THE FAILURE OF AMERICAN DREAM AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME OF THE CHARACTERS ON STEINBECK’S OF MICE AND MEN A GRADUATING PAPER Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Graduating Paper By

THE FAILURE OF AMERICAN DREAM AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME OF THE CHARACTERS ON STEINBECK’S OF MICE AND MEN
A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Graduating Paper

By:
Desi Lestariningsih10150029
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ADAB AND CULTURAL SCIENCES
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SUNAN KALIJAGA
YOGYAKARTA
2017
THE FAILURE OF AMERICAN DREAM AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME OF THE CHARACTERS ON STEINBECK’S OF MICE AND MEN
By: DesiLestariningsihABSTRACT
Of Mice and Men is a short novel written by John Steinbeck in 1937 during the Great Depression Era. This novel depicts the life of working class in California, where many of previous farm workers sought job.This paper aims to find the American Dream found on the novel and analyze how the failure of the American dream affect some the characters. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. The theory applies in this research is American studies theory byTremaine McDowell. The writer uses objective approach in analyzing the data. The conclusion from this paper is that there are three kinds of American dreams found in the novel. First is the dream of equality which is portrayed by Crooks character. Second is the dream of home ownership depicted by George and Candy’s characters. The last is the dream of personal fulfillment portrayed by Curley’s wife character. The next problem regarding on how the American dream failure affect the character is that because each character has their own motive in achieving the dream; when the motivation is lost, they lost the will to continue the dream too.

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Keyword: American dream, equality, home ownership, personal fulfillment
THE FAILURE OF AMERICAN DREAM AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME OF THE CHARACTERS ON STEINBECK’S OF MICE AND MEN
Oleh: Desi LestariningsihABSTRAK
Of Mice and Men adalah sebuah novel pendek yang ditulis oleh John Steinbeck pada tahun 1937 pada masa Depresi Besar. Novel ini enggambarkan tentang kehidupan para kaum buruh yang mencari pekerjaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan American Dream di dalam novel dan menganalisa bagaimana kegagalan American Dream mempengaruhi beberapa karakter dalam novel. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Teori American Studies oleh Tremaine McDowell. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan objektif dalam menganalis data. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa ada tiga jenis American dream yang terdapat di dalam novel. Yang pertama adalah mimpi akan kesetaraan (dream of equality) yang digambarkan dalam karakter Crooks. Yang kedua adalah mimpi akan kepemilikan rumah (dream of home ownership) yang ditunjukkan oleh karakter George dan Candy. Yang terakhir adalah mimpi akan kepuasan pribadi (dream of personal fulfillment) yang digambarkan dalam karakter istri Curley. Masalah selanjutnya yang berhubungan dengan bagaimana kegagalan American Dream mempengaruhi karakter dalam novel adalah karena setiap karakter mempunyai tujuan tersendiri dalam mencapai mimpi, ketika motivasi nya hilang, mereka kehilangan keinginan untuk melanjutkan mimpi mereka juga.

Kata kunci: American dream, kesetaraan, kepemilikan rumah, kepuasan pribadiTABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE iABSTRACTii
ABSTRAKiii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ivCHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background of Study 1
1.2. Problem Statements4
1.3. Objective of Study 4
1.4. Significance of Study 4
1.5. Literature Review 5
1.6. Theoretical Approach 6
1.7. Methods of Research 7
1.7.1. Type of Research 7
1.7.2. Data Sources 7
1.7.3. Data Collection Technique 8
1.7.4. Data Analysis Technique 8
1.8. Paper Organization 8
CHAPTER II: THE INTRINSIC ELEMENTS OF STEINBECK’S OF
MICE AND MEN10
2.1. Intrinsic Elements10
2.1.1. Setting10
2.1.1.1. Setting of Place 10
2.1.1.2 Setting of Time11
2.1.2. Summary 11
2.1.3. Plot13
2.1.4. Characters and Characterizations16
2.1.4.1 George Milton 17
2.1.4.2 Lennie Small18
2.1.4.3 Candy18
2.1.4.4 Curley18
2.1.4.5 Curley’s wife19
2.1.4.6 Slim19
2.1.4.7 Crooks19
2.1.4.8 Carlson19
2.1.4.9 The Boss19
2.1.5 Theme20
2.1.6 Points of View21
CHAPTER III: ANALYSIS 22
3.1 A Brief Explanation on Great Depression22
3.2 About Of Mice and Men22
3.3 American Dream Depicted on Of Mice and Men24
3.3.1 Dream of Equality25
3.3.1.1 Crooks25
3.3.1.2 Crooks Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization28
3.3.2 Dream of Home Ownership30
3.3.2.1 George Milton30
3.3.2.2 George Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization31
3.3.2.3 Candy32
3.3.2.4 Candy Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization33
3.3.3 Dream of Personal Fulfillment34
3.3.3.1 Curley’s Wife34
3.3.3.2 Curley’s Wife Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on Her Characterization35
CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 37
4.1. Conclusion 37
4.2. Suggestion 38
REFERENCES 40
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Of Mice and Men is a short novel by John Steinbeck that was first published in 1937. In literature works, novel is one of the popular genres available. Abrams stated that novel is “the term for novel in most European language is roman, which is derived from the Italian novella (literally, “a little new thing”), which was a short tale in prose” (2009:226).

Some of Steinbeck novel was written during 1930s when the Great Depression occurs. During that period, lots of people might lost their hope; but as many other Americans, there is American dream that play the role of hope. The term of American dream was mentioned by James Truslow Adams on his book, The Epic of America written in 1931. He stated that:
… that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position. (1931:317)
It is linear with the content of the Declaration of Independence in Congress, July 4, 1776: “… that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness, … (August 6, 2017) Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript. In the novel, those aspects of American dream can be seen on the characters’ hope in having their own land or being freed from loneliness or alienation. The writer will further analyze those aspects using American studies theory by Tremaine McDowell, which “moves toward the reconciliation of the tenses: past, present, and future; the reconciliation of the academic disciplines; and the reconciliation of region, nation, and world” (1948:82).

