University of Surrey Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences School of Literature and Languages Centre for Translation Studies Translation quality in tourism

University of Surrey
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
School of Literature and Languages
Centre for Translation Studies
Translation quality in tourism: An investigation into errors in the English texts translated from Chinese
BY
Yifan He
Supervised by
Dr Khadidja MerakchiSubmitted for the degree of Master of Arts in Interpreting (Chinese Pathway)
© Yifan He September 2018

Abstract
The quality of the translation in the tourism industry such as the contents of brochures, guidebooks, and websites is uneven. Given that this problem may hinder the intercultural communication, this study aims at enhancing Chinese to English translation through providing a systematic framework for the analysis of translation errors. The theoretical foundation of this study is error analysis (EA), language transfer, and a contrastive analysis (CA) of a compiled bilingual Chinese English corpus of tourism websites. The errors in the corpus were classified and quantified according to a hybrid model. After revealing the statistical outcome, some typical examples from every error segment were demonstrated and described. The CA was used to explain the nature of the errors and provide possible means for translation quality enhancement.

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Key words: translation quality, error analysis, contrastive analysis, error classification, hybrid model, tourism texts.

Table of contents:
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….. Page 1
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………… Page 3
List of abbreviations ……….………………………………………………….…… Page 4
Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………………….…………………….. Page 5
1.1 overview …………………………………………………………………………… Page 5
1.2 statement of the problem ………………………………………………………… Page 6
1.3 purpose of the study ………………………………………………………….……Page 6
research questions………………………………………………………….…… Page 6
1.5 significance of the study …………………………………………………………. Page 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review………………………………………………………… Page 7
2.1 Translation quality assessment……………………………………………………Page 8
2.2 Error analysis (EA)…………………………………………………………………. Page 10
2.3 Language transfer…………………………………………………………………. Page 13
2.4 Contrastive analysis (CA)…………………………………………………………. Page 16
Chapter 3 Methodology……………………………………………………………….Page 18
3.1 model…………………………………………………………………………………Page 19
data searching and collection………………………………………………………Page 20
procedure of building corpus……………………………………………………….Page 21
Chapter 4 Results of analysing corpus……………………………………………..Page 23
4.1 Results; An overview………………………………………………………………. Page 23
4.2 Descriptions of the different categories of the Translation errors……………………………………………………………………………………….Page 26
4.2.1 lexical error……………………………………………………………………. Page 27
4.2.2 syntactic error……………………………….………………………………… Page 28
4.2.3 semantic errors…………………………………………………………………Page 38
4.2.4 pragmatic error………………………………………………………….….… Page 42
4.2.5 Translation-specific and other errors……………………….………..………Page 44
Chapter 5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………….……Page 45 References…………………………………………………………………………….…Page 47 Appendix…………………………………………………………………….……….…..Page 51

Acknowledgement
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to parents who always support and encourage me during this academic journey.
Furthermore, I appreciate my supervisor Dr Khadidja Merakchi for her invaluable feedback throughout the process. Without her help, this dissertation would have been impossible. I would also like to thank every professor whom I met when attending the MA in Interpreting (Chinese pathway) for their teaching and guidance.
My special thanks go to William Thomas for his linguistic assistance.

List of abbreviations (in alphabetical order):
CA: contrastive analysis
EA: error analysis
L1: first language
L2: second language
NL: native language
SL: source language
ST: source text
TL: target language
TQA: translation quality assessment
TT: target text

Introduction  
1.1 overview 
Over the decades, tourism has experienced constant growth becoming one of the fastest growing economic sectors worldwide. A significant number of new destinations were under exploitation; the existing places of interests were upgraded; promotional tourism strategies have been deployed. The tourism industry is prospering. Foreign travelers account for a considerable part of the tourism market. By 2030, The United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) forecasts international tourist arrivals to reach 1.8 billion (UNWTO, 2018). The development of tourism is enhanced by technological and digital advances. The first step that many travelers take is to use the internet as an intermediary to find information about the host countries, their favoured cities or tourist attractions to prepare for their journey. For example, the official website of a Chinese scenic spot can be a window for foreign travelers to know more about its history, touring routes, and cultural background. Consequently, the translated contents on the tourism websites are of great importance. The role of tourist texts writers and translators are much crucial than before since they are the agents in power of providing information about sites.

1.2 statement of the problem 
Newmark (1993) criticized the quality of translations in the tourist sector and stated that this is because many texts are translated into the translator’s foreign languages. However, this is inevitable due to the market condition. Example, there are few English native speakers who have knowledge of Chinese. Most translators in the tourist industry are Chinese people who speak English. However, their mastery of English varies greatly. Some of them may not be professionals. Some people think that there is no need for professional translators to intervene in tourism translation at all because tourism texts are not regarded as a specialized text. However, the subject covered under tourism is extensive including architecture, arts, geography, gastronomy, some of which are highly specialized. An accurate, faithful and comprehensible translation of Chinese texts should be a pursuit of the tourism industry. This needs translators, and translation scholars and industry pay high attention to the translation quality.

1.3 purpose of the study 
The purpose of this study is to improve Chinese-to-English translation quality. In order to achieve the goal, this study is about to analyse English texts translated by Chinese people, and the topic of these texts is centred on tourism. One way of advancing translation quality is reducing translation errors and knowing more about the nature of both source language and target language, which are Chinese and English in this study. Error Analysis (EA) and Contrastive analysis (CA) will be adopted because EA is a tool to help identify apparent imperfection of translated text, showing which sorts of error are the most frequently committed by translators and their causes via analysing statistics collected. The contrastive analysis was the critical field in applied linguistics offering implications of structural differences and similarities between languages which can enhance the learning of a foreign language. It can demonstrate distinct characters between Chinese and English, which will provide some insights into why errors arise and promote the mastery of the two languages. Ellis (2005) agrees to that two major methods to analyse errors committed by a target language user are CA lying in behaviourism theory and EA related to inter-language theory.

research questions
1. Are the English texts on the tourist websites translated by Chinese translators appropriate in terms of lexis, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics?
What are the frequent types of errors in tourism material translation from Chinese into English?
What are the sources of these errors and is the influence of native language the only factor resulting errors?
1.5 significance of the study
The study aims to analyse and identify frequent errors in the English translation of Chinese tourism texts revealing the quality of the current tourism translation. This study focuses not only on translation competence but also on Chinese translators’ acquisition of English as a foreign language in general, because high-level language competence is a necessary precondition for a quality translation. By looking into what the frequent errors are, translators can attempt to avoid these potential errors in their future translations in English, which can lead to better translation quality. This analysis could also help Chinese acquisition of English as a foreign language by highlighting the main areas of linguistic features of Chinese and English.

2. Literature review
As mentioned in the introduction, error analysis (EA) and contrastive analysis (CA) are adopted to investigate errors in English texts translated by Chinese translators to assess the current translation quality and seek improvement. One assumed source of errors is influence from native language (NL), so the Theory of Language Transfer will be employed as well. Before embarking on a journey of researching, it will be useful to review what theories have been put forward in this area. Four main theories will be discussed in this chapter:
2.1 Translation quality assessment (TQA). This section deals with evaluating the quality of translation.
2.2 Error analysis (EA), which investigate errors made by second language learners to explore the types and causes.

2.3 Language transfer, referring to applying knowledge from one language to another one.

2.4 Contrastive analysis (CA) that a systematic comparison of a pair of languages to identify their structural similarities and differences. 
2.1 Translation quality assessment
If one wants to enhance competence in an area, it is important to realise his/her present level, as a starting point. Therefore, having a big picture of the level of translated English texts in tourism is the first step. If the quality of translation is perfect, then there remains little space for improvement, but if the assessment concludes that many errors are found in the translations, then it is worth analysing errors deeply. The reason for choosing text analysis as the way of assessment will be explained in what follows.
The assessment of translation quality is still controversial today concerning the concept and methods. Evaluation aims to determine the merit, worth or significance of an object (Scriven, 1993). The quality in translation is a subjective and relative concept so different viewpoints of the translation result in the various definition of quality and ways of assessment. For example, some translators focus on the fidelity of the original texts so adopt more literal translation while others may give emphasis on reader’s comprehension so adopt a free translation. Many TQA literature from industries demonstrated that the most accepted concept of translation quality is whether the translated text can fulfill the requirements of clients (Jimenez-Crespo, 2009). However, there is evidence objecting to the client-oriented standards assessing translation, because translation quality has linked to accuracy and loyalty to the source text (ST) and readability, which means translators have the responsibility to deliver the content and style consistent with original texts. Communicating with readers can be another pursuit. Clients may be not as professional as translators. Thus, clients’ opinion may not be considered in the first place.
There are different methods to conduct TQA. According to House (1997), TQA studies can be divided into three major categories. Firstly, Pre-linguistic studies, in which subjective and relatively vague statements regarding the quality of a translated work, are the primary trend. Secondly, psycholinguistic studies, in which the quality is judged on the readership of a translated piece of work through reader responses, interviews, and questionnaires. The last one is source-text based studies, which attempt to build linguistic criteria in order to account for both the source text and the target text. Setting a fixed parameter as a benchmark to assess the translation is beneficial to maintain objectivity to some extent. Considering the Pre-linguistic studies and psycholinguistic studies are either subjective or changeable, the third source-text based TQA is of advantages.
Also, TQA can be analysed from three dimensions: producer, process, and product, which are called as ‘3Ps’ (Stejskal, 2006, pp.41-44). Firstly, the quality of the translation to some extent can be illustrated by a translator’s education degree or professional certification. Secondly, the process can be ensured through a specific predefined procedure, which can guarantee the quality of the translation as well. Another practical method to assess the quality of translation focuses on the product, the target text. Secâra (2005) (cited in Martínez, 2014) points out there are two types of methods to check the final product, one of which is analysing errors in the translated texts known as experiential quantitative-centred and bottom-up way while the other emphasises theoretical qualitative-centred and top-down framework. The top-down framework can offer a direction guiding translation in practice, but it needs experiential studies to justify and support itself. The assessment should not merely stop at the theoretical argument. The quantitative-centred approach deals with first-hand translation texts so that the conclusion can be more convincible. Thus, the quantitative approach will be used in this article to examine target texts (TT).

From the last two paragraphs, it can be concluded that an optimal way to assess translation quality is checking ST and TT. Therefore, translated texts in English will be analysed compared with source texts in Chinese in this article.

2.2 Error analysis
This study aims to provide a framework for translation quality enhancement based on EA by comparing elements the ST and the TT. In this section, errors definition, the development of EA, its procedures and its drawbacks will be presented.
Before introducing EA, it is crucial to clarify what an error is. Hurtado (1995) (cited in MartÍnez, 2014) offered a vision of what can be defined as an error, which can be categorised into three degrees according to the severity of the error: the most serious one is referred as translation mistakes which means inappropriate renderings resulting in misunderstanding of the ST, for example, omission, loss of meaning, dialect. The second one is major translation errors, inappropriate renderings which affect expression in the target language. For instance, spelling, grammar, lexis, text style. The last one is not as serious as the first two but also belongs to errors of translation, which is renderings which affect the transmission of either the main function or secondary functions of the ST, called minor errors. The minor errors are judged by whether or not the functions of the TT are achieved, which is difficult to quantify. In tourism texts, the primary function is to attract travellers to come to the destination. Weather the translated version in English will arouse emotions of English-speaking readers having the same effect on them as the original text on Chinese people is difficult to judge because the different audience has different background, knowledge, preferences, which leads to various reaction towards the translated texts. As a result, the definition of errors in this study will be translation mistakes and major translation errors. Besides, errors will be viewed as positive components which illustrate efforts and deliberate attempts made by learners to control their learning and acquisition of a language. Corder (1967) asserts that the errors of a learner, whether adult or child, are not random, but are in fact systematic, and are not ‘negative’ or ‘interfering’ with learning a TL but are, on the contrary, a necessary element, indicative of testing hypotheses and can provide evidence of the learner’s knowledge of the second language as well. Errors are not anymore taken as bad signs of non-performance that should be eliminated at any cost; rather, they are considered to become an indispensable component of the language learning process. More than that there exists and functions a particular type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors made by learners, named Error Analysis (EA).

