There are 3 main types of leadership theories 1

There are 3 main types of leadership theories
1. Trait theory
2. Behavioral theory
3. Contingency theory
Behavioral theory
Behavioral Theory of Leadership is a leadership theory that considers the reactions of leaders and followers in a given situation. Behavioral theories focus on how leaders behave and assume that leaders can be made, rather than born and successful leadership is based on definable, learnable behavior. According to the University Of Michigan Studies there are two types of behavioral theory
? Employee Oriented Leader
Those leaders really care about their employees than their tasks. They think about employee’s growth and their health. Moreover those leaders have a good relationship with their employees and they motivate their employees. However, employee orientation can cause a manager to overlook task failures and missed deadlines. The employee-oriented manager often has a democratic style of leadership.
? Task Oriented Leader
Those leaders maintains strong discipline to task completion and deadlines. They focus on their tasks than their employees. A highly task-oriented manager maintains focus on timing and quality of work. According to the case study jess is a task oriented leader because she focuses on the company tasks than employees. In order to this jess’s team members complain to the senior management about jess’s leadership style.

Leadership styles
A leadership style is a leader’s method of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields. In order to this psychologist Kurt Lewin set out to identify 3 different styles of leadership.
1. Autocratic – Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. These leaders typically make choices based on their ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. These leaders does not consult employees for inputs. According to the case study Jess is an autocratic leader because she’s very strict to others and her team members also stress out because of her behavior(Kendra Cherry,2018)

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2. Democratic – Democratic leadership style is a participative leadership style. In this leadership style members of the group take a more participative role in the decision-making process.

3. Laissez-Faire – This leadership style also known as delegative leadership style. Leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions in this style.

2. With reference to specific team members, analyze how assertiveness, influencing and negotiating techniques could be used and show why the techniques proposed might be effective in this situation. At least two techniques for each area must be covered.

o Assertiveness
Assertiveness is the quality of being self-assured and confident without being aggressive. Moreover being assertive means standing up for your personal rights – expressing thoughts, feelings and beliefs in direct, honest and appropriate ways. Being assertive we should always respect the thoughts, feelings and beliefs of other people.
Assertiveness techniques
1. I statement: “I” statement is a style of communication that focuses on the feelings or beliefs of the speaker rather than thoughts and characteristics that the speaker attributes to the listener.
According to the case study Jess can say Elspeth “it is good if you have daily attendance” rather than blaming “why can’t you come daily?” When Russell has low motivation Jess can say “if you can motivate a lot you can do your work properly” rather than arguing “why don’t you have an enough motivation”
2. Responsive: Competent communicators (high assertive, high responsive) communicated from needs for affection, pleasure and inclusion more than non- competent (low assertive, low responsive), submissive (low assertive, high responsive) and aggressive (high assertive, low responsive) individuals.
According to the case study Russell’s motivation is now very low. Doing no more than his contracted hours, coming in on time and going home on time, and doing no more than the job in hand. In this situation Jess can help him to increase his motivation. She can create some goal and give him to do. So in this assertive and response will be high (,2018).

Non Assertiveness: It means not expressing feelings, needs, and ideas; ignoring personal rights; and allowing others to infringe upon them. Nonassertive behavior is usually emotionally dishonest, indirect, inhibited, and self-denying. We can avoid this by maintain our self-control, Remember that other people have a right to their emotions and Pausing, or counting to ten, before responding to an outburst can help to avoid answering in an automatic, defensive or aggressive way.
o Negotiation
Companies have to negotiate in numerous areas of organizational conflict. Negotiation is an open process for two parties to find an acceptable solution to a complicated conflict. Negotiation is a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources
Techniques for Negotiation
Collaboration: Collaboration enables individuals to work together to achieve a defined and common business purpose. It is a joint effort of multiple individuals or work groups to accomplish a task or project. Moreover it is a win- win situation. It is help to take teamwork to a higher level.
According to the case study for the Brian’s situation there is a problem with Jess that Jess can’t apply with new things because Brian not accept and he seems happy where he is and did not apply for any of the promoted post in the new structure. So jess can discuss with Brian and go for a collaboration. Then they can enhance their relationship.

Accommodation- In this strategy relationship outcome is important and substantive outcome is not important. Accommodating may satisfy the other party while your interests suffer. Use this approach when appropriate, but do not make a habit of it.
According to the case study Abda and jack will perform their task very well that the way that they decided and Abda’s situation relationship outcome is more important than substantive outcome.
o Influencing
Influencing is a necessary skill for anyone in business, whether a person is a manager or a salesperson. The ability to bring others to your way of thinking without force or coercion is important in business. Moreover Managers want to convince employees to work hard so they use influencing skills in business.

Techniques for influencing
Retribution: Retribution is the dispensing or receiving of reward or punishment especially for a wrong situation.
According to the case study Elspeth doesn’t have daily attendance for past 6 month. So jess can take actions against to Elspeth.
Reciprocity: Reciprocity is not something that can be exact, of course, because what one person can do, another person cannot. Reciprocity and cooperation are so valuable precisely because we do have various strengths and weaknesses. It which speaks to the human need (and tendency) to want to give something back when something is received. People feel a sense of obligation to do something for you when you’ve done something for them.
According to the case study When Abda and Jack perform their tasks that the way that they decided rather than Jess. It shows the parties viewed as trustworthy and parties share mutual respect for each other and parties share ongoing relationship. So it means we can use reciprocity for this situation.

3. Identify potential sources of conflict (at least two sources) within her team, the effects of these conflicts and provides techniques (at least two for each conflict identified) to assist Jess in the management of these conflicts.

• Conflict
Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. It is a state of mind in which you find it impossible to make a decision.
Sources of conflict
? Lack of experience: It means he/she has limited experience in the job positions. They have no idea of how to move forward to the next objective on their agenda because he / she is inexperienced.
EX: Jess Green was the only applicant with limited experience in that particular area and also this appointment caused considerable upset among existing managers.
Conflict resolve techniques
Collaboration: Collaboration enables individuals to work together to achieve a defined and common business purpose. It is a joint effort of multiple individuals or work groups to accomplish a task or project. Moreover it is a win- win situation. It is help to take teamwork to a higher level.
? Be self-aware: Jess is a conflict avoider or an aggressive leader. So she have to aware of who she is, how she deal with conflict, and the significant impact she has on the situation. Not everyone may respond well to her style and there will be times where she may need to adapt and demonstrate better leadership.
? Consider the views of all parties involved: No one wants to be told they are wrong. In fact, dialogue is often halted when someone is made to be wrong. In this situation jess creating conflict by not allowing others to have a voice or make contribution.
Begin to investigate: When you are having lack of experience, one advantage you can possibly get is to get hold of information as much as you possibly can. When you have enough information, you may have the power to investigate your subordinates as well as others and you can ask some of questions that make you a different impression.
? Personality Differences: Personality differences among co-workers are common. Knowing that these differences are natural and normal let us anticipate and mitigate interpersonal conflict it’s often not about “you” but simply a different way of seeing and behaving.
EX: Carol has been a number of complaints over the years, the majority of which have resulted from Carol’s abrasive style which tends to rub people up the wrong way. In most of these cases Carol’s decisions have been the right ones but her inability to communicate well creates difficulties with internal and external customers.
Andre is highly regarded and brings a sense of humor to the team albeit many of his comments tend to be cynical about the organization and how it is managed.
Abda is a highly competent and qualified member of staff and tends to be very traditional in her ways not particularly welcoming of any innovation/changes.


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