The writer chooses novel as the object of study because novel can be a portrayal of life unlike short story that “…, cannot afford the space for leisurely analysis and sustained development of character, and cannot develop as dense and detailed a social milieu as does the novelist” (Abrams and Harpham, 2009:332). Therefore, why the writer specifically chooses Of Mice and Men because as it was written during the Great Depression Era, the writer wants to know how the American dream was manifested during that period and how the dream failure affects the characters. This novel also shorter than other Steinbeck’s novels set during the Great Depression, but it still manage to convey the purpose in showing the American dream of the characters. The writer also chooses to not include all the characters on the novel. The writer will only include characters that show the kind of American dreams found in the novel, and analyze them. The writer will not categorize the characters, and will solely choose by whether the character portrays the American dream or not.

In Islam, the concept of American dream regarding equality can be seen in Q.S Al Hujurat: 13,

O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.

Allah created human in many different background, status, race, and religion in order to them for knowing each other. All of them are basically created equal; the thing that differentiates them is only how righteous they are in Allah’s eyes, so no one can be judged by others.

In regards of other concepts like Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happines, Islam also has similar concepts as seen in Q.S Al Isra: 33,

And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly – We have given his heir authority, but let him not exceed limits in the matter of taking life. Indeed, he has been supported by the law.

Problem Statement
The novel was written during the Great Depression Era, so people wanted to hold on to the slightest hope available. For a long time people are familiar with the term American dream. Of Mice and Men also depicted how people will pursuit the dream in the darkness era, so the paper will focus on answering these:
What are the American dreams portrayed in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men?
How the failure of American dream is depicted in the story and how it affects some of the characters?
1.3 Objective of Study
This paper objective is to analyze the American dream and its failure in obtaining American dream as seen in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men.

Significance of Study
Theoretically, this research aims to reach particular purposes that are hopefully useful for the readers. This paper studies about the American dream portrayed in the novel and how it fails and the effects to the characters. With the portrayal of American dream in the novel, we can compare to the American dream nowadays.

Practically, this paper purpose is to increase the writer ability in analyzing the American dream during the Great Depression Era. For the researcher, hopefully this research can provide different perspective and can be compared, analyzed, criticized or explored deeper in different works.

Literature Review
The writer uses some previous researches conducted to this object as a literature review. First, there is Rara Novita from UIN Sunan Kalijaga (2014) in her thesis entitled, “Alienation of Modern Man in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men”. She uses the Schacht’s perspective of alienation. The writer is interested in alienation topic because it is always been a part of human life. Alienation happens because of the sharp division created by social forces in society between people and their society. The writer will relate the concept of alienation in modern man on the novel. The researcher believes that Of Mice and Men is portrayal of the reality of human’s social phenomenon. This novel would create a good emotional response towards readers that can lead extensive discussions.

Second, there is another researcher from the same institution, UIN Sunan Kalijaga, by Setyorini Kholidi (2013) entitled, “Anxiety and Defense Mechanism on George Milton in Pursuing the Dream as Portrayed in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men”. The writer on this research only focuses on George Milton Character. She applies psychological theory especially Sigmund freud’s theory of anxiety. Thus, the writer concludes that George has suffered from two kind of anxiety. He got realistic anxiety because of Lennie and other circumstances surrounded. He also suffers from moral anxiety from aunt Clara to take care of Lennie. Those anxieties produced his defense mechanism named repression, rationalization, and fixation.

Third, the writer use graduating paper entitled, “John Steinbeck the man and the Environment (Intertextuality in the social awareness of Steinbeck’s In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men, and The Grapes of Wrath) by Rini Handayani from Sanata Dharma University (2007). In her research, the writer not only uses one novel by Steinbeck; she uses three novels that set on the Great Depression Era to reveal the social realism issues. All the novels were set in the Promised Land; California where all the characters are struggled to achieved their dreams. The writer uses Marxist approach and History-biographical approach to get deep understanding on Steinbeck’s social awareness of lower class people.

All the previous works above show at least one of the objects as the writer; however they are different on subject. In this research the writer applied objective approach on analyzing the American dream and its failure in Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. This can be seen on the problem statements written previously.

Theoretical Approach
The writer uses American Studies theory by Tremaine McDowell and applies objective approach that only focuses on the intrinsic elements of literary work named characters, plot, setting, theme, etc. Abrams and Harpham state that objective criticism or approach:
deals with a work of literature as something which stands free from what is often called an “extrinsic” relationship to the poet, or to the audience, or to the environing world. Instead it describes the literary product as a self-sufficient and autonomous object, or else as a world-in-itself, which is to be contemplated as its own end, and to be analyzed and judged solely by “intrinsic” criteria such as its complexity, coherence, equilibrium, integrity, and the interrelation of its component elements. … (2009:63)
Based on the reconciliations of Tremaine McDowell theory, experience from the past will influence the present, while the present experience or knowledge will provide contribution to the future experience. The second reconciliation of various academic disciplines means that American studies depend on interdisciplinary studies. Whereas the last reconciliation suggests that the studies will be viewed as macro analysis. (Basuki, 2017:16) The writer will only use the first reconciliation of the tenses: past, present, and future. The characters past are their initial American dreams that will affect on how they will act to achieve them. The failure of the dreams will contribute to their future action.

1.7Method of Research
1.7.1Type of Research
The type of research applied in this research is qualitative method uses library research. The writer uses sources like novel, books, websites, and other sources to support the research. In qualitative methods, the research does not deal with survey or numberings in any form. The writes has to narrate the data in words.

1.7.2Data Sources
There are two kinds of data, the primary or main data and the supporting data. The primary data are taken from Of Mice and men Novel by John Steinbeck. The supporting data used by the writer are books and works related to the novel and the topic.

1.7.3Data Collection Technique
In collecting data, the writer uses some steps. First, the writer does some close reading on Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. Next, the writer takes the data from the novel that will be analyzed. Last, the writer collects the marked data based on the objective approach used and applies the theory used.

1.7.4 Data Analysis Technique
In analyzing the data, the writer follows these following procedures. First, is choosing the novel to be analyzed, which is John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. Second, the writer determines the problem statements. Next step is to study the content to analyze the American dream in the novel and its failure, and how it affects the characters.