Error analysis is a theory focusing on seeking and studying errors in the interlanguage of learners in order to dig the underlying reasons behind the errors. David Crystal (Crystal, 2003, p. 165) defines EA as a ‘technique for identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning a foreign language, using any of the principles and procedures provided by linguistics.’ Error analysis can unveil the typical mistakes and the sources behind imperfections, which may give a hint on the imparity between the learner’s inter-language and target languages, which may further provide practical guidance for translation professionals and help linguists and second language learners to have the knowledge of the unique features and the distinctions between the source language and the target language.

‘Inter-lingual errors’ and ‘Intra-lingual errors’ are basic categorizations of two major kinds of errors in English learning (James, 1998). Inter-lingual errors refer to errors resulted from language transfer (a learner’s transferring of rules, habits, and models of the native language into the target one). Intra-lingual errors mean the errors caused by the internal interference between the items in the target language or by the incomplete learning of target language. In other words, incorrect or incomplete understanding of the target language system that has been internalized by learners can cause intra-lingual errors.

EA includes three steps: data collection, description, and the last step is the explanation which is the ultimate goal of error analysis (Corder, 1967). Ellis (1994) elaborates on Corder’s model in terms of how to identify errors. Initially, select a corpus of language no matter collected by self or established corpus followed by the identification of errors. The next step is to classify errors according to the error typology. Finally, after giving a grammatical analysis of each error, an explanation of different types of errors should be provided. Ellis’ model (1994) is more detailed adding a step of classifying data instead of simply describing the data, which is beneficial to find the ‘patterns of error’ from messy erroneous clusters more clearly. However, the last step is a grammatical analysis, which only mentioned errors in grammar, the surface structure. The analysis in this study is to explore the deep reasons for committing translation errors. Therefore, the analytical scope can be extended beyond grammar. Semantic and pragmatic factors like the omission, idiomatic usage, style, can also be included. Gass and Selinker (1994) took a step further modifying six more detailed steps in conducting an error analysis. These included ‘collecting data’, ‘identifying errors’, ‘classifying errors’, ‘quantifying errors’, ‘analysing sources of errors’, and ‘remediating for errors.’ This is a comprehensive model adding quantifying and suggestions on how to correct and reduce errors. The process of quantifying speaks with statistics and can show the frequency of the errors. Remediating suggestions for errors mean not only identifying mistakes but also solving problems. Therefore, the model of EA put forward by Gass and Selinker (1994) will be applied in the study.

Even though current EA provides essential insights exploring the nature of errors and their significance, EA still has limitations. Firstly, it is not easy to infer a second language learner’s psychological process from their performance data, which brings a problem that categorisation of errors may lack objective criteria. Researchers have little evidence and resource but their subjective interpretation to rely on trying to pin down the precise cause of an error. Some mistakes may be related to more than one error roots, rather than exclusively link to one cause. For example, an error involves wrong sentence structure ought to be classified into ‘syntax’ category. However, this erroneous sentence has the same structural characters as translator’s first language, which means assigning the error to ‘literate translation’ seems to make sense as well. Jain (1974) also pointed out a similar problem that the division between errors traceable to first language interference and errors which are independent of native language influence is not clear-cut. All these judgmental processes depend on researchers’ consideration, so one may wonder if an error can be unambiguously identified.
2.3 Language transfer
Translators or English learners tend to refer to the mother language when they write or speak in a foreign language, especially when expressing difficult or unfamiliar ideas. This can cause errors because different languages possess distinct attributes and characters. Direct borrowing from the first language may cause wrong or unnatural utterance. This process links with Language transfer, and it has been a controversial issue in second language learning (SLA). In this study, Chinese translators are non-native English speakers, which means they are a translator at the same time foreign language learners, which means they are a producer as well as a learner. English is their second or maybe third language, so if they acquire English well, their translation errors will diminish, and their quality of translation will improve. Looking into language transfer theory in the field of SLA can help gain an understanding of what hinders the acquisition of foreign languages leading to errors. In this section, developing trends of language transfer theory will be discussed.

Language transfer is also called linguistic interference, and it refers to the phenomenon that applying knowledge from one language to another. Linguistic features are transferred between languages in the speech repertoire of a bilingual or multilingual individual. The transfer can happen in the direction from NL to the second language or third one, and vice versa, which means any previous language knowledge may influence producing another language. This is often brought up in the topic of second language learning and teaching, but it can be adopted in the context of translating one language into a second one. In the development of language transfer studies, scholars found out that the first language acts as a main influential factor in SLA, which can impact any areas of second language learning, like discourse, lexis, syntax, semantics. Language transfer can be either positive or negative (Ellis, 1990). The positive transfer is supposed to support the acquisition of a second language, while the negative transfer, especially from native language can act as a barrier when an individual attempt to use a foreign language, which may lead to TT errors in the context of translation.
Exploring the evolutional trends at different phases of language transfer theory can help obtain a comprehensive understanding of language transfer and offer some potential cause of errors in translation. It is Whitney (1881) who first used the terminology ‘transfer’ to refer to cross-linguistic influences. In the twentieth century, language transfer was discussed constantly. There are multiple opinions regarding language transfer, the main streams of which are behaviourist, mentalist and cognitive perspective.
Behaviourism as a language translafer theory was popular from the 40s to the 60s. Behaviourist learning theory illustrates the target language learning is a mechanical process of habit formation and stimuli-responses (Hadley, 1993). The longer time learners study and use the second language, the more they get familiar with the grammatical features of the second language until this new knowledge becomes a stimuli-responses. Foreign language users make errors due to unfamiliarity with the rules of a target language, for instance, inadequate learning of foreign language, and when they are not clear with the rules in the target language, they turn to use the rules in mother tongue for reference. Dependence on their native languages can be supportive sometimes while cause errors at other times. Both positive and negative transfers are the outcome of the automatic and subconscious use of old habits in the first language (L1) (Dulay, Burt ; Krashen, 1982). If the grammatical features are the same between L1 and L2, the transfer is smooth and positive. However, if there is different or even opposite grammatical rules between them, the L2 will be interfered by L1 and errors may appear (negative transfer). Advocators believe that the level of difficulty of acquiring L2 is directly related to the extent of linguistic differences between L1 and L2; difficulty will be manifested in errors, and the higher the difficulty, the frequent the errors. Behaviourist scholars put forward the hierarchy of difficulty (Stockwell, 1957) declaring the predictor of transferability is the typology which contrasting similarities and differences of surface structures between the native and target languages. Under the assumption of behaviourism, Lado (1967) put forward the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH), which will be discussed in the next section. Although behaviourism is the basis of language transfer theory, this school of SLA is far from perfect. It exaggerated the influences of the native language; interprets language learning as a mechanical input and reducing language errors only needs repeating and more exercise, which denies the creativity of language users; merely focus on the surface grammatical structures of language and fails to pay attention to language users’ mental activities. For instance, when a translation error arises, it is better for researchers to see behind the morphological differences exploring how the translator decode information in the ST and encode the information in the foreign language.
Chomsky (1965) put forward Universal Grammar and realised the drawbacks of the behaviourist approach that it places too much emphasis on the influence of L1, and language learning is a process of rule-governed creativity rather than habit-controlled activity merely involves imitating process (1965). The errors are not only the breakdown of imitation of L1 but can also be seen as learners’ creation, the inter-language. Therefore, they turned back to behaviourism and formed mentalist perspective. Supporters think that human’s language capability is born by nature. The mastery of language is not determined by transfer from L1, and errors are not seen as evidence of language transfer but the original construction of learners. Dulay and Burt, (1974) promote Creative Construction Hypothesis which means L1=L2 and deny the interference of native language.
Later, a more balanced stream, cognitive view, was developed in the 1970s, stating linguistic typology cannot predict transferability by its own, but it interacts with other factors and cause language transfer, such as language distance, markedness of grammars, perceptual saliency, learning environment. In Eckman’s (1977) Markedness Differential Hypothesis, areas in the target language that are different from the native language and are relatively more marked than in the native language will be difficult and errors may occur. Higher grammar restriction is regarded as marked while less restriction was unmarked. This hypothesis demonstrates improvement that it explains why some types of differences between languages do not trigger transfer and errors. The cognitive view affirmed that L1 transfer could contribute to errors, but it is not the only influential factor. Relying on these discoveries, Odlin (1989) stated a definition of transfer that it is the influence resulting from similarities and differences between the target language and any other previous knowledge, which is not merely a consequence of interference from the native language but also the learners’ implicit knowledge of target language. In the perspective of this school, Chinese translators apply the knowledge of their mother language, target language (even their English competence has not reached natives’ level) and other linguistic knowledge to form the target texts influenced by individual factors like intelligence, background, translation tools, and so no, therefore, the source of errors can come through all these factors.

The three periods of change experienced by language transfer theory all have their particular significance, shedding light on the acquisition of foreign language and some potential sources of translation errors.

2.4 Contrastive Analysis
As mentioned in the last section, CAH is derived from behaviourism, predicting the difficulties (where the errors will occur most frequently). CAH insists individuals tend to transfer forms and meanings of their mother tongue and culture. Since interference is the result of adopting those patterns of the native language that are different to the foreign language, the errors can be predicted by a scientific parallel description and comparison of the native language and foreign language of the learner (Lado, 1967). CA is a great tool to analyse errors following EA. In the developing history of CA studies, there are two stages. One is a strong version, and the other is a weak version, both of which will be described in this section.

The contrastive studies are a remarkable contribution to the applied linguistics. However, as this classic theory developed, it was raised to an excessive high position, which even lead to a strong version of CA stated by Lee (1968) that interference of NL is the prime or even the sole source of error in second language learning, and comparing two languages is a necessary tool to predict errors. It is evident that strong version of CA is too radical. Firstly, the errors result from not only L1 but also L2 and other factors. There is evidence that Wang and Wen carried out a study (2002) to analyse Chinese learners’ adjective errors. They found that 62% of the errors were because of transfer in language, nearly 30% was due to transfer between languages, and the last 10% of errors came from strategies in communication strategies, which is related to pragmatic dimension. The role of the learner is not an interference generator but an active participant who can contribute to his language acquisition, so that the ignorance is the real cause of most errors rather than interference (Newmark and Reibel, 1968). Secondly, people may wonder whether all differences figured out by CA will lead to errors. Wardhaugh (1970) also echoes this doubt towards CA with factual evidence that errors predicted by CA do not always occur.

Furthermore, a feasible and matured CA is supposed to have a uniform grammatical model and adequate description of both languages (Lado, 1967). A set of linguistic universals should be formulated before comparing languages. Another comment criticises CA on its narrow focus on surface grammar. However, this criticism is questionable because applied linguistics traditionally pay attention to language production and performance, which means the surface structure is more amenable and relevant than deep structure, and it is the surface structure that makes up grammar patterns that language users have to recognise and put into practice. Although there are many errors are pragmatic and semantic, which seems cannot be fully covered by CA, but meanings are realised through wordings. Grammar is one of the essential aspects of translation. A discourse analysis not based on grammar is not an analysis but a running commentary on a text (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2013). Faced by many critiques, strong version admitted its weakness.

The criticism simulated the modification of the strong version of CA, which no longer overstate the predictive power or claim itself as the pedagogical panacea. Instead, encourage using the best linguistic knowledge to account for observed difficulties. In another word, the analytical attention should be placed on observable output resulted from a user’s attempted production of a target language norms. This weak version is similar to an approach of CA suggested by Stockwell (1957) that collecting errors and then describe the conflicts that produce such errors, which is different from setting up a systematic comparison scanning differences in structure of two languages firstly, then predicting where errors will show up on the basis of the structural conflicts. This modified descriptive comparison is a posteriori and diagnostic process after EA emphasising on explaining rather than predicting errors.
The weak version CA will be adopted in this study and the following are its tenets: Firstly, most errors in foreign language learning come from the interference of NL. Secondly, difficulties are due to different characteristics of the two languages. Thirdly, the comparison can explain errors and remind learners to be aware of the fundamental language differences. CA can be useful in explaining translation errors and training translators.
Methodology 
In order to propose a framework for the enhancement of translation quality for the translation of tourism texts into English conducted by Chinese translators, the following methodology based on error analysis is proposed. This chapter reviews the proposed methodology and is divided into three sections which are:
3.1 model: describes the proposed model
3.2 data searching and collection: in this section, the data used to build the corpus and how it was collected are described.

