities for business consulting or advisory services
1.7 ANALYTICAL METHODS
These are defined as set of techniques that allow us to know qualitatively/qantitatively the composition of any material and chemical state in which it is located.

The analytical method is a generic process combining the power of scientific method with the use of formal process to solve any type of problem.It has these nine steps
1.Identify the problem to solve
2.Choose an appropriate process(THE KEY STEP)
3.Use the process to hypothesize analysis or solution elements
4.Design an experiment(s) to test the hypothesis
5.Perform the experiment(s)
6.Acccept,reject or modify the hypothesis
7.Repeat steps 3,4,5,& 6 until the hypothesis is accepted
8.Implement the solution
9.Continously improve the process as opportunities arises.

The use of analytical methods is critical in solving the sustainability problem because it appears that current processes are inadequate.They are intuitive,simple,and based on how activists approach everyday problems.

1.1.0 TYPES OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
Analytical chemistry studies and uses methods and instruments used to seperate,identiffy,and quantify matter.In practice seperation,identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method.Seperation isolates analysis analytes.Qualitative analysis identifies analytes,while Quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.Analytical chemistry consists of classical,wet chemical methods and mordern,instrumental methods.Classical qualitative methods use seperation such as precipitation,extraction and distillation.Identification may be based on differences in color,odor,melting point,boiling point,radoactivity or reactivity.Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount.Instrumental methods may be used to seperate samples using chromatography,electrophoresis,or field flow fractionalization.Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed,often with the same instruments and may use light interactions,heat interactions,electric field or magnetic fields.Often the same instruments can seperate,identify and quantify and analyte.

Analytical chemistry is also focused on improvents in experimental design,chemometrics,and the creation of new measurement tools.Analytical chemistry has brad applications to forensic,medicine,science and engineering.

The following techniques form the backbone of most undergraduate analytical chemistry educational lab.

Qualitative analysis
A qualitative analysis determines the presence or absence of a particular compound,but not the mass or concentration.By definition,qualitative analysis does not measure quantity.

Quantitative analysis
Quantitative analysis is the measurement of the quantities of paricular chemical constituents present in a substance.

Gravimetric analysis
Gravimetric analysis involve determining the amount of material by weighing the sample before and/or after some tranformation.e.g the amount of water in a hydrate by heating the sample to remove the water such that the difference in the weight is due to the loss of water.

Volumetric analysis
Titration involves the addition of a reactant to a solution being analyzed until some equivalent point is reached.e.g acid-base titration involving a color changing indicator.There are many other types of titration,for e.g potentiometric titration,these titration may use different types of indicators to reach some equivalence point.

1.1.1 USES OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
An analytical technique is a method that is used to determine the concentration of a chemical compound or a chemical element.There are variety of techniques used for analysis,from simple weighing(gravimetric analysis) to titrations(titrimetric)to very advanced techniques using highly specialized instrumentation.The most common uses of analytical methods are the following;
Titrimetry,This is based on the quantity of reagent needed to react with the analyte.

Electroanalytical methods;Including potentiometry and volammetry
Spectroscopy;Based on the differential interaction of the analyte along with electromagnetic radiation.

Chromatography;In which the analyte is seperated from the rest of the sample so that it can be measured without interference from other compounds.

Gravimetric analysis
Microscopy
Radioanalytical chemistry
1.1.2 BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
These are chemicals manufactured for different industrial applications.They are also chemicals produced and drveloped from raw materials similar ro air,water and also minerals.

Basic chemicals produced in large quantities are mainly sold within the chemical industries and to other industries before becoming products for the general consumer.In this group of units,each chemical is described in the same way,in three main sections
-Uses
-Annual production quantities
-Manufacture
There are units on major organic and inorganic compounds.The organic compounds are either building blocks such as ethene,propene,butadiene and benzene and how they are used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals,or compounds made from these building blocks,such as ethane-1-2-diol,ethanoic acid and mathanal,useful in their own rights or are used to make other useful compounds.