A description of American studies theory by Tremaine McDowell must be given; then, the writer can apply the theory and starts analyzing. By the end of the research, conclusion and suggestion of this paper must be written.

1.8Paper Organization
This paper is arranged into four chapters. The first chapter informs about the introduction that consists of background of study, problem statements, objectives of study, significances of study, literature review, theoretical approach, method of research, and paper organization. Chapter two explains the intrinsic elements of Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men including place and time setting, summary, plot, characters and characterizations, theme, and point of view. The next chapter contains the analysis in details about the American dream as portrayed in the novel and how the failure of the American dreams affect some of the characters. The last chapter presents the conclusion about the research and suggestion.

CHAPTER II
THE INTRINSIC ELEMENTS OF STEINBECK’S OF MICE AND MEN
2.1Intrinsic Elements
2.1.1Setting
According to Abrams, setting is general locale, historical time, and social circumstances when action occurs in narrative work (2009:330). It has linear idea as mentioned by Nurgiyantoro that setting has relation to a place, a time, and a social condition (2010:216).

2.1.1.1Setting of place
The story Of Mice and Men mostly takes place on Soledad in a ranch where the characters work. Soledad is located in California. There are some specific locations mentioned include the Salinas riverbank, the bunk house, Crooks’ room, and the barn.

A few miles south of Soledad, the Salinas River drops in close to the hillside bank and runs deep and green. … On the sandy bank under the trees the leaves lie deep and so crisp that a lizard makes a great skittering if he runs among them. Rabbits come out of the brush to sit on the sand in the evening, and the damp flats are covered with the night tracks of ‘coons, and with the spread pads of dogs from the ranches, and with the split-wedge tracks of deer that come to drink in the dark. (Steinbeck, 1994:1)
At that moment a young man came into the bunk house; a thin young man with a brown face, with brown eyes and a head of tightly curled hair. (Steinbeck, 1994:26)
Crooks said sharply, “You got no right to come in my room. This here’s my room. Nobody got any right in here but me.” (Steinbeck, 1994:71)
… So maybe you better jus’ scatter along now, ‘Cause Curley maybe ain’t gonna like his wife out in the barn with us ‘bindle stiffs.'” (Steinbeck, 1994:84)
2.1.1.2Setting of Time
There is no specific time mentioned by Steinbeck, but the story was first published in 1937 during the Great Depression that occurs in the United States. The novel tells about migrant workers who look for job during that era in order to chase their dream.

2.1.2Summary
The novel tells the story of George and Lennie who migrate to look for a new job after previously being chased away because Lennie made a woman scared by touching her dress. Lennie has mental disability and very dependant to George. Lennie likes to touch soft things with fur like mouse, but always accidentally kills them. It’s what happens with the woman too. He wants to touch to soft dress, but in order to do so he scared the woman and accused of rape. Although George said that his life would be better without Lennie, readers can feels that he deeply care. They share a dream of buying their own land for farming and keeping soft animal like rabbits for Lennie to be petted.

They actually late to their new job but get accepted nonetheless. George does the talking with the boss. He said that they are cousin, and Lennie was kicked by a horse when he was child. They met Candy, a handicapped old man who owns a very old dog and the newlywed boss’ son, Curley, who is temperamental and very possessive towards his wife.

Curley’s wife flirts with them because she feels neglected. Lennie thinks she is “purty”. George warns him because they may get in trouble with her possessive husband. There is also Slim, the mule driver, who said that George and Lennie’s friendship is quite unusual. Slim’s dog has just given birth, so Carlson, another ranch man of high position insists Candy to shot his old and promises to give one of the puppies to Lennie.

Slim hears about George and Lennie’s dream to buy land, so he offers his savings and ask them to live there if they achieve their dream. On the other hand, Curley fails to find his wife and lash out to Lennie who crushes his hand in exchange. Curley’s wife is suspicious that Lennie is the one who crushes her husband’s hand not the machine and feels amused of the thought.

Lennie accidentally killed his puppy, and Curley’s wife finds him alone in the barn to console him. She admits that her life is lonely and tells Lennie to pet her hair after heard that he like to pet soft things. When he grabs too hard, she screams and Lennie accidentally breaks her neck. Lennie runs away to a place that George told him in the Salinas riverbank before they arrived in the ranch if trouble happens. When the others find out about what happened, George runs to find Lennie with Carlson’s gun. He told Lennie to turn his back and starts to tells him about the land and the rabbits.

George shots Lennie, and when the others arrived he says that Lennie had the gun. They fought and George shot Lennie. Only Slim that seems to understand what really happened and consoles him secretly.

2.1.3Plot
Abrams stated that plot is different from summarizing story. In story, we tell about the synopsis or summary of what happens in sequence order. Plot happens when we specify how something is related to another thing (2009:265).

There are flashback, progress, and mixed plot. Flashback is when the story is going backward before the work opened. Progress is when the story is going towards the future in opening story, while mixed plot is combination of both. According to Aristotle the steps in plot are beginning, middle, and end; whereas, in Freytag terms they are opening, exposition, rising action, climax, and falling action, and resolution (Abrams and Harpham, 2009:130).

Based on that explanation, Of Mice and Men use progress plot, and here the Freytag plot’s classification diagram:
middlebeginning
climax
Falling action
Rising action