3.3 procedure of building corpus: this section describes the steps followed to build the corpus.

3.1 Model
There were various models for analysing translation, but each model tended to focus on a specific aspect. For example, grammatical model focused on the linguistic dimension whereas cultural model highlighted the delivery of communicative function, and the interpretive model believed the pragmatic aspect of translation is of more importance (Barghout, 1990). The complex nature of translation involving integrated synthesis decides so many compartments above. To cover a broader spectrum of aspects at the same time maintain a detailed classification of errors, a hybrid model was used, which combined two sub-models. One is modified the ATA (American Translation Association) error model which contains 22 error types, and the other is the adjusted linguistic taxonomy by Keshavarz (1993) which consists of 5 broader segmentations. The 22 error patterns were classified under the 5 broader types of errors.

The ATA Framework for Standard Error Marking (2010) classifies translation errors into following 22 types: 1) ambiguity, 2) Illegible handwriting, 3) Misunderstanding of the original text, 4) Mistranslation into target language, 5) Addition or omission, 6) Terminology or word choice, 7) Register, 8) Too freely translated, 9) Too literal, word-for-word translation, 10) False cognate, 11) Indecision in word choice, 12) Inconsistent, 13) Ambiguity, 14) Grammar, 15) Syntax, 16) Punctuation, 17) Spelling, 18) Accents and other diacritical marks, 19) Capitalisation, 20) Word form, 21) Usage and 22) Style. There were other error classification models besides ATA model. For example, National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters in Australia (NAATI) put forward another classification model for translation errors consisting of eight criteria: 1. Mistranslation, 2. Inappropriate vocabulary, 3. Incorrect punctuation, 4. Incorrect grammar, 5. Incorrect spelling, 6. Distortion of meaning, 7. Unidiomatic usage, 8. Stylistic infelicities (Vahid Dastjerdi and Abdolmaleki,2013, pp. 71-82). Compared with ATA model, the classification of NAATI model is more general and vaguer, like syntax, word form and verb tense are all categorised into the segmentation of ‘Grammar’. This model is not as precise as the model of ATA, so the ATA was chosen as the optimal model in this study. However, considering the tourism texts under research are all from websites but the nature of ATA model is a writing exam criterion. The 2) illegible handwriting was replaced by an error type of mechanical errors (typo).

3.2 Data searching and collection
Obtaining adequate data is the initial step of the research. Tourism texts is a specialised discourse, the language in tourism texts is to persuade, lure, attract and seduce human beings in order to convert them into actual clients. There are many tourist text types, which can be classified into three sorts according to stage in the tourist cycle: pre-trip such as advert, brochure; on-trip like travel guide, travelogues, package-tour itineraries; post-trip like reviews(Dann, 1996). In order to figure out the possible linguistic errors of translation from Chinese to English in the tourism industry. Materials were gathered from five websites, among which one is an official website of Linyin Temple which is one of the most popular touristic sites in China (http://www.lingyinsi.org/). Another website was also used for the purpose of this study, which is Beautiful China (www.travelchina.gov.cn). This website is a governmental website that aims to promote places of interests, Chinese culture, food, itinerary, accommodation and facilities established by China National Tourism Administration. The other three websites are English learning websites including texts of introduction of many well-known scenic spots (www.51en.com, www.en8848.com, and www.chinaenglish.com.cn). The texts chosen from travel websites and tourist section on English learning websites are similar to the electronic brochure and tour guide, which have two main communicative functions. One is providing practical information, like accommodation recommendation, bus routes, local activities and culture, and another is creating an image of destination in which the aesthetic component is essential.

The reasons that the two of the five websites were chosen from the plethora of tourism material available online is that the first two websites are official and have been applied into industry market. One of them was set up by Chinese government based on the national database so that the quality of translation can be guaranteed to some extent. During the process of researching for proper parallel translation to set up corpus, one thing is noticeable that some tourism websites used machine translation to produce the target texts resulting in many errors that are not man-made and cannot be comprehended, so the texts on the websites are not suitable for this study. What is more, although most websites are bilingual or multilingual, the contents of English version were adjusted to suit the needs of foreign tourists, which does not have exact same texts as Chinese version, at least not same on a sentence to sentence level. This feature does not fit for the requirement of translation error analysis since these English texts cannot be regarded as the ‘translated’ language of the source texts. Therefore, the option of tourist websites was limited. Under this circumstance, the texts from tourism section in English learning websites can be an applicable choice because it provides parallel rendition and they were translated by Chinese people, so some authentic errors made by Chinese translators can be collected.
3.3 Procedure of building the corpus
In order to address the research questions, the following procedures were taken. The first step was extracting parallel texts of both Chinese and English from websites randomly. Chinese characters and English words are respectively the smallest semantic unit in their own language system, therefore they are compared in number here to show the size of the corpus. There are 23420 Chinese characters in the original texts, while the translated texts have roughly 16800 words in English. The ST and TT were listed in an excel in which English target texts were arranged in a column opposite to their Chinese equivalents.

Then a hybrid model was applied to the data in corpus, which had two steps. First of all, the corpus of the English translation of tourism-topic texts from websites was subject to error analysis and a categorization of errors was conducted based on the taxonomy of errors in translation offered by ATA, and the number of each error patterns was added up to reflect the frequency. Secondly, the above 22 error patterns were classified into five broader types of errors: lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and translation-specific and other errors. The broader classification was modified on Keshavarz’s (1993) linguistic taxonomy. Keshavarz’s taxonomy has two headings: syntactic-morphological and lexico-semantic errors. In pursuit of a more detailed classification, the syntactic-morphological section was divided into two sections, namely, lexical errors and semantic errors. In addition, tourism texts can be informative, expressive or operative when it comes to describe destinations, informing or attracting travelers, which means the language in the translated texts tends to have an influence on the action of travelers, so the translated texts involve pragmatic factors. Thus, the pragmatic segment was added. In addition, three error patterns were considered to be translation-specific which were put under a separated segment. Finally, the modified Keshavarz taxonomy was composed of lexical error, syntactic error, semantic error, pragmatic error and translation-specific error. The hybrid model was designed by the researcher combining ATA’s 22 categorisations of error patterns and the modified Keshavarz’s taxonomy of errors. Briefly, researcher put 22 error patterns into 5 broader classifications.

The actual application of the above hybrid model to collected data includes contrasting the parallel corpus on a sentence level to find grammar and syntactic errors; reading through the texts on paragraph-level to seek semantic, pragmatic and translation-specific errors, which needs macroscopic understanding and comparison between the source texts in Chinese and target texts in English. During this process, the errors were marked with a serial number from 1 to 22 corresponding to 22 error classifications in ATA model. In order to conduct a relatively reliable judgment, a cloud-based online English grammar checker was used (https://app.grammarly.com), and an English native speaker also assisted in checking whether the translated texts conform to idiomatic usage. Then 209 erroneous translations were identified and listed in another parallel corpus. After that, they were counted and made into tables and charts according to the marked serial numbers.

Analysis and results
4.1 Results; An overview
Based on the proposed hybrid model and methodology described in the last chapter, data sorting was complete, which demonstrated some notable results. The total number of errors identified was 209, which were divided into categories shown in table 1.
Table1 Number and categories of errors identified in the Chinese English bilingual corpus
Broader segmentation ATA classification Error number
Lexical errors misspelling 27
terminology 30
Syntactic errors usage 68
syntax 39
punctuation 23
grammar 17
word form 8
capitalisation 5
Semantic errors Addition/omission 27
Too literal 14
Too freely 8
ambiguity 4
Consistency/cohesion 3
Diacritical mark/accent 2
Faux ami0
Pragmatic errors Mistranslation 21
Misunderstanding 4
Style 1
register 4
Translation-specific and other errors Incomplete passage 0
indecision 0
Mechanical error/ typo 4
Total error number: 209
The number of errors from each classification of hybrid model is shown in table 1 as well. When these 22 classifications are represented as a graph (see graph 1), it is clearly shown that usage, syntax, and terminology are the three most frequent error patterns among 22 error classification, whereas there is no incomplete passage, indecision between various expression or faux ami in the corpus. Usage, syntax, and terminology belong to the broader segments of ‘syntactic error’ and ‘lexical error’, which demonstrates that the most frequent errors exist at the secondary level or micro level. This opinion also backup by Moulton (1968) who discovers that the language-dependent compulsory grammatical categories at lower levels is the real cause of enormous learning and using difficulties.

Graph 1 Type of errors identified in the Chinese English bilingual corpus

First of all, the data should be seen through the prism of 5 broader error taxonomy. Graph 2 clearly shows the results concerning the percentage of the five errors categories in general. The syntactic error is the most committed error appearing in the tourism translation. More than half of the errors are distributed into this classification. The quality of the translated text can be improved remarkably if translators paid more attention to the use of sentence structure, grammar, and idiomatic collocation. The frequency of semantic errors is followed in the second place, which is slightly higher than lexical errors. These two accounts for almost 40 percent together. Pragmatic errors contribute 10 percent, and translation-specific and typo errors only take 1 percent.
Graph 2 Broader error categories identified in the Chinese English bilingual corpus

4.2 Descriptions of the different categories of the translation errors
In order to show the frequency of error types clearly, pie charts were made based on the corpus. These pie charts represent the percentage of 22 error types in each broader segment. Due to the limited space of the dissertation, only error types with distinctive frequency in each broader segment will be explained. This means ‘Terminology’ in ‘lexical error’; ‘usage’, ‘syntax’, ‘punctuation’ and ‘grammar’ in ‘syntactic error’; addition/omission’ and ‘too literal translation’ in ‘semantic error’; ‘mistranslation’ and ‘misunderstanding’ in ‘pragmatic error’ will be explored in detail. Analysis will be unfolded in the following sections:
4.2.1 lexical errors
4.2.2 syntactic errors
4.2.3 semantic errors
4.2.4 pragmatic errors
4.2.5 translation specific and other errors
4.2.1 Lexical error
The subsection of lexical error consisting of terminology and misspelling (see in graph 3), it was unexpected that there are a great number of incorrect spellings, which shows the negligence of the translators and proofreaders. However, the terminology is higher than the misspelling, taking 53% of ‘lexical error’ which shows the Chinese translators have problems with choosing the most appropriate word among ones with similar but not identical meanings. The Chinese learners tend to learn English vocabularies by remembering the Chinese translated meaning from the dictionary rather than learning more about the contexts the vocabulary should be used. In the following examples from the corpus, the underlined vocabularies do not express the expected meanings suitable for the language situation. From example 1) to 3), it can be noticed that the used wrong terminologies are close to the one which should have been used, but they are not interchangeable, like in example 3), ‘stone’ and ‘rock’ are different in size that ‘stone’ is a small piece of mineral substance while ‘rock’ refers to a large stone. Although the distinction is slight, the misuse of terminology leads to inaccurate description. The example 4) is due to that spelling of ‘enema’ and ‘fried sausage’ are same in Chinese (??).

Graph 3 the percentage of error types in the broader error segment of lexical errors

Source text: ?????????????????????
Back translation: (Come to Lingnan, you can enjoy Dim Sum bring about leisure time)
Target text: Lingnan is the perfect place for a slow and lazy appreciation of Dim Sum?
Source text: ????????????????????????????
Back translation: (Everyone sang songs, echo to the clouds, fireworks in the sky, performance ends in climax)
Target text: Finally, the whole performance ends in songs and under skyrockets.

Source text: ???????????
Back translation: (Take duck going out the valley and find a rock to sit on and rest)
Target text: Picking up the duck and resting on a piece of stone.