The inorganic chemicals included in this web site compounds such as calcium carbonate,chlorine,hydrogen chloride,nitric acid,sodium hydroxide,which are used to make other compounds including plastics,fertilizers,soaps and surfactants and biulding materials
Inorganic basic chemicals
-Ammonia
-Bromine
-Calcium carbonate
-Chlorine
-Flourine
-Hydrogen
-Hydrogen chloride
-Hydrogen flouride
-Hydrogen peroxide
-Iodine
-Nitric acid
-Oxygen,nitrogen and the rare gases
-Phosphoric acid
-Phosphorus
-Sodium carbonate
-Sodium hydroxide
-Sulfur
-Sulfuric acid
-Titanium doixide
1.1.3 TYPES OF BASIC INDUSTIAL CHEMICALS
Industrial chemicals are those chemicals that are manufactured for different industrial applications.These chemicals are found in fuels,dyes,anti freezes,explosives,lubricants,insulators,etc,This can also be employed for research purposes within military and warfare centres.We tend to make use of chemicals in several types including detergents,polishes,cleaning agent,vanishes,adhesives,solvent,dyes useful for photocopying etc.

Several types of industrial chemicals include
Oxygen-One of the most useful and also required chemical that is used as an oxidiser within reaction mixtures where oxygenis essential.

Phosphoric acid-This is another useful chemicals that is used in meal items similar to soft drinks as well as other items.The idea is also accustomed to manufacture fertilizer.

Nitrogen-It is used as industrial cleaners gloucestershire in industries in order to control reaction temperatures along with pressure to stop the mixture of oxygen together with vapour thus concerning stay away from explosions.It is also used as an alternative to always be able to air with regard to conveying gasoline carrier to stop explosions.

Sulphuric acid-It is mainly used for removing harmful substances and also counteracts the result regarding alkaline substances.This is the most used as well as common industrial chemical.

Chlorine-It is primarily used for manufacturing bleaching agents.This is an essential ingredient within titanium dioxide
Ethylene-Another significant chemical used for a range of purposes.

Sodium silicate-Used as insulations with a regard to industrial purposes.

Aluminium phosphate-This is used as PH buffer in paper industries.It can in addition be used to treat wastewater within industries.

Sodium carbonate-This is one of the important industial chemicals which is additionally known as soda ash.The idea is used with regard to manufacturing glass and as the main ingredient in many cleaning agents
Ammonium nitrate-Its among the most popular fertilizers throughout sound form
Urea-This may be used as fertilizer.The idea in addition can be accustomed to produce cattle feeds
Methanol-Produced through hydrogen and also carbon monoxide,this particular chemical is utilized like a reactant in order to manufacture acetic acid,formaldehyde and methyl terbutyl ether(MTBE)
Potash-An additional chemical that is widely used as a fertilizer inside agricultural lands.

Titanium dioxide-It is utilized throughout paints,food items,and pharmaceutical products.This is a white coloured product.

1.1.4 PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
In industrial ecology,industry sectors and various production processes are viewed as interconnected systems.By transforming and recasting materials and recovering embedded energy,the primary materials processing industry(PMPI).This industry sector acquires raw materials from the mining operations,some PMPI companies add value to mined ores;others add value to sand and stone.Their products (e.g copper,aluminoim,steel,and cement).Chemicals are produced from these raw materials-Principally minerals,metals and hydrocarbons in a series of processing steps.Futher treatment such as mixing and blending,is often required to convert them into end products(e.g paints,adhesives,medicine and cosmetics).

Chemicals fall into two main classes;organic and inorganic.Organic chemicals have a basic structure of carbon atoms,combined with hydrogen and other elements.Oil and gases are today the source of 90% of world organic chemical producion,having largely replaced coal and vegetable and animal matter,the earlier raw materials.Inorganic chemicals are derived mainly from mineral resources.Examples are sulphur,which is mined or extracted from ores and chlorine which is made from common salt.