endBeginning

denouementconflictresolutionexposition
Exposition: 1. Setting: California in the 1930s
2. Introduced to George and Lennie who travel together to work on a ranch
3. Dream of having their own farm
4. They are on their way to their new job and take a rest in the Salinas riverbank
ConflictThey were forced to leave their previous work on Weed because Lennie grabbed a girl dress to touch it, but accused of rape instead
Rising action : 1. George and Lennie arrived on the ranch and met he boss who was on to them because he was suspicious of their relationship, and they were late
2. George told the boss Lennie was his Cousin and kicked by a horse when he was young
3. Introduced to Candy and his very old dog
4. Curley, the boss’ son came into the bunkhouse, and picked on Lennie because he was big. (Curley was a small man)
5. Introduced to Curley’s wife who was flirtatious to get attention because she feel lonely
6. George warned Lennie to stay away from Curley’s wife
7. Introduced to Slim, the well respected team leader. George told him the real reason why they came there, and later Slim gave Lennie his puppy
8. Candy heard George and Lennie’s dream and wanted to join
9. Candy’s dog were shot by Carlson who own a Luger and felt guilty because he was not with his dog when it was killed
10. Curley picked a fight with Lennie, and George told Lennie to fight back. Lennie crushed Curley’s hand accidentally. Slim then threaten Curley to not rat out Lennie or George
11. Lennie met Crooks and told him about his dream. They later joined by Curley’s wife, but the men wanted her away
Climax : 1. Lennie accidentally killed the puppy when he was in the barn by himself
2. Curleys wife came and told lennie that she was lonely. Lennie told her that he loved to pet soft things, so she let him touch her hair. Lennie grabbed her hair too hard made her scream, so Lennie accidentally broke her neck
3. Lennie ran into the hiding place that George mentioned in the opening of story in case trouble happened
Falling action : 1. Candy found the dead body then told George. He realized that their dream was shattered
2. Candy told others about what happen. George secretly took Carlson Luger
3. Curley made conclusion that Lennie was the culprit. They went to find him
Resolution : Lennie was found by George in the hiding place by the riverbank. George told Lennie about their dream to distract Lennie and shot him out of mercy
Denouement : Lennie was paralleled with Candy’s dog. Candy felt regret because he let other people killed his dog, so George made sure he is the one who killed Lennie (to make Lennie comfortable). Only Slim could see the reason
2.1.4Characters and Characterizations
Abrams and Harpham wrote that characters are:
The person represented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as possessing particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it—the dialogue—and from what they do—the action. (2009:42)
There are some characters mentioned in the story:
2.1.4.1George Milton
George is a migrant worker who is described as small and strong man as described in:
The first man was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong features. Every part of him was defined: small, strong hands, slender arms, a thin and bony nose. (Steinbeck, 1994:2)
He believes that people who work on ranch are lonely but not him because he has Lennie as friend:
“Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don’t belong no place. They come to a ranch an’ work up a stake and then they go inta town and blow their stake, and the first thing you know they’re poundin’ their tail on some other ranch. They ain’t got nothing to look ahead to.”… George went on. “With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. … But not us.” (Steinbeck, 1994:13)
George has a big dream with Lennie, “O.K. Someday – we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs and -” (Steinbeck, 1994:14)
George complains that his life would have been better without Lennie, but actually he cares and does not want Lennie in trouble:
“‘Course you did. Well, look Lennie – if you jus’ happen to get in trouble like you always done before, I want you to come right here an’ hide in the brush.”
“Hide in the brush,” said Lennie slowly.

“Hide in the brush till I come for you. Can you remember that?” (Steinbeck, 1994:15)
2.1.4.2Lennie Small
Lennie always travels with George. Lennie is described as a big man with wide, sloping shoulders who walks awkwardly as in paragraph:
Behind him walked his opposite, a huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws. His arms did not swing at his sides, but hung loosely. (Steinbeck, 1994:2)
He walks awkwardly because of his sloping shoulders. He also drags his feet and hung his arms loosely like mentally retarded people usually do.

He also portrayed as forgetful, “O.K.- O.K. I’ll tell ya again. I ain’t got nothing to do. Might jus’ as well spen’ all my time tellin’ you things and then you forget ’em, and I tell you again.” (Steinbeck, 1994:4)
2.1.4.3Candy
Candy is an old man who works on the ranch. He is described as tall and has stoop shoulders, “The door opened and a tall, stoop shouldered old man came in.” He also handicapped in one arm, “He pointed with right arm, and out of the sleeve came a round stick like wrist, but no hand.” (Steinbeck, 1994:17)
2.1.4.4Curley
The son of the boss, and is he is described as thin and young, “At that moment a young man came into the bunk house; a thin young man with a brown face, with brown eyes and a head of tightly curled hair.” (Steinbeck, 1994:24)
Curley is recently married and very possessive of his wife. He also hates big guys, so he picks up at Lennie.
2.1.4.5Curley’s Wife
Her name is never mentioned. She is flirtatious that make Curley jealous and very possessive. “I seen her give Slim the eye. … Curley never seen it. An’ I seen her give Carlson the eye.” (Steinbeck, 1994:27)
2.1.4.6Slim
Slim is the team leader. He is described as tall, “Yeah. Big tall skinner. …” (Steinbeck, 1994:22) He is respected by everyone, and allied with George and Lennie.

2.1.4.7Crooks
Crooks is the black stable worker in the ranch and a nice person. “Nigger, huh?” “Yeah. Nice fella too (Steinbeck, 1994:19). Crooks is also isolated because of his skin color.

2.1.4.8Carlson
The big insensitive ranch worker who shoots Candy’s dog because he think old dog is useless. ‘”A powerful, big-stomached man came into the bunk house.” (Steinbeck, 1994: 34) He owns a Luger, which George later uses to kill Lennie after he accidentally kills Curley’s wife.

2.1.4.9The Boss
The boss is described as short and rather fat who dresses as rich man. “A little stocky man stood in the open doorway. … and he wore high-heeled boots and spurs to prove he was not a laboring man.” (Steinbeck, 1994:19)
He is also describes as very careful and doubtful towards new workers, “All right. But don’t try to put nothing over, ’cause you can’t get away with nothing. …” (Steinbeck, 1994:22)
2.1.5Theme
Theme is the general concept in literature work to involve and persuade the reader (Abrams and Harpham, 2009:205).

a) Loneliness, isolation, and human desire of power. Almost all of the characters feel loneliness and isolation. They desire comfort, but go for stranger since it is easier. Curley’s wife tells Lennie, Candy, and Crooks that she is unhappy. Cooks confesses to Lennie that he is isolated because of his skin color. Weak people hate even weaker people, like when Crooks criticizes Lennie’s dependence on George and their dream. He feels powerful towards Lennie because usually he is the weakest.

b) Friendship. The friendship between George and Lennie, and their dream make others feel attracted. Candy invests on his saving; Croocks cannot help to ask if he can work in their land even when he knows everyone had been failed. Even Slim is captivated and sympathizes with their unusual friendship. George admitted that they are different because they are not lonely, they have each other.

c) American dream. As stated before that dreaming of land can be also an element in American dream, this novel explicitly mentions that. The further analysis on the theme will be further explained on chapter three as the main purpose of the research is to analyze the American dream in the novel.