Source text: ???????????????
Back translation: (Beijing snacks types a great many, quick-boiled tripe, fried sausage,)
Target text: There are many kinds of snacks in Beijing?and quick-boiled tripe?enema?
4.2.2 Syntactic errors
Among the subdivision of syntactic error (see graph 4), usage and syntax take two most substantial proportion. Firstly, usage error is incorrect or not the idiomatic usage of the target language, including the use of the definite or indefinite articles, wrong preposition, such as ‘married with’ rather than ‘married to’, collocations. An important reason for usage errors is due to the lack of function words (articles and prepositions) in Chinese. Chinese and English are typologically different reflected in function words. The first aspect is shown in the using of articles. There are as much as 18 errors about the article in the data, of which some resulted from interference from Chinese while some of which may relate to intra-lingual impact. There are some examples from corpus:
Wuzhen, one of the four famous towns in (+the) south of (+the) Yangtze River, has a history of more than six thousand years.

Carp implies “gaining profit”, chub implies “having (+a) surplus every year” and mandarin fish implies “getting richer”.

Graph 4 the percentage of error types in the broader error segment of lexical errors

From example 5), it can be noticed that the translator used underlined ‘the’ to express the concept of definiteness of towns but omitted ‘the’ before the direction and the Yangtze River, which should not be missed. From behaviourist opinion, it is result from the habit of the Chinese translator, but it can also because of ignorance. No matter what is the exact reason causing the errors, it is linked with mother language. In example 6), ‘surplus’ is a countable noun here and there should have been an ‘a’ before it. The reason for the similar errors can be linguistic transfer from the NL as well because the definite and indefinite articles do not exist in Chinese. Chao (1948) points out that no articles are required before Chinese nouns. The definiteness and indefiniteness are optionally displayed in language, and Chinese people understand each other relying on the information implied in the communicational contexts. Some extra examples which are not from corpus are listed below to compare Chinese and English illustrating the difference between them.
7).o?? ? ?? o?? ? ?? o?????
(manager can design strategy to gain market)
The manager will design a strategy to gain the market.

8). o??o?? ??? ???
(dog is man best friend)
A dog is a man’s best friend.

However, not all types of article errors are related to inter-linguistic influence. In the examples extracted from the data, the translator added articles in the odd place, like example 9): Emperor Qin is a person in the history, and a definite article should not be added before it. ‘Sustenance’ in the example 10) is an uncountable noun so using ‘an’ is inappropriate. The wrong usage of articles is not consistent with the rules of English. There are no articles in Chinese, so the errors were not resulted from mother tongue but from inadequate accumulation or wrong knowledge acquired in the process of learning English, namely, intra-linguistic errors.

9)To date?the tomb of the (delete “the”) Emperor Qin has not been excavated.

10)Lou Fo Tong is not only a healthy medicated soup, but also an emotional sustenance (delete “an”) for wives in Guangfu.

The second aspect of function words is about prepositions. Although prepositions in English are the empty word, they play a significant role in connecting sense groups and expressing substantial meaning. For instance, there are 63 kinds of different meanings attached to ‘of’ in Oxford Dictionary. According to Curme (1931) (cited from Chen,1997), there are 286 prepositions in English, including Phrasal prepositions. The most utilised prepositions are ‘at’, ‘by’, ‘for’, ‘from’, ‘in’, ‘of’, ‘on’, ‘to’, and ‘with’. However, Barcon (1971) (cited from Chen,1997) thinks there is no class of words corresponding to prepositions in Chinese. Chao (1968) uses ‘localizer’ to call this class of words which informs locations and time. The localizers in Chinese are transformed from verbs, but their property of verb is weakened, which have a similar function as prepositions in English. The number of this type of ‘verb-like’ morphemes is very limited. Chinese has a unique character of avoiding using prepositions that most of meanings conveyed by preposition in English are expressed by verbs in Chinese. Errors may result from the language distance regarding prepositions. The greater the distance, the harder for learners to acquire. In example 11), the translator put modifier ‘southeast’ in the post-position, which conforms to English syntactic rule but used the wrong preposition, because ‘to the southeast’ is the correct preposition for relative direction of two separate items. In example 12), ‘in addition to’ is a fixed phrasal preposition, ‘to’ was placed with ‘of’ in the TT. Example 11) and 12) are not directly influenced by NL but the huge difference between English and Chinese and lack of enough knowledge of English regarding preposition.

11)Source text: ??????????????????????????
Back translation: (summer wind comes from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean and South western Indian Ocean…)
Target text: The summer wind comes from the Pacific Ocean in(to) the southeast and the Indian Ocean in(to) the southwest.

12)In addition of (to) all these?there is Tianhou Palace?Confucian Temple?Grand Sorrow Fane?Great Mosque…
Prepositions in English are also combined with verbs and nouns becoming fixed collocations. The combination is idiomatic, which create barriers for Chinese learners to acquire such a large amount of collocations. Example 13) reveals wrong collocation between preposition with the following noun ‘festival’. Prepositions are of great variability in English to match with the following noun, but various spatial meaning in English can only be covered by few preposition-like words in Chinese. For instance, ‘?’ (a localizer) can be used as a spatial indicator in different contexts whereas prepositions in English are of variety according to contexts. (see table 2).

13)Source text: ??????????????????
Back translation: (ancient time Dragon Boat Festival evil-expelling object, also do as ornament)
Target text: In the old days, the evil-expelling objects used on(at) the Dragon Boat Festival could also serve as wearable ornaments.

Table 2 the different variability of preposition in Chinese and English
???In the school / on the campus
??At home
????On the bus
???By the window
Example 14) is a verb-preposition collocation, which uses the wrong combination of verb and preposition which do not involve interference from the first language. However, example 15) is impacted by the transfer of L1 because ‘?? (literal translation is “on palace”)’ means walk into the palace. Influenced by Chinese, ‘on’ is used falsely to pair with the verb ‘step’.

14)Mongol clothing is comprised by (of) four main components: jewellerys, long robes, belts and shoes.

15)Source text: ?????????????????????????????
Back translation: (at this time many beautiful women wear Tang dresses slowly walk on palace to show Chinese fashions)
Target text: Meanwhile, many beautiful women in Tang dresses step on (into) the palace to show Chinese fashions.

Besides usage, another frequent error in the broader classification of syntactic errors is the syntax error, which means the wrong arrangement of elements in a sentence including improper modification, unnatural word order, run-on structure. The examples below are from the corpus shows different kinds of syntactic errors. Example 16) and 17) shows the incomplete sentence constituents, omitting copular verbs. Chinese is a language with a character of parataxis while English emphasise hypotaxis (Chen, 1997), which means the Chinese sentences are formed based on internal logic and relationship in the context, but English has rigour syntactic structure with the subject-predicate structure as its core. Example 18) is a run-on structure that each short sentence is connected without conjunctions, which embodies that Chinese sentence structure is relatively loose whereas English is compact. There are no subjects in front of ‘pass by’ and ‘go to’. These are called zero-subject sentences. The typological features here distinguishing Chinese from English is that Chinese is a topic-prominent language, in which topic is a core element in the sentence to convey information, whereas English is a subject-prominent language, which means the subject is imperative when constructing a sentence (Yip, 1995). The topic in the sentence 18) is the action of a person (implied in the context), so the subject is not necessary to present repeatedly, but in English, this is considered as a syntax error.

16) Source text: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (In addition, Lijiang, fenghuang two place particle Inn loved by inbound tourists, for example YangshuoXijie, Hongcun old street Inn, have high popularity)
Target text: Additionally, the inns in Lijiang and Fenghuang are well known, and those on Xijie in Yangshuo, and Hongcun (+copular verb) popular with visitors as well.

17) Source text: ???????????????
Back translation: (the other side has Elegant Lady Area, but has another view)
Target text: On the other side lies the Elegant Lady Area, which (+copular verb) with quite another view.

Source text: ?????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (Chase the sound, come through south of garden, pass verandah, from dock by boat to Phoenix Pond, find bamboo shoots…)
Target text: Chasing the sounds, you come to the south of garden, pass by the verandah, go to the Phoenix Pond by boat, you will find bamboo shoots…
Example 19) is an error about word order which is different between Chinese and English in terms of rigidity in the placement of modifiers. Wang (1973) comments that the basic sentence structure in Chinese and English are the same. Both of them belong to the taxonomy of subject-verb-object. However, Chinese sentence structure has some unique characters reflected in the rigidity in placing modifiers such as adjectives, adverbs, relative clauses. In term of noun modifiers, all modifying structures in Chinese should precede the noun all the time. Compared to its counterparts, the placement of modifiers in English is flexible. Noun modifiers can be prenominal or follow the head under some circumstances. The table 3 can show the different placement of noun modifiers in English and Chinese in three sentences.

Source text: ?????????????????????????
Back translation: (Pit is in the world biggest underground military museum)
Target text: The pit is truly an underground military museum largest worldwide.

Table 3 different placement of noun modifiers in English and Chinese
1.Beautiful campus/ Red Cross modifier-head
2.The cute Panda which came from China modifier-head-modifier
3.A tired artist who left hometown modifier-head-relative clause
1.????/????
(Beautiful campus/Red Cross) modifier-head
2.?? ??? ?? ?? modifier-head
(come from China particle cute panda)
3.?? ?? ?? ? ??? ??? relative clause-modifier-head
(one classifier leave hometown particle tired artist)
With the knowledge of the word order in English and Chinese regarding the placement of noun modifier shown in table 3, it can be found that the inter-language in 19) is different from the Chinese word order. The ‘largest worldwide’ is put after the head noun, so it is not caused by language interference form NL, but an intra-language error. The sentence structure is similar to a relative clause, which shows the translator attempted to apply correct English knowledge but failed.

Example 20) is another sort of errors occurs many times in the corpus. From the surface structure, it seems a dangling modifier, but ‘Being immensely pleased with such an idea’ do not modify the subject ‘cloud’. It is the narrator who is pleased without illuminating the subject ‘I’. Example 20) is an advanced error that involves language transfer from NL and English syntax knowledge as well. The translator imitated the surface structure but did not grasp the usage of dangling modifier precisely.

Source text: ????????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (being pleased, sky come a piece of cloud, suddenly drizzling rain come down, rain on the face can feel, clothes is not wet )Target text: Being immensely pleased with such an idea, a piece of cloud appears, accompanied with drizzling rainfall, touching my face but cannot soak my clothes.

Punctuation is the third frequent error belonging to the syntactic segment, which is also related to the structure of sentences. Punctuation is always not seen as important as other grammar knowledge. Some may not directly damage the meaning, but it is still an inseparable part of the syntactic rule. Whether or not a translator can use it in a right way shows his proficiency in English. Example 21) lacks a comma. A comma should be put before the conjunction when it connects two independent clauses forming a compound sentence. In the case of 22), correlative conjunctions come in pairs, and a comma is needed here before the second conjunction in the set. Example 23) misses a comma after the introductory phrase ‘In the West’. As for 24), two separate sentences ought to be connected by a semicolon or coordinating conjunction preceded by a comma. Semicolon and conjunction are not allowed to occur at the same time, because of their function of pausing and breaking overlaps.

The soup is pure white (+,) and the white gourd tastes tender and soft.
Lou Fo Tong is not only a healthy medicated soup, (delete the comma) but also emotional sustenance for wives in Guangfu.
In the West (+,) there is the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest area in the world with an average altitude of over 4,000 meters and is known as “the roof of the world”.

It is so lucky for Tang Dynasty to take Chang’an as its capital city; and it is equally lucky for Chang’an city to hold such a scenic spot as Qujiang.

Grammar error is the fourth frequent ‘syntactic error type’, which occurs when a sentence violates the grammatical rules of the target language, including lack of agreement between subject and verb, incorrect verb inflection (such as verb tense), wrong declension of nouns. The example 25) shows the use of erroneous verb tense, and 26) exhibits disagreement of ‘structures’ and ‘includes’. However, because this is a basic grammatical rule in English but non-existent in Chinese, the source of this type of error is the mixture of incaution and language transfer.

The temple was completely rebuilt and seem as the most famous temple in the south-east with solemn atmosphere.