Methanol-Commonly produced from oil and natural gas/coal
Ethene-Derived from oil and gas/biomass
Ammonia-Made from natural gas
Some chemicals are produced from peroleum,he hydrocarbons in the crude oil and gas,which are mainly straight chain alkanes are first seperated using thier differences in boling point,as is described in thier unit distillation.They are then converted to hydrocarbon thaat are more useful to the chemical industry,such as branched chain alkanes,alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons.These processes are described in the unit,cracking and related refinery processes.

In turn,these hydrocarbons are converted into a wide range of basic chemicals which are immediately useful(petrol,ethanol,ethane-1-2 diol)or are subjected to further reaction to produce a useful end product,for example,phenol to make resins and ammonia to make fetilizers.

1.1.5 USES OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
Baic chemicals produced by cheica manufacturing companies before becoming products for the general consumers are mainly sold within the chemical industry and to other industries.These products serve as the processor of raw materials in many industries.Under basic chemicals there are also products that serve as additves and solvents in many mixtures.The uses of basic industrial chemicas are as follows
-Agrochemicals
-Inks
-Resin
-Paint
-Coatings
-Oil field chemicals
-Industrial wash oil
-Pharmaceuticals
-Pesticides
-Agriculture
-Printing industry
-In perfumes
-Nail polish removal
-Additives in detergent and hair dye
2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
It may be defined that Analytical chemistry is the study of separation,quantification and chemical components identification of natural and artificial materials constituted with one or more compounds or elements.Analytical chemistry is separated into two main categories,qualitative analysis that is to say the identification with regard to the chemical components exist in the sample,where as quantitative analysis estimates the amount of certain element or compound in the substance i.e sample.
Pharmaceutical analysis plays a very outstanding role in the examination of pharmaceutical formulations and bulk drugs regarding the quality control and assurance.Rapid increase in pharmaceutical industries and production of drug in and around the world bring forward a rise in inevitable demand to seek novel and systematic analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical industries.As a consequence, analytical method development has become the basic activity of analysis.
Development in scientific and concrete analytical methods has been resulted from the advancements of analytical instruments.The improvements of the analytical method development and analytical instruments have reduced the time and cost of analysis and enhanced precision and accuracy.Techniques pertaining to analysis are developed and validated for active pharmaceutical ingredients,excipients,related substances,drug products,degradation products and, residual solvents,etc.Resulting which become an integral part of the required necessities for regulatory organization. Analytical method development finally results in official test methods.Consequently quality control laboratories used these methods to check the efficacy,identity,purity,safety as well as performance of products of the drug. Regulatory authorities give utmost importance on analytical methods in manufacturing.Drug approval by regulatory authorities requires the applicant to prove control of the entire process of drug development by using validated analytical methods.
The numerous novel drugs are being introduced and are constantly growing day by day. Therefore it is absolutely imperative to evolve novel methods and introduced them for controlling their quality. Modern pharmaceutical analysis needs the following requirements.
1. The analysis should take a minimal time and should be economical.
2. The accuracy of the analysis must accept the guidelines of Pharmacopoeia.
3. The chosen method should be precise and selective
Since the basic chemicals are used in pharnaceutical industries
Basic industrial chemicals are critical ingredients for products used by both the industry and general consumer,they prvide a diverse range of commodity chemicals,Although chemicals are made and used throughout history,the birth of the heavy chemicals industry(production of chemicals in large quantities for a variety of uses)coincided with the beginnings of the industrial revolution in general.One of the first chemicals to be produced in large amounts through industrial process was sulfuric acid.In 1736,the pharmacist (joshua ward) developed a process for its production that involved heating saltpeter,allowing the sulfur to oxidize and combine with water.It was the first practical production of sulfuric acid on a large scale.(John Roebuck) and (Samuel Garbett) were the first to establish a large scale factory in prestonpans,scotland,in 1749,which used leaden condensing chambers for the manufacture of sulfuric acid.