2.1.6Points of View
Point of view is the way the story get told (Abrams and Harpham, 2009:271). There are third person, first person, and second person points of view. The third person points of view is divided into omniscient and limited. Omniscient point of view means that the narrator knows everything including actions and thoughts. The narrator is also free to move between the characters. Within omniscient mode there are still divided into intrusive and objective narrator. In intrusive point of view, as the name suggests, the author will not only stated but also comment on the characters’ actions. Objective or impersonal point of view means there is no comments on the character’s actions. In first person point of view, we can distinguish the “I” character who is only an audience, a minor character, or the main character itself. In second person point of view, the author will address the reader with the use of “you” pronoun throughout the story as if to communicate with the reader and include the reader in the story. The points of view used in the novel are third person limited; which means the narrative is not given by the character in the story, and the narrator only know what are stated in the story by what the characters said or the characters’ action. The narrator will not know the characters’ inner thought.

CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS
3.1 A Brief Explanation on the Great Depression
The Great Depression was a large scale economic depression worldwide which lasted about 10 years starts from 1929 until 1939. It was triggered by “Black Thursday” on October 24, 1929. That was when lots of traders sold their stock shares of 12.9 million in a day; then the prices fell 23 percent caused the stock market crash. Because of that, by 1933 in America, unemployment had risen from 3 percent to 25 percent and wages fell 42 percent. Prices also fell 10 percent each year because of deflation. These also caused farmers lost their land; and because of over cultivation throughout the years and a drought, the “Dust bowl” phenomenon was happening in Midwest. This previously fertile land became wasted and barren caused workers look for job in California. (August 8, 2017) Retrieved from http://www.thebalance.com/the-great-depression-of-1929-33060333.2 About Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men story is focused around George Milton and Lennie Small who travel together for a job in ranches around California to fulfill their dream. During their work in one of the ranch, they met some people who shared their dream or met people with another dream who affect their life. George befriends Lennie because he believed that friendship can avoid the loneliness that happened on the worker like them. They wasted their hard earned money from work to have fun in town, then after broke they go for another ranch. This cycle happens repeatedly make them have no family.

“Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don’t belong no place. They come to a ranch an’ work up a stake and then they go inta town and blow their stake, and the first thing you know they’re poundin’ their tail on some other ranch. They ain’t got nothing to look ahead to.”… George went on. “With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. … But not us.” (Steinbeck, 1994:13)
In fact, George is taking care of Lennie because he got some mental illness. Lennie is very dependent on George and very forgetful. Lennie often got into problems because he loved to pet soft things. In Weed, before they got their new job, Lennie touch a woman red dress, but the woman squawked; made Lennie hold tighter. Later the woman report Lennie of attempt rape.

“Well, he seen this girl in a red dress. Dumb bastard like he is, he wants to touch ever’thing he likes. Just wants to feel it. So he reaches out to feel this red dress an’ the girl lets out a squawk, and that gets Lennie all mixed up, and he holds on …. I socked him over the head with a fence picket to make him let go. He was so scairt he couldn’t let go of that dress. And he’s so God damn strong, you know.”
Slim’s eyes were level and unwinking. He nodded very slowly. “So what happens?”
George carefully built his line of solitaire cards. “Well, that girl rabbits in an’ tells the law she been raped. … (Steinbeck, 1994:77)
Despite of the troubled caused by Lennie, George deeply cared. He even told Lennie in case there is another trouble occurred; Lennie must hide until George finds him.

“‘Course you did. Well, look. Lennie—if you jus’ happen to get in trouble like you always done before, I want you to come right here an’ hide in the brush.”
“Hide in the brush,” said Lennie slowly.

“Hide in the brush till I come for you. Can you remember that?” (Steinbeck. 1994:50)
He even lied to the boss and said that Lennie is his cousin and was not smart because he got kicked in the head by horse and handled the job interview by himself to avoid suspicion about Lennie’s condition: “George said, “He’s my…cousin. I told his old lady I’d take care of him. He got kicked in the head by a horse when he was a kid. He’s awright. Just ain’t bright. But he can do anything you tell him.” (Steinbeck, 1994:57)
3.3 American Dream Depicted on Of Mice and Men
American dream had been a popular term since 20th century. It is a dream to have a better chance in getting a better life. This dream made many people from all over the world to come to America to make a better life and get the freedom that they cannot achieved in their homeland. Cullen categorized American dream into various kinds based on loosely chronological order. First is the desire of religious freedom that made many Europeans migrate to America. Second is the political manifesto of the dream that is The Declaration of Independence. Next is the desired freedom from slavery which then became the dream in regard of equality. After that, there is dream of home ownership which then further became dream of personal fulfillment that may vary depend on the individual. (Cullen, 2003:8-9).

On Steinbeck Of Mice and Men there are three elements of American dreams depicted by the characters: 1) dream of equality 2) dream of home or land ownership and 3) dream of personal fulfillment. This paper aims to analyze which character had the dream and how they failed on fulfill the dream. Not all of the characters will be analyzed; only characters who show the element(s) of American dream. There are no dream of religious freedom and political freedom because they are already happened. The dream of religious freedom happened when many Europeans seek freedom in choosing religion by migrated to America. Initially, even after arrived in America they still had to struggle; hence the Declaration of Independence happened.