Other magnificent Monastery structures includes Zhizhi Hall (Dharma Hall).

Chinese lacks grammatical morphology and has been classified as an isolating language while English is an inflectional language. Inflectional language consists of stems to which morphemes are added in order to mark a variety of grammatical categories and relations. In contrast, the words of an isolating language are monosyllabic stems which remain same all the time in the form. Herdan (cited in Seah, 1980) stated that each word in Chinese is isolated, uninflected and equivalent to root. This type of language has few grammatical categories. Grammatical meanings are relations conveyed via alternative devices, such as word order, content words, separate function, or implicated through extra-linguistic context or even left unmarked. Chinese do not have verb conjugation. Native speakers have been used to the complex variables in English, which are absent in Chinese (Wang, 1973) describes. Therefore, it is a problematic point for Chinese English learners. As for the noun, Chinese have declension for its nouns either. Plural markers may be forgotten. For example:
The major architectural feature of Dalian is that it takes squares as the centre with streets radiating in various directions.

4.2.3 Semantic errors
As illustrated in graph 5, ddition and omission is the most frequent error classification in semantic segments, which accounts for 47%. Too literal translation is the second frequent error type while ‘too freely translation’ comes in third place. In the following examples, the omission errors are underlined, and addition errors are double underlined. From omission errors in the case of 28), 29), it can be noticed that when the content is related to culture-bound items, such as ‘Kitchen God Worshiping’, ‘God of Door’, the contents tend to be omitted. In example 30), detailed description of how to clean the house in ST are deleted and translated in a summarised rendition. As for errors of addition, like in 30), 31), 32), extra explanation and information which are not present in the ST are provided in the TT. In a word, the omission can be seen as a strategy to deal with concepts that do not exist in English and is difficult to translate to TT. The addition is used to complement information and give further clarification.

Graph 5 the percentage of error types in the broader error segment of semantic errors

Source text: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (traditionally, the Spring Festival is from the date of sacrificial ritual in twelfth month of the lunar year or Kitcken God Worshiping on twenty-third or twenty-fourth until the nineteenth of the first month of the new lunar year. During the Spring Festival…)
Target text: (omission) During the Spring Festival…
Source text: ???????????????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (Chunlian originally is for evil-exorcising. People hung wood engravings of God of Door on the peach wood charms on the door, then this was simplified to writing down the name of God of Door on the board.)
Target text: Chunlian originated from the evil-exorcising peach wood charms used in ancient China.
Source text: ??????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????
Back translation: (giving their homes a thorough cleaning is the traditional habit of Han people. When the Spring Festival comes, every family clean their house, all utensils, wash duvets and curtains, sweep courtyards, clean dust and cobweb.)
Target text: Han Chinese families usually give their homes a thorough cleaning. (omission) It is believed that the cleaning sweeps away the bad luck of the past year and makes their homes ready for the good luck that the coming year will bring. Brooms and dust pans are symbolically put away on the first day so that the newly arrived good luck cannot be swept away.

Source text: ????????????????????????????????????,
Back translation: (Niangao is made of glutinous rice flour, rice flour. There are three colors of Niangao, representing gold and silver.)
Target text: Known as Chinese New Year pudding, Niangao is made of glutinous rice flour, wheat starch, salt, water, and sugar. The color of the sugar used determines the color of the pudding (red, yellow or white). (Omission)
Source text: ??????????????
Back translation: (It can be traced back to the ancient legendary figure Shennong)
Target text: It can be traced back to the ancient legendary figure Shennong about 5,000 years ago.

Too literal translation is distinctive in the corpus. In the case of 33), ‘the Number One Temple under Heaven’ is word-for-word, and it actually means ‘the Number One Temple in the world’. ‘Under heaven’ is a literal translation of Chinese ST. Example 34) and 35) also showed ‘too literal’ errors. Many rhetoric and figure of speech such as personification ‘posture’ were used in ST. However, if the figure of speech is all translated literally, the TT will be too abstract and difficult for foreign travellers to understand. A potential translation of 35) can be ‘With the outstanding appearance and the capacity of entertaining tourists, the new tower can manifest its accumulation of civilisation of more than 1000 years. It can satisfy not only people’s psychological recognition of historical sites by recalling collective memory but also people’s psychological needs of going through old dreams.’ 36) can be translated as ‘1000 years of suffering, joy, hatred and love are all marked with a heavy exclamation mark!’ When translators cope with obscure metaphor, readability for foreign visitors should be considered. The English translation should extract the essential meaning avoiding direct translation of each word, which may cause confusion for travellers.

Source text: ?????????,??? ‘??????’???????????????
Target text: Shaolin then thrived as a center of Kung-fu masters from around the country and is also reputed to be “the Number One Temple under Heaven”.

Source text: ????????????????????????????????1000??????????????????????????????????????????????
Target text which is too literal: The new tower with impressive posture, and for people to board the charm of travel tours, highlighting ancient tower sites load more than 1,000 years of cultural accumulation, to meet the people’s recognition of the collective memory of the Millennium Shengji psychological needs and dreams of the past millennium.

Source text: 1000????????1000????????1000????????1000???????????????????????????
Target text: 1000 years of wind and rain, the vicissitudes of life, 1000 years of joys and 1000 years of sideways, in 1000 years, the love in complex, on this day, all marked with a heavy exclamation mark!
4.2.4 Pragmatic error
This subsection is relevant to ‘pragmatic error’, among which mistranslation reaching 70% overwhelmingly exceeds other error patterns. Misunderstanding errors are of great influence as well in ‘pragmatic error’ segment (see in graph 6). Some mistranslation errors are wrong translations of single words, for example, ‘??’ (rice flour) was translated as ‘wheat flour’, ‘?’ (Confucianism) was translated as Taoism. These errors may result from carelessness. Some more complicated examples of mistranslation from the corpus are demonstrated below. In example 36), the back translation of ‘????’ is reverse-seat Buddhism goodness Guanyin. The statue of Guanyin in a temple is always built facing South. This statue described in the ST is one of the minorities that facing North. Therefore, it should be translated as ‘reverse-seat Guanyin’, or ‘Guanyin facing North’. The translation in the TT was attempted to adopt the second version, but due to the misuse of the preposition leading to distortion of meaning. This is an intra-lingual error because its deep cause is that the translator did not have a good mastery in using articles. In example 37), ‘arrogant’ means ‘behaving in an unpleasant or rude way’ which is not what the ST want to express. Misunderstanding of the original meaning can also bring mistakes. A sentence in Chinese is made of characters, and each character is isolated and has its own meaning. When two or more characters combines, they may express new meaning, which can be the source of errors in some circumstances. ‘?????’ in example 38) can be interpreted as ‘??’ (Yangliu, a name) ‘??’ (youth) and ‘?’ (drawing), or ‘???’ (Yang liuqing, a name of an artist) and ‘??’ (New Year Painting). The second version is the original intended meaning of the ST. However, the meaning was misunderstood as the first version by the translator due to lack of background knowledge related to the ST, which provide an implication that the necessities of a good-quality translation are not limited to the high-level capability of the source language and target language but also an accurate understanding of ST.

Graph 6 the percentage of error types in the broader error segment of lexical errors

Source text: ?????”????”?????
Back translation: (descendants honor as ‘Oriental Beauty’ particle reverse-seat Buddhism goodness Guanyin)
Target text: Guanyin to the north that was honored as “Oriental Beauty” by descendants;
Source text: ?????
Back translation: (palace and pavilion surround and protect)
Target text: Towers, pavilions and bridges are arranged in an insufferably arrogant manner.

Source text: “?????”??????????????
Back translation: (Yang liuQing New Year Paintings history very long, international friend favor)
Target text: The drawings by the youth of Yangliu have a long history and are favored by foreign friends.
4.2.5 Translation-specific and other errors
The last section demonstrates that there are no Incomplete passage, indecision, and 4 typo which result from slips of fingers or mechanical failure. Translation-specific and other errors take 1 per cent of the total errors. Example 39) from the corpus is shown below. There is an excrescent ‘r’ after ‘450km’, which do not have any meaning and results from slips of the hand.

Songshan Geopark covering 450kmr is situated in Dengfeng City?Henan Province.

It can be summarised from the result of error analysis that firstly, the broader classification of syntactic errors accounts for 52 percent, which is the most frequent error segment. Under this segment, the most outstanding errors are usage, syntax, punctuation, grammar. What is more, the second frequent error type is semantic error accounting for 19 percent, in which addition and omission errors and literal translation are the most considerable errors. What comes next is lexical mistakes which account for 18 percent among five border segments, in which terminology is of slight frequency compared to misspelling errors. Pragmatic error segment only accounts for 10 percent of errors, in which mistranslation is the primary error type while misunderstanding follows in the second place. The least common error classification is translation-specific and other errors, which only takes 1 percent of errors in the corpus.

Conclusion
This study aims to provide a framework for translation quality enhancement of Chinese to English tourist texts. The majority of translators in tourist industry are native Chinese speakers with English as their second language. Therefore, the level of their English to a large extent determines the translation quality. Errors as many as 209 were found in the corpus, which may reveal the translation quality of texts on tourism websites and an underlying development barrier of transnational tourism. Minor errors may influence the expressive style, while major errors can impact the meaning distortion and misunderstanding. Hence, exploring errors, especially the source of errors, may help reduce errors and advance the translation quality. Error analysis can unveil the typical mistakes and the sources behind imperfections, so it was adopted as one of theory foundations.
After collecting, classifying and quantifying the data, some worthy results were summarised and can offer answers to the research questions. Within translated English texts of 16800 words, there were 209 various errors covering lexical, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic types. Therefore, the answer to the first research question is that there are relatively a great deal of errors and the current condition about translation quality of tourist texts are not optimistic. As for the second research question, the number of syntactic errors is the highest, occupying 52 percent of the total errors. In a more detailed classification, the usage is the most frequent error, reflecting the use of English in an idiomatic way is the biggest barrier for Chinese translators. Finally, the translation errors have three main sources: native language interference, incorrect or unclear knowledge of English, and non-linguistic elements including lack of background knowledge towards the described subjects, and ignorance or carelessness. Generally speaking, the findings is in line with the idea of Brown (1994) and Odlin (1989) that native language is a remarkable reason of errors in translation, and any previous learned linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge. This study revealed that existing Chinese to English translations of tourism website require enhancement especially with regard to usage in the broader classification of syntactic errors, which was found to prevail in the analysed data.
However, this study is far from perfection and it has some limitations. Firstly, the research focus on translation errors in the tourism industry. The patterns and frequency of errors may vary in different industry and text type. Secondly, the data in the corpus comes from five websites with total 23420 characters in the original Chinese text, which is still a limited sample. The bigger sample is used, the more accurate outcome can be found. Hence, in the future research, the sample size can be extended. Thirdly, the process of classifying errors was conducted by one researcher, although with the assistance of an English native speaker, the judgment could be subjective, which should be bearded in mind of readers. In the future relevant studies, these limitations should be considered by researchers then they can take amendments to diminish the negative influence of the three limitations on the results and provide a more precise framework for improving translation quality. ?

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Appendix 1. Collected data from the English Chinese corpus
(Numbers in the texts are serial number marking errors: 1.addition/omission 2.ambiguity 3.capitalisation 4.inconsistency 5.diacritical marks/accent 6.faux ami 7.grammar 8.Indecision 9.too freely 10.too literal 11.mistranslation 12.misunderstanding 13.punctuation 14.register 15.spelling 16.style 17.syntax 18.terminology 19.word form 20.incomplete passage 21.usage 22.mechanical error)
????????????????????????
Situated at the west end of the West Lake, the temple 10is nested between Feilai Mountain and Beigao Mountain.
????????????????????
Today, the section flanked by the two mountains 1(addition)is still the Buddhist and poetic destination as throughout history– massive trees, the old temple, 16dramtic clouds and mist.

??????????????????????????????????
Master Huili (326-334AD), a monk from 3Western India, the founding master of Lingyin Temple, travelled through the central plain to present-day Zhejiang area in the Eastern Jin dynasty.
??????????????
When setting foot on Wulin (Hangzhou), he pondered the presence of a mountain with distinct 16craggs (crags)
????????????????????
The temple was not expanded until Liangwudi (an emperor in Nan dynasty) 19donatedreward land for its expansion.