In the early 18th century,cloth was bleached using stale urine or sour milk and exposing it to sunlight for long periods of time,which created a severe bottleneck in production.Sulfuric acid began to be used as a more efficient agent as well as lime by the middle of the century,but it was the discovery of bleaching powder by (Charles Tennant) that spurred the creation of the first great chemical industrial enterprise,the powder was made from reacting chlorine with dry slaked lime and proved to be a cheap and successful product.

Soda ash was used since ancient times for the production of glass,textile,soap and paper,and the source of potash has traditionally been wood ashes in western Europe,By the 18th century ,this source was becoming uneconomical due to deforestation.Production of artificial manufactured fertilizer for agriculture was pioneered by Sir John Lawes at his purpose-built Rothamsted Research facility.In the 1840s he established large works near London for the manufacture of superphosphate of lime.Processes for the vulcanization of rubber were patented by Charles Goodyear in the United States and Thomas Hancock in England in the 1840s.The first synthetic dye was discovered by William Henry Perkin in London.He partly transformed aniline into a crude mixture which,when extracted with alcohol,produced a substance with an intense purple colour.He also developed the first synthetic perfumes.However,it was German industry that quickly began to dominate the field of synthetic dyes.The three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes,and by 1913, the German industry produced almost 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad.In the United States, Herbert Henry Dow’s use of electrochemistry to produce chemicals from brine was a commercial success that helped to promote the country’s chemical industry.The petrochemical industry can be traced back to the oil works of James Young in Scotland and Abraham Pineo Gesner in Canada. The first plastic was invented by Alexander Parkes, an English metallurgist. In 1856, he patented Parkesine, a celluloid based on nitrocellulose treated with a variety of solvents.This material, exhibited at the 1862 London International Exhibition, anticipated many of the modern aesthetic and utility uses of plastics. The industrial production of soap from vegetable oils was started by William Lever and his brother James in 1885 in Lancashire based on a modern chemical process invented by William Hough Watson that used glycerin and vegetable oils.By the 1920s, chemical firms consolidated into large conglomerates; IG Farben in Germany, Rhône-Poulenc in France and Imperial Chemical Industries in Britain. Dupont became a major chemicals firm in the early 20th century in America.Currently chemical production is a high-tech industry, where the competitiveness is more based on capacity in investment on research and development than the labour cost.

2.2 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BASIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS FROM SOLID MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
Quantitative chemical analysis is performed to accurately determine the concentration of elements in the material comprising a given sample.A variety of analysis techniques are used for metals and alloys to determine the alloy composition of raw materials to verify conformance to a specification or to identify the alloy used to make a specific component.Quantitative analysis methods are also used occasionally for evaluation of foreign material contaminants in special cases for failure analysis or investigation of product manufacturing or handling problems.

Quantitative chemical analysis may be performed by one or more complimentary techniques, commonly including spark optical emission spectroscopy (Spark OES), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy optical emission spectroscopy (ICP OES), x ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), wet chemical analyses,combustion methods, and inert gas fusion(IG).The specific technique chosen will depend on the type of sample,quantity of material available for analysis,desired result, and cost constraints. In most cases,the applicable analysis techniques can detect parts per million concentrations or better.

Most of these techniques are destructive to the original sample.XRF can be performed nondestruc-tively and Spark OES can be performed with only minimal surface damage if the specimen size configuration allow the part to fit into the instrument without cutting. For the remaining methods discussed here, a small specimen is removed from the sample and is consumed in the analysis.

Prior to the widespread availability of analytical instruments,chemical analysis were performed by dissolving the sample and performing a specific chemical reaction with a standardized reagent for each element of interest.These ‘wet chemistry’ techniques are typically labor intensive and time consuming,and sometimes less accurate than the current instrumental methods.

Wet Chemistry – These methods include gravimetric and titrimetric techniques.An example of a gravimetric technique is the precipitation of chloride ion with silver to form a silver chloride precipitate which is dried and weighed to determine the chloride concentration in the original sample solution.Titrimetric procedures are typically based on acid base reactions or complexing agents for metal ions.Since wet chemical analyses are now less common for the analysis of metals and similar inorganic materials,the remainder of this section will focus on the instrumental methods of analysis.