3.3.1 Dream of Equality
3.3.1.1 Crooks
Tocquiville stated via Jim Cullen’s The American Dream: A Short history that shaped a Nation that:
When all the privileges of birth and fortune are abolished, when all professions are accessible to all, and a man’s own energies may place him at the top of any one of them, an easy and unbounded career seems open to his ambition and he will readily persuade himself that he is born to no common destinies. But this is an erroneous notion, which is corrected by daily experience. The same equality that allows every citizen to conceive these lofty hopes renders all the citizens less able to realize them; it circumscribes their powers on every side, while it gives freer scope to their desires. Not only are they themselves powerless, but they are met at every step by immense obstacles, which they did not at first perceive. (Cullen, 2003:71)
Crooks was discriminated because of his black skin: “‘Cause I’m black. They play cards in there, but I can’t play because I’m black. They say I stink. Well, I tell you, you all of you stink to me.” (Steinbeck, 1994:106). Others often called him “nigger” or “stable buck that indicates people reluctance in even in calling his name. He even got punishment from the boss because of others fault (in this case, George and Lennie’s lateness to their new job). “George patted a wrinkle out of his bed, and sat down. “Give the stable buck hell?” he asked. “Sure. Ya see the stable buck’s a nigger.” (Steinbeck, 1994:54).Crooks was actually well read, intelligent, and calm. “Yeah. Nice fella too. Got a crooked back where a horse kicked him. The boss gives him hell when he’s mad. But the stable buck don’t give a damn about that. He reads a lot. Got books in his room” (Steinbeck, 1994: 54). He might even know his rights well because he owned the California Civil Code 1905 in his room. He also gave priority in privacy, and because of his intelligence he was seen as a proud and neat man.
Crooks possessed several pairs of shoes, a pair of rubber boots, a big alarm clock and a single-barreled shotgun. And he had books, too; a tattered dictionary and a mauled copy of the California civil code for 1905. There were battered magazines and a few dirty books on a special shelf over his bunk. A pair of large gold-rimmed spectacles hung from a nail on the wall above his bed.

This room was swept and fairly neat, for Crooks was a proud, aloof man. (Steinbeck, 1994:104-105)
Crooks actually is not a descendant of slave, so he do not need the desire to freedom himself. Prejudice is still large at that time, and Crooks has lack of motivation to pursue the equality right. He is well read but skeptical, so he does not fight for his right thinking it is just a waste of time and effort. He only told Lennie that he is not a slave descendant but the son of land owner because he knows Lennie will forget it anyway.

Crooks leaned forward over the edge of the bunk. “I ain’t a southern negro,” he said. “I was born right here in California. My old man had a chicken ranch, ’bout ten acres. The white kids come to play at our place, an’ sometimes I went to play with them, and some of them was pretty nice. My ol’ man didn’t like that. I never knew till long later why he didn’t like that. But I know now.” He hesitated, and when he spoke again his voice was softer. “There wasn’t another colored family for miles around. And now there ain’t a colored man on this ranch an’ there’s jus’ one family in Soledad.” He laughed. “If I say something, why it’s just a nigger sayin’ it.” (Steinbeck, 1994:108)
It is only Lennie, that he thinks has lower status that himself because of his lack of intelligence and mental condition, deep down he still has the dream. Although it is ironic when he thinks of equality but he deems other is lower than him. He thinks that he never dreams on anything before, but after hear George and Lennie that was later on joined by Candy that they almost got all the money needed; he could not help himself in asking to be included.

Crooks reached around and explored his spine with his hand. “I never seen a guy really do it,” he said. “I seen guys nearly crazy with loneliness for land, but ever’ time a whore house or a blackjack game took what it takes.” He hesitated. “…If you…guys would want a hand to work for nothing—just his keep, why I’d come an’ lend a hand. I ain’t so crippled I can’t work like a son-of a- bitch if I want to.” (Steinbeck, 1994:115)
It may be seen as the same dream as home ownership as other characters, but actually with his out loud admittance that he is not a hopeless cripple and can work on anything he wants; his dream is the dream of equality.

In regards of the reconciliation of the tenses, in the past Crooks though he was the lawn owner’s son, he is still a black skin person. The black person is always associated with slavery, so they do not have position in the community; even in lower class workers. That past affect the present in form of Crooks’ way of thinking that no matter how rich or educated he was, there is useless because he will always be seen as nigger. That is, until something happened to trigger the change. He met someone that he thought even lower than himself, and then knowing the dream of others; with his past experience and education he set his dream of equality for future.

3.3.1.2 Crooks Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization
Because of others reluctance of calling Crooks real name, maybe even Crooks was only his nickname because of his crooked back. His room in the barn with the ranch animal apart from other workers shows the reader how poorly treated of him. He set himself low, but after knowing Lennie has mental illness he cannot help to look down on him. Although by doing so, he also seeks comfort in Lennie by telling Lennie about himself which is an action that he never do before as a coping mechanism.

Crooks laughed again. … George knows what he’s about. Jus’ talks, an’ you don’t understand nothing.” He leaned forward excitedly. “This is just a nigger talkin’, an’ a busted-back nigger. So it don’t mean nothing, see? You couldn’t remember it anyways. I seen it over an’ over—a guy talkin’ to another guy and it don’t make no difference if he don’t hear or understand. … . “George can tell you screwy things, and it don’t matter. It’s just the talking. It’s just bein’ with another guy. That’s all.” He paused.

His voice grew soft and persuasive. “S’pose George don’t come back no more. S’pose he took a powder and just ain’t coming back. What’ll you do then?” (Steinbeck, 1994:109)
People tend to dislike other people successfulness or achievement, so Crooks try to shatter Lennie’s dream. Unfortunately, his lack of motivation made him backed down quickly. When he tried to inflate his pride toward Curley’s wife, he quickly back to his no ego personality.

Crooks stood up from his bunk and faced her. “I had enough,” he said coldly. “You got no rights comin’ in a colored man’s room. You got no rights messing around in here at all. Now you jus’ get out, an’ get out quick. If you don’t, I’m gonna ask the boss not to ever let you come in the barn no more.”

“Well, you keep your place then, Nigger. I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it ain’t even funny.”
Crooks had reduced himself to nothing. There was no personality, no ego—nothing to arouse either like or dislike. He said, “Yes, ma’am,” and his voice was toneless. (Steinbeck, 1994:119)
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that despite of his knowledge, Crooks does not really want to achieve his dream of equality because of his mindset about black people. In a brief period of spontaneity in asking to join George and Lennie’s dream, he show his deepest desire; but his proud tendency is weak compared to his will to fight back. Crooks failed dream of his American dream affects him in the way he behaves proudly and belittles someone he thought weaker than him.