????????771????????????????
In 771 A.D., the temple was fully restored with 22strong following.

?????????????????????????????????????
Yongming Yanshou rebuild the 16Monestary and renamed it “New Lingyin Temple” with stone pillars 19scripted with Buddhist text, chambers and halls of worship, and grand 16pavillion for Maitreya Buddha.
??????????
Emperor Gao (1107-1187) and Emperor Xiao (1127-11194AD) of 22(the) Song Dynasty frequently visited the temple
??????????????????”??”???
The temple was regarded as one of the “Five Chan (Zen) Mountains” of the south in Jading period, 22(the) South Song dynasty.

??????????????????
At Shunzhi’s time of 22(the) Qing dynasty, great Chan Master Jude, took charge of the temple.

??????????????????????????????????”????”?Under his leadership of nearly eighteen years, the temple was completely rebuilt and 7seem(seemed) as the most famous temple in the south-east with solemn atmosphere
??????????1689???????????? “????”?
In 1689, when Kangxi, an emperor in 22(the) Qing dynasty, made his inspection tours in 5Jiang’nan, he officially gifted the name, “Yunlin Temple.”
????????????????????”?????????????????????”???????????????????????????????????????
Today, with the efforts of Venerable Master Guangquan, abbot of Lingyin temple, 18it, the ancient temple has prospered with sublime Buddhist Philosophy, great harmony with the public–the focus of fully cultivating fine Buddhist traditions and striving to 7built a 16pureland in China’s southeast.

???????????????????????????????????????????
18Lingyin Temple covers an area of 130 mu, a central axis with Heavenly Kings Hall, the Mahavira Hall, Medicine Buddha Hall, and the Avatamska Hall.

?????????????????????????????
Other 16magnificant 16Monestary(Monastary) structures 7includes Zhizhi Hall (Dharma Hall), Huayan Hall, The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats, Jigong Shrine
???????????????????????????????????????????24.8???????????????????
The Skanda (Weituo) 16Bodhisattava statue in the Hall of the Heavenly Kings dates back to the period of 22(the) Tang Dynasty–engraved from 24 huge 7camphorwoods, 24.8m high with a dignified, majestic 16appearence.

???????????????????????????????????????????
Since the establishment of Lingyin Temple, eminent monks and scholars have flooded to this center for cultural gatherings in Buddhism, arts, literary, 16caligraphy, exchanges in 20Buddhist(Buddhism) and 12Taoism(Confucianism), which presented the longstanding cultural heritage.

???????????????????????????????????????????????
Mountain ranges mainly 18run in the east to west, or northeast to southwest direction, with main ranges including the Altai Mountains, 22+the Tianshan Mountains, the Kunlun Mountains, 22+the Karakoram, 22+the Himalayas, the Yinshan Mountains, the Qinling Mountains
???????????????????4000??????”????”???
In the 3west14(,) there is the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest area in the world with an average altitude of over 4,000 meters and is known as “the roof of the world”.

??????????????????????????
The summer wind comes from the Pacific Ocean 22in(to) the southeast and the Indian Ocean 22in(to) the southwest14, (delete comma) and is warm and moist.
???????????????????????????????????????????????
Compared with other areas in the world at 22+the similar latitude, temperatures in winter are relatively cold and temperatures in summer are relatively high, with a large annual temperature range and rainfall being concentrated in the summer.
??????????????????????????
These climatic characteristics mean that China has a 22strong continental monsoon climate.

????????????
The ethnic minorities in China 22enjoy many unique characteristics.

??????????????????????????????
The most classic examples of these 20being the Tibetans, Uyghurs, Hui people, Miao, Zhuang people and the Mongols.

????????????????????7???????????????????They speak and write Tibetan, which was created before the 7th century AD based on certain elements of the Sanskrit script and is an alphabetic form of writing that 10reads horizontally from left to right.

??????????????????????
Tibetan script is divided into regular script and cursive14, (the comma should be removed) and is used across the entire Tibetan area.

??????????????????????????????(hé)?????????????????
18They are a people with multiple sources, the primary two branches being the following: One branch comes from Huihe people of the Mongolian grasslands, and the other (+v.) from the natives of the oasis region of southern Xinjiang.

????????????????????
The Hui people are one of the 22more populous ethnic minorities in China
???????????????????????????
22(+The) Most prominent Hui characteristics are that men wear small white caps and women wear scarfs of various colors and designs.
???????????????????????????????????
Zhuang women’s clothing is blue-black, with 20lose trousers, patterned headscarves around their heads and exquisite aprons tied around their waists.
?????????????????????????????
The wooden dwellings that lie 20dotted throughout green mountains and clear waters are their traditional dwelling places.
????????????????????????
There 7are also a small minority located in Sichuan, Yunnan and other southwestern areas of the country.

???????????????????”?????”?????
Mongols have traditionally lived on the grasslands raising livestock and migrating 22with (for) the water and pastures in a nomadic lifestyle.
?????????????????4???????,
Mongol clothing is comprised 22by(of) four main components: jewelry, long robes, belts and shoes.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Nowadays, the festival is celebrated from the evening of the last day of the 12th lunar month to the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the new lunar year.1(omission) During the Spring Festival,
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Han Chinese and many of China’s other ethnic groups hold a variety of distinctive celebrations in order to honor deities and ancestors, symbolize the replacing of the old with the new, and to 10welcome the New Year and pray for a good harvest.
??????????????????????????????????
For older people, those who stay awake to experience the arrival of the New Year are thought to be treasuring their precious time, whereas young people do so in the hope of 22adding to their parents’ longevity.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????
10Chunlian originated from the evil-exorcising peach wood charms(vague) used in ancient China.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Han Chinese families usually give their homes a thorough cleaning.1(addition) It is believed that the cleaning sweeps away the bad luck of the past year and makes their homes ready for the good luck that the coming year will bring. Brooms and dust pans are symbolically put away on the first day so that the newly arrived good luck cannot be swept away.1(omission) Festival food Jiaozi
?????????????????????????????????????
Known as Chinese New Year pudding, 3niangao is made up of glutinous rice flour, 12wheat starch(rice flour), 1salt, water, and sugar1(addition). The color of the sugar used determines the color of the pudding (red, yellow or white). 1(omission)Niangao is a popular dessert.
?????”????”?????”????”?????”????”?
Carp implies “gaining profit”, chub implies “having 22+a surplus every year” and mandarin fish implies “getting richer”.

????”??”?”??”??????????????
Tangyuan (glutinous sweet rice ball) 1is made of glutinous rice flour(addition) and different kinds of fillings.

??????????????????????????????????????
the lion dance during the Lantern Festival and the Dragon Heads-raising 23Dayl are important folk activities in East Asia’s dragon culture region.

???????????????????”?????????”???????In traditional Chinese culture, the five colors of green, red, white, black and yellow are deemed auspicious colors because they are felt to correlate with the five directions and the 2five elements.

????????????????????????????????
China’s Guangdong Province, people often go to the countryside to pick herbal medicines which 7is decocted into an herbal tea that locals believe to be beneficial for their health.

??????????????????
In the olden days, the evil-expelling objects used 22on the Dragon Boat Festival could also serve as wearable ornaments.

??????????????????????????
On the way, a full appreciation of the gorgeous views, art and culture of ice and snow can be 18had.
????????????????????????????????????????????
You can also integrate yourself into local life to learn how the people 19survive in the world of ice and snow or join in their ice and snow entertainment and experience spinning tops on 22(+the) ice, 16dog-sledges, skating, winter fishing and so on.

???????????????????????????????
18Luxurious decorations adorn within the mausoleums, allowing visitors to view and understanding of history. (fragile sentence/lack of parallelism)
????????68%?
The scenic area 22enjoys a 68% forest coverage rate
????????????”????”??????????Manichean Hall built in the Song Dynasty 1(omission: isolated cases) that was honored as “Perfect Art” by Liang Sicheng?????”????”?????
12Guanyin to the north (facing north) that was honored as “Oriental Beauty” by descendants;
??????????????????????????”????”?”????”?”????”?”????”?”????”?”????”?”?????”?????
Cangyan Mountain is surrounded by many old and verdant trees, as well as unique and incalculable natural landscapes, where the famous “Cangyan Sixteen Sceneries,” such as “Sandalwood and Cliffs,” “Stalactite on the 13Yin Cliff,” “Steep and Stones,” “Peaks and Afterglow,” and “Cypress on the Mountainside” 1(omission) can be found.

??????????????????????????????????????????
Those buildings carved beams and painted rafters are placed above or below the cliff, including Fuqing Temple, 2Academies(Ancient academies),

100???????????????????????????????????????”????”?”?????”?????????????????????
The park boasts over 100 unique attractions, including fragrant osmanthus flowers in the late autumn, blooming lotuses in the summer, 11smoky willows by the six bridges, pine trees shrouded in mist, old and new versions of the “Ten Views of West Lake,” and attractions built in recent years.
?????????????????????
Wuzhen, one of the four famous towns in 22(+the) south of 22(+the) Yangtze River, has a history of more than six thousand years.

?????????????
The East Gate is small and beautiful, with 22a strong of folk flavor, and the scenic spots including the Former Residence of Maodun and Shadow Opera Hall.
???????????????????????????
The water lane, the ancient bridge and the white wall 13are reflected in the lights and tourists can appreciate the scenery by boat.

?????????????????????
Lingnan is the perfect place for a slow and 19lazy(leisurely) appreciation of Dim Sum,

????????????????????????
In the spring, the lava is covered with lichen and moss, and colorful 16wild flowers(wildflowers) are in full bloom in the forest.
?????????????,
In the summer, 11green leaves can be everywhere, and the lake is as clear as a mirror.

??????????????????
The blue sky, white clouds, and volcanic cones are 22reflected on(in) the mirror-like lake, making visitors feel as if they were in a fairytale.

????????????????
Here you will see 22the most unique(“unique” is not gradable) karst landscape in the world.
???????????????”??”???????????????????????17The scenic spot is really made up of stones(metphor is lost) as you can see them of all different shapes and sizes when you walk through it.

??????????????”???”?????”????”???
Such an architectural style featuring a square southern part and a round northern part is collectively known as the “Walls of Heaven and Earth” and symbolizes the ancient Chinese belief that the heavens are round and the 18Earth square.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
In the Temple of Heaven, not only can one appreciate the 22exquisite structure of various palaces and recapture the grand occasion of ancient emperors offering sacrifice to the heavens, but also appreciate the ingenious design of the Echo Wall and Triple Sound Stones, which makes people wonder in awe at the wisdom of the ancient Chinese.

????????????????????????????????????
Entering the Palace Museum, visitors can experience the broad vision of the 22splendid(grand) imperial dynasties from the 22diverse(various) architectural symphony.

??????????????
It has a rich 19repertoire that 19amalgamates highlights from diverse cooking methods.

??????????????????????????????????????????
As 22the most unique Chinese cuisine, Sichuan cuisine primarily uses a variety of common ingredients while emphasizing a numbing sensation, spiciness, and aroma. Even in simple poached dishes, one can detect a hint of spiciness.

???????????????????????????????
Kung Pao Chicken selects chicken as its primary ingredient, made with peanuts, cucumber, 1scallions(addition), chili pepper as well as other ingredients.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
It is spicy and sweet with a delicate taste of chicken and crispy peanuts. 1(omission)
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Double-Cooked Pork was originated in the rural areas of Sichuan and is famous for its special meaty taste and shiny brown color which is good for the kidney and the blood 1according to TCM doctors. 1(addition)
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Double-Cooked Pork can be ordered in most Chinese restaurants and it is very rare to find those who don’t like the dish. 1(omission)

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1965?”?????????”?????????5457?????????????????????????????????10(order of sentences is altered)Cantonese cuisine favors the selection of premium materials with an emphasis on the quality and original flavor of the main ingredients. In the light flavors, umami can be found. The style boasts a wide variety and 12ingenuous deployment of ingredients, beautiful and brightly colored garnishes and decoration as well as an impressive variety of dishes. At the Guangzhou Classic Dish and Dim Sum Exhibition in 1965, altogether 5,457 dishes were presented. The cuisine is adjusted based on the current season: flavors are lighter in summer and autumn and stronger in winter and spring. In addition, a balance between colors, aroma, tastes and presentation is also stressed.
?????????????????
The style boasts a wide variety and 12ingenuous deployment of ingredients, beautiful and brightly colored garnishes and decoration as well as an impressive variety of dishes.