Spark-OES – Spark optical emission spectroscopy is a technique used for direct analysis of solid metal samples.The specimen is prepared by grinding to obtain a uniform, clean, flat area about 1 to 2 cm across.The prepared sample is placed in the spark OES instrument and flooded with argon.A rapid series of high energy sparks are created across the argon filled gap between an electrode (cathode) and the prepared sample’s surface (acting as the anode).The sparks first ionize the Spark-OES – Spark optical emission spectroscopy is a technique used for direct analysis of solid metal samples.The specimen is prepared by grinding to obtain a uniform,clean,flat area about 1 to 2 cm across.The prepared sample is placed in the spark OES instrument and flooded with argon.A rapid series of high energy sparks are created across the argon filled gap between an electrode (cathode) and the prepared sample’s surface (acting as the anode).The sparks first ionize the argon, creating a conductive plasma.Secondly, the sparks melt, evaporate, and excite the sample elements at the spark point of impact.When the excited atoms in the plasma relax (de excite) to a lower energy state, they emit light at characteristic wavelengths for each element.The intensities of these emissions at the characteristic wavelengths are detected, measured,and compared to intensities for known standards to provide quantitative results.The total duration of the sparking is only a few milliseconds.Prior to actual measurements,the sample surface may be subjected to high power discharges to melt the surface and create a more homogeneous material.

XRF – X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique that can be used for direct analysis of solid metal samples,thin metal films,petroleum products, cement,coal,and various other materials.XRF is a fast technique and is non destructive to the sample.It is frequently used for analyses performed in the field and for industrial quality control.

An x-ray tube is used to irradiate the sample with a primary beam of x rays.Some of the impinging primary x rays are absorbed by the sample elements in a process known as the photoelectric effect.The photoelectric effect occurs when all the energy of a primary x ray is absorbed by an electron in an atom’s innermost electron shell.This causes excitation and ejection of the absorbing electron (photoejection).The electron vacancies caused by the photoelectric effect are filled by electrons from higher energy states, and x rays are emitted (fluorescence) to balance the energy difference between the electron statesAn x-ray tube is used to irradiate the sample with a primary beam of x rays.Some of the impinging primary x rays are absorbed by the sample elements in a process known as the photoelectric effect.The photoelectric effect occurs when all the energy of a primary x ray is absorbed by an electron in an atom’s innermost electron shell.This causes excitation and ejection of the absorbing electron (photoejection). The electron vacancies caused by the photoelectric effect are filled by electrons from higher energy states, and x rays are emitted (fluorescence) to balance the energy difference between the electron states. The x ray energy is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted.

The fluorescence x rays are collimated and directed to an x ray detector. The energy of each x ray and number of x rays at each energy are recorded. The x ray intensities (counts) at each energy are compared to values for known standards for quantitatively analysis of the unknown specimen.

ICP-OES – Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is a technique for analyzing the concentration of metallic elements in solid and liquid samples. Like spark OES, ICP OES uses the optical emission principles of exited atoms to determine the elemental concentration.However, for ICP OES, solid samples are dissolved (digested) in an appropriate solvent (typically acid) to produce a solution for analysis. The resulting sample solution (or an original liquid solution for analysis) is often diluted in water to obtain a final specimen suitable for analysis.

The ICP OES instrument uses argon gas flowing through a torch consisting of three concentric quartz tubes.A copper coil circumscribing the top of the torch is connected to a radio frequency (RF) generator.The use of the copper coil with the RF power is called inductive coupling.

When the RF power is applied in the copper coil,an alternating current occurs within the coil.The oscillation of the alternating current causes electric and magnetic fields at the end of the torch.A spark applied to the argon gas causes some electrons to be stripped from the argon atoms.The electrons are caught and accelerated by the RF generated electric/magnetic field.The high energy free electrons collide with other atoms, stripping off more electrons in a chain reaction, resulting in a plasma of electrons,ions, and atoms.This is known as an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharge.This ICP discharge is maintained as the RF energy is continually transferred to the plasma by the copper coil.