3.3.2 Dream of Home Ownership
The Great depression made the American Dream of home ownership become impossible for the low class workers. This never makes some characters stop in trying to pursuit the dream.

3.3.2.1 George Milton
George was afraid of loneliness, so he travels with Lennie and takes care of him. George dream influenced Lennie to shared dream together.

“O.K. Someday—we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs and——”
“An’ live off the fatta the lan’,” Lennie shouted. “An’ have rabbits. Go on, George! Tell about what we’re gonna have in the garden and about the rabbits in the cages and about the rain in the winter and the stove, and how thick the cream is on the milk like you can hardly cut it. Tell about that, George.” (Steinbeck, 1994:49)
One key factor in the American dream is hard work and reward to obtain success. Success here means materialistic things like wealth accumulation. There is an ideology that American dream will happen to anyone that works hard enough. Failure happens to those who do not enough effort. That can be seen from Benjamin Franklin statement that defined American dream as the ability to shape one’s destiny (Cullen, 2003:97).

As for the reconciliation of the tenses, in the past George always felt lonely until he found Lennie that always depends on him. He though that working class people is destined to have solitary life because no one cared and no one to be cared for. After meeting Lennie, George wants to take care of him and avoid problems as much as possible caused them to travel to work together as their present. Thinking about the amount of money they can gather together, George set the dream of house ownership as their future goal.

3.3.2.2 George Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization
With Lennie companion, George work hard in trying to achieve his dream. Lennie’s companion make him try to be different from other workers that stuck in earn money, waste them, move to another ranch to earn money again, and then waste them again cycle. However the biggest obstacle in obtaining the dream is that Lennie is bound to make trouble with his likeness on soft things.

When Lennie is finally albeit by accident, killed Curley’s wife, George made the decision that he must be the one who killed Lennie. This show how much George cared for Lennie. He does not want Lennie to be scared in his last moment. He wants no regret like Candy that let Curley to kill his dog instead of himself. He wants Lennie to feel peaceful with his presence also.
However, with Lennie’s death, he realized that he is all alone like others. Deep down in his heart, his dream is just an illusion. After Lennie’s death, he shattered the dream himself. He become like other workers who are lonely and spends all their saving which he feared greatly.
George didn’t answer his question. George said, “I’ll work my month an’ I’ll take my fifty bucks an’ I’ll stay all night in some lousy cat house. Or I’ll set in some poolroom till ever’body goes home. An’ then I’ll come back an’ work another month an’ I’ll have fifty bucks more” (Steinbeck, 1994:134).

From the explanation above it can be concluded that the American Dream is what each individual believe and it depends on how their effort to make them happen. George used Lennie as the reason to help him achieve his dream, but he never mean that as the real dream; he only thought it as an illusion, so when Lennie is out of the picture he make no more effort in achieving it.

3.3.2.3 Candy
Candy has attachment to his old dog. He makes a connection between his dog and himself. He had the dog for a very long time since it was a puppy. He sees himself in the dog; both old and he is crippled. Curley always pesters him to kill the dog with his Luger. He fears that when he becomes useless the boss will kick him out like the dog, so after hearing George and Lennie’s dream he wants to be included. “S’pose I went in with you guys. Tha’s three hunderd an’ fifty bucks I’d put in. I ain’t much good, but I could cook and tend the chickens and hoe the garden some. How’d that be?” (Steinbeck, 1994:97)
Candy sees the dream as his last hope to hold on. His past experience is related to the dog. He knows that when the dog becomes old and useless usually the owner will eliminate it. It affects his decision towards his dog. He lets other kill the dog for him, so he regrets it. As his present, after hearing George’s dream, he wants to join in order to rid his regret and feel useful again. He set the share home ownership as his future.

3.3.2.4 Candy Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on His Characterization
After regretting not accompany and kill the dog himself, Candy make George and Lennie’s dream as his own dream to hold on. Unfortunately, with Lennie’s death, once again the dream shattered. This time, instead of blaming himself or even Lennie which he shared the dream, he blame the victim of Lennie’s unintended strenght, Curley’s wife. After Lennie runs off, he showed his resentment toward Curley’s wife dead body.

Old Candy watched him go. He looked helplessly back at Curley’s wife, and gradually his sorrow and his anger grew into words. “You God damn tramp,” he said viciously. “You done it, di’n’t you? I s’pose you’re glad. Ever’body knowed you’d mess things up. You wasn’t no good. You ain’t no good now, you lousy tart.” … He paused, and then went on in a singsong. And he repeated the old words: “If they was a circus or a baseball game…we would of went to her…jus’ said ‘ta hell with work,’ an’ went to her. Never ast nobody’s say so. An’ they’d of been a pig and chickens…an’ in the winter…the little fat stove…an’ the rain comin’…an’ us jus’ settin’ there.” His eyes blinded with tears and he turned and went weakly out of the barn, and he rubbed his bristly whiskers with his wrist stump. (Steinbeck, 1994:135-136)
Candy’s dream is a form of an escape from his fear. After having regret to not kill the dog himself, he sees George and Lennie’s dream as a mean of escape; but when the dream shatters he blame other and make no effort in continuing the dream. His initial motive was not strong enough to make him hold on in his dream.

3.3.3 Dream of Personal Fulfillment
One of aspects of American dream mentioned in the Declaration of Independence is the Pursuit of Happiness. The dream of Personal or individual Fulfillment can be rendered as one of the elements in Pursuit of Happiness. Cullen stated that Dream of Personal Fulfillment is greatly differ from the Dream of Home Ownership that define the American dream success by hard work; He stated that, “…that life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are a matter of individual fulfillment and ease, not striving and hard work” (Cullen, 2003:39) Thus, though home ownership can be seen as personal fulfillment, in achieving that one usually should work hark. In personal fulfillment, as the name suggest it should be done with ease and contentment.

3.3.3.1 Curley’s Wife
Curley’s wife dream of fulfillment is to gain fame and comfort with an easy way out. At first she wants to become a Hollywood actress; when she failed that dream she seeks an easy way out by marrying Curley in hoping to get a better life.