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Lou Fo Tong, also called Guangfu Soup, is a famous dish in Guangdong which inherits the secret recipe of health maintenance 18(+from) thousands of years ago.1(omission) It takes many hours to make the sapid Lou Fo Tong.

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Lou Fo Tong is not only a healthy medicated soup14, (delete the comma) but also 22an emotional sustenance (delete “an”) for wives in Guangfu.1(omission)
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
They seldom traveled 14(+,) so they poured all the hope, love and dependence into the soup which made Lou Fo Tong more than just a soup.
???????????????????????????????????
The soup is pure white14(+,) and the white gourd tastes tender and soft. 1(omission)

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
1(omission)White Sliced Chicken is easy to cook and is liked by lots of gastronomes because it maintains the authentic flavor of the chicken with a slight fragrance of scallion oil.

?????????????????????????
In Guangzhou, White Sliced Chicken is often served 1in pieces(addition) with dips made with ginger and scallions.

??????????????????????????????????????????
1(omission)There are two ways to cook the pork ball,14(:) steaming and braising.

??????????????????????????????????????????
12The main ingredient, pork balls, are made of 60% fat pork and 40% lean pork and are mashed with scallions, ginger, eggs and other ingredients.
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
After stewing the meatballs on low heat, the surface becomes rough because of the unbalanced portion of fat and lean meat. 1(omission)
????????????????????????????????????????????
Seasonality is the key 22in(to) choosing seafood, vegetables and fruits. Livestock and poultry ingredients are mostly raised locally.
??”????”??????
The principle of using the best part of 22the most fresh(wrong superlative from) and natural materials strictly according to the “Sequence of Time” is loyally practiced in Zhejiang cuisine.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Tasty Snake is a traditional dish of the Han ethnic group in Hunan Province. 1(omission)

????????????????
Its outer layer is made 22of(from) unfermented refined flour.

???????????????????????
18Rice cakes can be bought from other 19specialty stores, with, for example, the most commonly-seen sweet green rice cakes can be bought almost anywhere.

??????????????”?”???????????????
18Red braising is a major cooking technique, with “red” representing the color of the sugar, a technique that requires excellent heat control skills.

???????????????
22(+The, determiner)Oil used in cooking is rapeseed oil extracted manually from rapeseed grown by locals.

????????????????????????
Most notable dishes include14: Soft-shelled Turtle Braised With Ham, 1(addition)Red Braised Civet Cat, Tiger Skin Hairy Tofu and Huangshan Stewed Pigeon, etc.

??????????????????????????????????????????
China owns many leading international hotel brands which can improve your travel experience and show 2Chinese hospitality.

???????? SPA???????????????????????????????????
The most luxurious hotels are equipped with spas, bars, saunas, business centers, gyms, and indoor swimming pools which provide you with a much more enjoyable 2check-in experience.
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Additionally, the inns in Lijiang and Fenghuang are well known, and those on Xijie in Yangshuo, Laojie in Tunxi, and Hongcun 18(+are) popular with visitors as well.

?????????1 000???????????”????”???
More than 1 000 ancient platforms of many different models are steep?grand?and 22have the praise of 12North Key of Ji(Key of North Ji).

???”?????”????????????????
The Winding Mountain?which 22enjoys the praise of “the first Mountain in the East of Beijing”?is extremely grand and beautiful, 18(+with)one layer piling on another.
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
In addition 22of(to) all these?there is Tianhou Palace?Confucian Temple?Grand Sorrow Fane?Great Mosque?Tianzun Pavilion?Tiancheng Temple?Dagukou emplacement, Wanghailou Church?Guangdong Assembly Hall and the Memorial to Zhou 16En-lai(Zhou Enlai, a name)’s revolutionary activity in Tianjin.

??????????????????19????20?????????????1 000???There still remain more than one thousand of different buildings of various countries both of the East and West that were built from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century?characterized by small buildings of 3western style.

“?????”??????????????
13The drawings by the youth of Yangliu 7has a long history and 7is favored by foreign friends.
“????”?1914??????????????????????????????
The kites by the Wei’s obtained gold medal in Panamanian International Fair of 1914 16where as brick carver Liu’s expertise is well-known?too.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
There are many kinds of snacks in Beijing?and quick-boiled tripe?19enema?jellied 16bead(bean) curd?fermented bean drink?20fry(fried) liver?seasoned millet 16mush(mash)?19sheep head meat(sheep’s head)?11bittern boil,burn(Luzhu (Wheaten cake boiled in meat broth)),11end nest nest?honeyed fried dough twist?20fry cakes, pea flour cake?etc14(+.,) are everywhere.

????????????
In Beijing?12the sumptuous courses at a meal of flavor are very captivating.

???????????????????
18There are French, Russian, American Western style food and national style meal too.
???????????????????
Medicated diet has been developed to some extent too with the 16efficieny(efficacy) of health care and eliminating illness in recent years.

?????????70??????????????????????????????????????
18About 70 temples remain in the region?many (of which are) in the monastic village of Taihuai nestled in the center of the five peaks?and others +are farther afield in the mountains.

?????????????????????50??????????????????????
The Tayuan Si(Temple of the Pagodas) was built in Tibetan style in the Ming period, 18with a 50-meter high bulbous?whitewashed dome characteristic of the style.
????????????????????????????????????????16two story(hyphen) Ming-period library?which contains an older revolving sutra-case?holding rare religious texts.
????????????????????????1??????????????????????
Its foundation dates back to the early years of Buddhism in China in the 1 st century AD?though most of the present complex is Ming or Qing 22in date.

????????????
With its beautiful scenery and pleasant environment?Dalian 22is backed by mountains and facing the sea.
????????????????????????
It is not only one of China’s famous sea-shore 19touring cities(tourist destination/sightseeing cities)14?(no comma)but also a summer resort?a sanitarium as well as a holiday resort.

?????????????????????????????????????
16Be-sides all these?Dalian’s 22peerless seafood?bathing places with clean water and superior sand?as well as yachts that are dashing cheerfully?attract tourists in a 19prevailing way.
??????????????????????????
The major architectural feature of Dalian is that it takes squares as the 7center(s)?with streets radiating in various directions.
????????????????????????????????????
12Owing to the fact that a small scrap place can be called a square so long as there are streets radiating to 22the(delete) four directions
????????????????????
Dalian not only has the most squares?its square culture is the 16riches and most 16colourful as well.

?????????????????????????????????
Besides the green space?the pigeons?the sculptures and the eruptive fountains?there are the unique 19female mounted policemen and the waltz here in Dalian?too.

??????????????????????????????12?????????????????
The Summer Palace is located on the western edge of Beijing? between the fourth and fifth ring roads?close to the western hills?2310km from central Beijing.

????????????????—????????????????????????????
As its name implies?the Summer Palace was used as a summer residence by China’s imperial rulers14–12as a retreat from the main imperial palace now known as the Palace Museum or Forbidden City14-a pleasure ground in the countryside?yet near to the city.

1911??????????????????
After the success of the 1911 Revolution?the Summer Palace was 22opened to the public.
1998?????????????????????????
22The Summer Palace was designated (+as) a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1998.
??????????????????????????????????? (???551?479))??????????????????????????????
Qufu in Shandong Province is the hometown of Confucius(551?479 BC) who is a great thinker?statesman and educator in China’s history14?and (22+the)founder of the Confucian school of philosophy?which is the ideological root of all varieties of Chinese culture.
??????????????????????????????????????????????
Qufu?admired by all rulers and intellectuals in history?has numerous cultural sites?among which the most famed are 4Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion.
????????????????????????????????
Repeated improvement and expansion 7has turned the temple into a palatial complex with 12nine rows of courtyards (nine enclosed coutyards).

???????????????????????120????????????
In addition to a statue of Confucius? the hall also houses stone inscription of the Ming Dynasty?which tells the life story of Confucius in 120 pictures?as well as 22a great deal of(it fits with noncountable nouns) stone tablets.

????200???????????????2 300????????
The Confucian Cemetery?occupying more than 200 hectares 18has served as more than 2 300 years for the family graveyard of Confucius and his descendants.

???????????????????(386?534 ) ,??(535?556 )???(557?581 )??(581?618)??( 618?907 )???(907?960 )??( 960—1279 )???(1038?1227)??(1279?1368)??????????????????
The endeavor continued through later dynasties?including the Northern Wei(386?534)?Western Wei(535?556)?Northern Zhou(557?581)?Sui(581?618)?Tang (618?907)?Five Dynasties ( 907?960 )?Song (960-1279 )?Western Xia(1038?1227)and Yuan(1279?1368)?resulting in the fantastic group of caves that can 7been seen today.

?????492?????????2 100??????45 000?????
Today?492 caves still stand?15containing some 2 100 colored statues and 45 000 square meters of murals.
???????????????33??????????????????
The colored statues also differ in size?ranging from a few centimeters to 33 meters high?embodying the remarkable imagination of their 19makers(designers).
??????????????????????????????
22Despite(despite of) years of erosion?the murals are still 16brightly colored(a hyphen is needed)?with clear lines.
??????????????????????????????????????????
Through pictures of different styles and schools drawn in different historical periods?they tell Buddhist stories and 19ways as well as life(lifestyle) in the secular world.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
The murals of Mogao Grottoes take up the largest proportion of grotto art creations and the subjects are also the most comprehensive?12which is an exclusive feature to Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes?and 18(sentence fragment, +It is)16upique in the world as well.

??????????????????6 294??
The mausoleum originally consisted of inner and outer sections. The outer section had a 16circumterence(circumference) of 6,294meters.

?2000?????????????????????????? 700 000????36??????
According to Records of the Historian written over 2000 years ago by Sima Qian?the construction of the grand project involved 700000 laborers and took 36 years 22to be completed(complete).

?????,??????????????
To date?the tomb of 22the(delete “the”) Emperor Qin has not been excavated.

?8 000???????????2 200?????????????????
15Some 8000 life-sized warriors demonstrate a powerful military array under the rule of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty 2,200 years ago.

?????????????????????????
The pit is truly an underground 18military museum largest worldwide.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2 000????????????
Full scale excavation is left to the future?except some scientific unearthing of a few satellite pits?and visitors to the tomb see only a hill like mound14. under which lies the emperor in his meticulous underground palace free of disturbance for over 2000 years.