The liquid samples are nebulized into an aerosol and introduced into the center of the plasma.The plasma excites the sample atoms, which subsequently relax to a lower energy state by emitting light at elementally characteristic wavelengths.The intensities of these characteristic wavelengths are detected, measured, and compared to intensities for known standards to provide quantitative results.Combustion Methods – High temperature combustion is used to determine carbon and sulfur content in a variety of materials, both organic and inorganic.The sample is accurately weighed and placed The liquid samples are nebulized into an aerosol and introduced into the center of the plasma.The plasma excites the sample atoms,which subsequently relax to a lower energy state by emitting light at elementally characteristic wavelengths.The intensities of these characteristic wavelengths are detected, measured,and compared to intensities for known standards to provide quantitative results.Combustion Methods – High temperature combustion is used to determine carbon and sulfur content in a variety of materials, both organic and inorganic.The sample is accurately weighed and placed in a ceramic crucible or combustion boat, often along with combustion accelerators.The crucible is placed in a high temperature furnace which is then flooded with oxygen.The furnace is heated to 1370-1425°C,causing the combustion of the carbon and sulfur in the sample to form CO, CO2, and SO2.The gases are separated and analyzed by infrared absorption or thermal conductivity detectors.A heated catalyst is used to convert the CO to CO2 prior to detection.

The infrared absorption detector measures the absorption of the infrared wavelengths characteristic to CO2 and SO2.The amount of infrared absorption at these wavelengths is correlated to a quantitative content based on standards and the weight of the original specimen.

The thermal conductivity detectors monitor the thermal conductivity of the carrier gas. As the evolved gases pass the detector, changes in the thermal conductivity correspond to a change in the gas (e.g. from the inert carrier gas to hydrogen) and the amount of evolved gas present.These changes correspond to the amount of CO2 and SO2 generated and indicate the amount of sulfur or carbon in the original specimen.

IG – Inert gas fusion is a quantitative analytical technique for determining the concentrations of nitrogen,oxygen,and hydrogen in ferrous and nonferrous materials. The sample is accurately weighed and placed in a pure graphite crucible in a fusion furnace with an inert gas atmosphere.The crucible is heated to 2000 3000°C,resulting in the sample fusing to a molten state.The hydrogen and nitrogen gases dissociate from the molten material and are carried away from the fusion chamber as H2 and N2. The oxygen released from the material bonds with carbon (from the graphite crucible) to form CO or CO2 and is carried away.

An inert carrier gas flushes the gases evolved from the sample out of the fusion chamber.The fusion gases are separated and carried to the detector.The individual concentrations for the evolved gases are detected by infrared absorption (for CO and CO2 only) or thermal conductive techniques (N2, H2, CO, and CO2) as described for Combustion Methods above.

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 CONCLUSION
From this topic,i concluded that analytical methods for example(Qualitative mehods and Quantitative methods can be used for the preparation of basic industrial chemicals,Basic industrial chemicals are those chemicals produced in large quantities and can be used for the production of other chemicals before it is transported to the consumers,and solid minerals are available in abundant quantity in the country,not all are available in commercial quantity but some are available in commercial quantity,for example gold,limestone,bitumen,lead/zinc,but the problem with the mineral sector is the lack of infrastructure,which causes loss to the country,because they are unexploited and this because the country lacks the right facilities to mine the solid minerals.So in my opinion,to fix this problem,more attention should be given to mining of raw materials to increase the countrys revenue,measures should be taken to create mining industries that will have good effect on the economy,create more jobs for the youths and increase the GDP of the country.

3.2 RECOMMENDATION
Special thanks to Almighty Allah for the completion of this topic,and il also like to thank my parents for all the support given,and my friends too,Adejonrin Mobolaji,Balogun Faeezat,Adedeji Aderonke,Olaosegba jumoke,Aminu Abdul-Azeez and others i cant mention all.Thank you all for the support.

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