The planet Earth composes of different sets of characteristics and properties that vary from all the planets in the solar system; and its distinction shows on its four major subsystems: hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.
The hydrosphere includes all the water forms found on the surface of Earth. It may vary from liquid to solid waters—in a form of glaciers—and in a gaseous state wherein water evaporates and turn to clouds. It features rivers, lakes, streams, swamps, waterfalls, seas, oceans, and vapor and other forms present on the planet. 97% of the water on Earth is salty and most of it is carried by the oceans. On the other hand, lakes and rivers carry freshwater.
Moving on to the next subsystem, the lithosphere makes up the solid Earth—landforms, rock materials on the surface and in the planet’s interior, and soils. The surface of the lithosphere is uneven as it has different landforms ranging from mountain ranges to deep valleys. The solid, semi-solid, and liquid rocks in the Earth’s interior are also included in the lithosphere. These are the ‘sub-spheres’ recognized as the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.
Following this further, the biosphere composes of all the living creatures on Earth. It includes all the animals, plants, microorganisms and humans. These ecological populations interact with all the remaining subsystems and make use of its benefits.
The atmosphere is the gaseous blanket that envelops the planet. It insulates and shields the earth from celestial or astronomical objects that may cause damage to Earth.
These major subsystems interact and correlate with each other and nurture the conditions on the planet that are necessary for the balance of life. For instance, the hydrosphere provides water supply and habitat for all the living creatures on Earth. It also affects the lithosphere as the waters affect the shape of the landforms.
The impact of all the interactions of the subsystems is not equal throughout the globe. However, the Earth needs all these subsystems to work harmoniously to function well.