…. He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural. Soon’s he got back to Hollywood he was gonna write to me about it.” She looked closely at Lennie to see whether she was impressing him. “I never got that letter,” she said. “I always thought my ol’ lady stole it. Well, I wasn’t gonna stay no place where I couldn’t get nowhere or make something of myself, an’ where they stole your letters. I ast her if she stole it, too, an’ she says no. So I married Curley. …
It can be seen that in the past, Curley’s wife ideal of personal fulfillment would be fame. Because she failed in achieving that dream, she set the present dream as wealth by married as easier way to achieve the dream. She does not feel satisfied by marrying because her husband is very possessive; her past dream to become famous may have a part too. Hence, she set the future goal in trying to get the satisfaction as centre of attention among men.

3.3.3.2Curley’s Wife Failed Dream and How It Has Effect on Her Characterization
Curley’s wife thinks that married to Curley is the fastest way in achieving her dream. Unfortunately, Curley is very possessive toward him and sees her as a property. She feels lonely, so she flirts with other workers. “I seen her give Slim the eye. Slim’s a jerkline skinner. Hell of a nice fella. Slim don’t need to wear no high-heeled boots on a grain team. I seen her give Slim the eye. Curley never seen it. An’ I seen her give Carlson the eye.” (Steinbeck, 1994:63).Other workers do not want to get in trouble with the temperamental Curley, but become clueless because of his mental illness, Lennie confided her about his likeness in touching soft things after she told him about her dream. She wants attention, but because no one give her what she wants; she goes too Lennie although she is half afraid of him after she suspect him of crushing his husband’s hand. In the end, not only her desire of fame crumbled; she also dead on Lennie’s hands, albeit accidentally because of her own greed.

From the explanation, we can conclude that Curley’s wife failed dream made her seek another form of personal fulfillment by seducing men; even though she knows how possessive her husband is, or how Lennie looks rather scary with his unintended strength. Her desire to achieve the dream is greater than her fear, although that desire is the one that failed her too.

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
4.1 Conclusion
Based on the discussion, it can be concluded that there are at least three kinds American dream depicted by Steinbeck on Of Mice and Men Novel. They are the dream of equality, the dream of home ownership, and the dream of personal fulfillment. Each dream is depicted by different characters. We see the dream of equality is carried by Crooks, who is the only black skinned person in the story. As any other African-American in that time period, he also faced discrimination although he is not the descendant of slave.

The second American dream portrays in the novel is the dream of home ownership which is shown in George and Candy’s characters. Although, both of them only made the dream behind of some pretenses that caused they to end their dream when the motivation that made the dream possible is lost. The last American dream in the story is the dream of personal fulfillment portrayed by Curley’s wife. The kind of personal fulfillments that she wants are fame, wealth, and the satisfying feeling from getting attention by men. It is ironic when her initial American dream was fame, but her name was never mentioned throughout the book.

The next problem statement regarding on how the American dreams fails in the story; it can be concluded that, according to Benjamin Franklin statement that American dream can only be achieved when the ability to shaped one destiny is determined by the person him or herself. In the story, George, Candy, and Crooks defined their dream because they have particular motivation; but, when the motivation is lost, they also lost the will to continue their dream. That means their motivation was not strong enough to help them shaped and achieved their dream. In other hand, Curley’s wife seeks and easy way out by changing from one personal fulfillment into another that caused her death in the end. It is true that the past experience will affect the present, whereas the present will also affect the future; but, the person’s own motivation should be enough to define their dreams.

4.2 Suggestion
This paper is in fact still very far from perfect because of the limited time and source available in conducting the research. There are a lot of obstacles that the writer faces in completing this graduating paper. Despite of the limitation, Of Mice and Men still provide various topics to be discussed.

This paper only focused on American dream based on objective approach that only focuses on the intrinsic element of the novel; so, for further analysis, the next researcher can use different approach. Furthermore, the writer only analyze on how the American dream was portrayed in the novel and how its failure affects George, Crooks, Candy and Curley’s wife. The next researcher may explore the other characters to be analyzed.

The factor that caused the American dream fails in Of Mice and Men mostly because when the motivation that makes that persons dream is lost. They hold on temporary factors such as person or dreams of other. In other to achieve their dream, in Islam, we are taught that we can only depend on Allah, The Almighty and the Creator of all as mentioned in Q.S Al Kahf:18,
????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????There the authority is completely for Allah, the Truth. He is best in reward and best in outcome.

Most of the characters put their motivation in wrong way, so they are easy to back away the motivation is lost. Actually, if they put their hope on God, like the motto created by the America’s founding fathers, “In God we trust”; they will never lost their hope in achieving their American dream, no matter how difficult the obstacles they face.

REFERENCES
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Adams, James Truslow. 1931. The Epic of America. New York: Garden City Books. PDF
Cullen, Jim. 2003. The American Dream: A Short History of an Idea That Shaped a Nation.New York: Oxford university Press.

Declaration of Independence: A Transcription. America’s Founding Documents. Accessed 6 Aug. 2017. http://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcriptHandayani, Rini. 2007. John Steinbeck the man and the Environment (Intertextuality in the social awareness of Steinbeck’s In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men, and The Grapes of Wrath). Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Kholidi, Setyorini. 2013. Anxiety and Defense Mechanism on George Milton in Pursuing the Dream as Portrayed in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. Yogyakarta: Sunan Kalijaga Islamic State University.

Kimberly Amadeo. Updated 2 Aug 2017. The Great Depression: What Happened, What Caused It, How Did It End: Why There Was Only One Great Depression. The Balance. Accessed on 8 Aug 2017. http://www.thebalance.com/the-great-depression-of-1929-3306033McDowell, Tremaine. (1948). American Studies. Minneapolis: The University of
Minnesota Press.Novita, Rara. 2014. Alienation of Modern Man in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. Yogyakarta: Sunan Kalijaga Islamic State University.

Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 2010. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah mada University Press. Print
Steinbeck John. 1994. Of Mice and Men. New York: Penguin Group. PDF
The Noble Qur’an. https://quran.com/49/13. accessed on 7 Aug 2017

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