?????????????????????????270???????????????????
There exists a total of 10 monasteries?5 temples?5 palaces, 233 Taoist temples?4 nunneries?4caves?3 altars and more than 270 pagodas and is the holy land gathering three major religions: Buddhism?Confucianism and Taoism.
????????????????????450?????
Songshan Geopark covering 23450kmr is situated in Dengfeng City?Henan Province.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 22Because of the mountains and peaks such as Yuzhaishan?Junjifeng, Wuzhiling and Jianshan are mainly formed by quartzite and built up by tectonic movements, they all tower aloft above 400m elevation. Steep and graceful precipices and cliffs and wonderful valleys are widespread in the area, forming unique landforms and landscapes.
??????????????35????????????????????????????????????????????
Within it 14(+,) successive and complete Archean(3. 5 billion years ago)?Proterozoic?Paleozoic?Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphic sections are exposed with clear stratigraphic sequence and typical structural features…

????????????????????;
18the Fawang Temple and the Huishan Temple?the oldest temples 7extant in China
??????????????2 000??????????????????????????
22Songshan abounds in stele carvings?totaling more than 2000 pieces?left by famous calligraphers like Yan Zhenqing?Su Dongpo?Huang Tingjian and Mi Fu.
????????????????????100???????????????????????????????????????
Located in the Songshan Mountains1(omission)?roughly about 100 kilometers southwest of Henan’s provincial capital?Zhengzhou?Shaolin Temple is famous not only as one of China’s important Buddhist shrines?but also as the ancient center of Chinese Kung-fu.
?????????????(495 )???????????????????????????
Built in 495?the temple was originally designed to house Batuo?a celebrated Indian monk who ?after many years of spreading Buddhism?1(addition)was later known as Fo Tuo?or Grand Monk.
??537?????????????????????????????????????????????????”???”, ?????????????????????????
In 537?another famous Indian monk, Boddhidharma, settled in the temple?and as legend has it?created 15a sort of(informal) primitive 19bare-hand combat(unarmed combat) routine called “xingyi boxing” after he had sat meditating in a cave for nine years.
7??????13???????????????????????????????????????????????
At the beginning of the 7th century?a tiny army of 13 Shaolin monks 7were(was) reputed to have saved future Tang Dynasty emperor Li Shimin?by defeating an entire division of the ruling Sui Dynasty’s army and helping him break out of prison.
????????????????????????????????????
When he took power?10Li showered favors, land and wealth on the temple. (vague and no details)

?????????,???”??????”????????????????????????????3 000????
Shaolin then thrived as a center of Kung-fu masters from around the country and is reputed 18also(improper position) to be “the Number One Temple 11under Heaven(in the world)”14? 22At(In) its heyday?it housed more than 3 000 19soldier-monks.
???????????????????????????
When you first get to the Shanmen Hall?you can see 18hung on its top is a tablet reading”Shaolin Temple”.

2002?10?25?????????????????
October 25, 2002, the Millennium Shengji Leifeng Pagoda 11was completed in the completion of the reconstruction.
1000????????1000????????1000????????1000???????????????????????????
111000 years of wind and rain the vicissitudes of life 1000 years of joys and 1000 years of sideways in 1,000 years, the love in complex, on this day, all marked with a heavy exclamation mark!
?????????????????????????????
11Leifeng Pagoda opened a new picture, leifeng Sunset area, write a new chapter.(run-on structure)
????????????????????????????????????????Contemporary civilization and international practice, focusing on integrity, 7a (preservation is uncountable) true historic preservation, scenic lines advocated the building of sustainable development.
???????????????????????????????????????????
12Leifeng the new tower, creatively pairs of Leifeng Pagoda site protection facilities, function and appearance of the inner extension of the image to be moderate and reasonable expansion.
?????????????????????????
4The new tower Leifeng Pagoda 18(+verb) as much as possible in accordance with the original shape, body volume, style and function, and rebuilt on the site Leifeng Pagoda.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????
11Reconstruction works to the site of the ancient tower to implement effective, permanent protection, based on full use of the true ancient tower sites, rich historical and cultural connotation, supporting the new tower landscape.
???????????????????????????????????1000??????????????????????????????????????????????
22(+At) The same time, the new tower with impressive posture, and 11for people to board the charm of travel tours, highlighting ancient tower sites load more than 1,000 years of cultural accumulation, to meet the people’s recognition of the collective memory of the Millennium Shengji psychological needs and dreams of the past millennium.
???????????????????????????????????????????????????
11Moreover, but also for the West Lake Scenic Spots to reproduce the long-standing integrity of the overall pattern, has created both a 15just right, but also guide the overall shape of the landscape architecture 19fine win.

???????????????????????????????????–?????
18Now(+what) we saw is world famous millennium ancient Buddha – Leshan Giant Buddha.

??????????????????71????????24???????10?????7????????????3.3???????????5.6????3????8.3????????28???????8.5????????l021??
18It is in the world 7a biggest carved stone Maitreya religion Buddha, 11passes the height 71 meters, the shoulder width is 24 meters, the head diameter is 10 meters, 11the ear has 7 meter long, the mouth and the eye length is 3.3 meters, the eyebrow and the nose length is 5.6 meters, the neck height 3 meters, 12refers to the length 8.3 meters, from the knee to the instep 28 meters, the foot width is 8.5 meters, 11on head the hair bun to have l021.
???????????????”???????????”?
18Leshan Giant Buddha grand magnificent sight, the people describe it: “The mountain is a Buddha, Buddha is a mountain”?
??
??????????????
It was 19cut out as the royal garden –the Lotus Garden,
????????????????????????????????????????????????????
the Lotus Garden, was put up at the same time with Ziyun Tower Block and Caixia?Rosy Cloud? Pavilion inside. 1(omission)
????1000??????300?????13??
It covers an area of 1,000 mu ?about 165 acres?1(omission) and is established with an investment of 1.2 billion Yuan.
???????????????????????????????????????????Located to the north of the original Tang Dynasty Lotus Garden site, the present Tang Paradise is the first theme park fully demonstrating the charm and grandeur of the royal garden in 22(+the) Tang Dynasty.

???????????????????Tang Paradise is a comprehensive resort center which attracts people from different 19walks of life.

???”?????????”??????????
With it’s surprising charm14(+,) it has become a 16must see(hyphen) attraction in Xi’an.

????????
the whole area is quite 19outstanding at the same time.

?????????
It starts from 22(+the)north and goes all the way to the east along the lake.
????270????????????????????????????????????
The total length of it is 270 meters. It is the extension of the theme of the Elegant Lady Area.1(omission)
????”?????????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????
10The fine poetry and true-to-life drawings about over one hundred prominent ladies of the Tang Dynasty in the passageways vividly expose the glamour of the women and their legendary experiences. It is indeed a legend passageway about the Tang Dynasty.

?????????????????????????????
They even put on man’s attire and went out watching 14lantern-shows, going for spring outings, 11treading on the green, playing on the swing and playing polo game.
????????????????????????
The creation also comes from the traditional practice of 11treading on the green(spring out/hiking) 1(omission)in the Tang Dynasty.

??????????????
It can be traced back to the ancient legendary figure Shennong 1(addition)about 5,000 years ago.

???????????
Eventually people immersed tea in the hot boiled water for a moment 1(addition) like what they do now and then enjoy it.

???????????????
The records of tea in China could be traced back as early as the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty ?1046—771BC?14?
??????????
Afterwards people 22put down many documents concerning tea.
???????????????????????????????????????????
On Tea is a comprehensive book that tells us about the history of tea production, its origin, current situation, production skills, the way of drinking tea and the theory of 19tea preparing (tea ceremony).

??????????????????????????????????????????????
10There are three different kinds of tea ceremonies: the royal teahouse, the teahouse for literary men, and the teahouse for the ordinary. People can appreciate the tea serving ceremony in distinctive styles and tea sets in unique shapes.

?????????
19Entertainment(performance) was very popular in the Tang Dynasty.
????????????????????
Tang Emperor Xuan Zong loved opera so much that sometimes he went to 19the royal dramatist-training theatre world to show the performers how to do it.
???????
Each theater could hold lots of 7audience(plural).
????????????????
It has very modern and first-class 7equipments(uncountable) and facilities.

????????????????????????????????
The most impressive program in the repertoire is the 19song-dance-drama(musical drama) “Return to the Great Tang in Dream”. 22It is put on show by the best 19play-write(playwright), best choreographer and best director of China currently.

?????????????????????????????????
You’ll be brought 20deep(deeply) into the dream and your soul is returned to the Tang Dynasty’s Flourishing Age.

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Flying fairies in Dunhuang Mural slowly rise with music and 22varying(different) light, Concubine Yang in 16multicoloured Splendid camlets dances on the stage like a fairy, dazzling or stunning in effect.

???”????”?????????
Scene 2: Meeting with Emperor Qin in Dream to 22stand out Tang Dynasty’s army portliness
???”????”?????????
Scene 3: Concubine Yang 12dressed in vaporous muslin dances in a bath alone
?????????????????????????
Indian Snake dance accompanied by Qiang flute and 19Hu hamlet celebrate the millennium together.

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Enchanting Spring, 22bright (sparkling) river water, Qu River and Yan Pagoda facing with each other, amazing street martial arts, 16humourous sideshows, naive big-head moppets, beautiful maids wandering on spring grass, 19voluminous grass styles (cursive writing) and ancient football performance in high spirit.

???????????????????????????
Tangming King and his wife Yang in chairs lead their officers to pray for blessings to their 16peopole.
?????????????????????????????
Meanwhile, many beautiful women in Tang dresses step 22on(into) the palace to show Chinese fashions.

????????????????????????????
Finally, the whole performance ends in songs and under 19skyrockets.

???????????????
Qujiang area has always 7being regarded as a holy place of Xi’an.
?????????????
Barren mountains and dead water 7was taken into a land of deserted place.
????, ??????????????????
18Down along the pond and slopes, you are going 22further and further with beautiful trees and plants on both sides in fresh and rich colors, it seems that they have been dyed by each other.
?????
Towers, pavilions and bridges are arranged in an 12insufferably arrogant manner.
????????????????????????
Standing by the window, you will find rosy clouds coming from 22+the Qinling Mountains and white clouds are within your reach.
???????????????
18On the other side lies 22+the Elegant Lady Area, which(+verb) with quite another view.
????????????????????????????????
It seems that both castles are intending to converse14; 1(omission)or seems they are recalling memories of thousands of years ago.

??????????????
Suddenly, 16astringed and woodwind music approaches eardrums from the hills behind.

????????????????????????????????????
18Chasing the sounds, you come to the south of garden, pass by the verandah, go to the Phoenix Pond by boat, you will find bamboo shoots come from the 12squeezing stones(a crack in a stone) and lotus flowers are as high as the bridge.
???????????????????????????????
18Winding over the hills, find a quiet place, you may find gray sparrows as big as an egg, jumping and landing like throwing stones.
??????????????
12When flying away, you just find that those are butterflies.

?????????????????
Then, a duck comes into your 22eye(sight), wagging its head and tail.
?????????????????????????????????????
Picking up the duck and resting on a piece of 19stone(rock), then an idea 22hits upon(hit upon an idea): this is an ideal place to build a house, in which I can tame deer and cranes; appreciate the moon and 20fishing.
????????????????????????????????????
18Being immensely pleased with such an idea, a piece of cloud appears, accompanied with drizzling rainfall, touching my face but cannot soak my clothes.

????????????????????????????????
18Water is running from this courtyard to that courtyard, young bamboos are shielding the walls.
???????????????????
18Looking back suddenly, there is the long corridor winding from south to the north around the lake.(dangling modifier, the subordinate phrase does not modify “there”)
??????????????????????????????????
18&12Walking, pausing now and then, pavilions are built against the hills, slopes, banks and water sometimes dense, sometimes sparse.

????????????????????????????????
18Holding the railing to stroke the water in the lake, it is impossible to scoop up, but you will enjoy the curled lotus leaves, water waves and golden fish flocking inside the water, it seems that a piece of red cloud has been spread on the bottom of the lake.
????????????????????????
18Rowing boat to the island in the center of the lake, an aged stone 22meets your eyesight(eyes) on which grows mosses the size of a piece of coin.

????????????
Standing by the pavilion, you can appreciate 3&5pi’pa(Pipa) music played by a lady.

????????????
These ladies are enjoying the sightseeing and they are the sightseeing in the eye of 12me!
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Because it is not merely a freehand brushwork of Chinese painting, but a comprehensive collection of things, which are of14, Tang characteristics, such as emperors, poems, music and dances, fairs, Buddhism, food, women, apricot gardens, tea and wine, science and technologies14+, etc.

????”????????????????????????????????????”?
Just as the ancient people said: “It is so lucky for Tang Dynasty to take Chang’an as its capital city14; and it is equally lucky for Chang’an city to hold such a scenic spot as Qujiang.”
?????????????????????????
Tang Paradise has been built in Xi’an, which brings confidence and self-reliance; there is no reason why China will not become prosperous14?

????????”??”????????
18Here, I put the yellow mountain “four unique” respectively, made a presentation.

???????????
13&18Huangshan songqi in what place?
???????????????
First of all, 18is singular in its strong vitality.

????????????????????Secondly, 18&19Huang Shansong also singular in its unique natural style.

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