Unstable lunge testing results in females will have a higher electrical activation activity in the isolated muscles

Unstable lunge testing results in females will have a higher electrical activation activity in the isolated muscles, while unstable core exercise testing results in males will elicit a higher muscle activation compared to the stable testing results. When examining Figure 1 and Figure 2 on average there is sufficient evidence to support this statement, as the electromyography (EMG) test results increased during the unstable testing in both males and females of the muscles isolated. The independent variable is the type of physical exercise being conducted (ie. stable vs. unstable). As the dependent variable is the rate of activated muscles during an EMG test.
For each of the lunge exercises performed by female participants, the unstable condition had the highest activation of each muscle tested (vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, biceps femoris, and fibularis longus). This is a result of, the entire body weight being supported by one leg during the lunge under an unstable condition compared to the body weight distributed between both legs during the stable condition; ultimately, causing a stronger muscle contraction leading to an increased muscle activation (1). The pennate muscles of the lower limb act as the prime mover (vastus lateralis) and synergists (biceps femoris, fibularis longus) to perform the concentric and eccentric movements of the exercise (2) due to their long muscle fibers which increases the activation of action potentials (3); whereas the flat muscle of the hip acts as a fixator during the exercise (2) which explains the lower activity within the muscle fibers as it has smaller muscle fibers compared to the other isolated muscles (3), and it does not have to contract at a great force (2). Since a larger force is generated, the stimulated muscle fibers will recruit more of the fibers within the muscle to become active in order to obtain control, increasing the graded potential to allow a greater frequency of action potentials to occur within the cells (3).
For each of the core exercises performed by male participants, the unstable condition had the highest activation in the triceps brachii, pectoralis major, external oblique, and internal oblique. However, the triceps brachii muscle of participant 1 had the highest activation in the stable condition. Normally, the instability of the arms during the exercise of the unstable condition; therefore, all muscles used have a greater contraction and have to be activated at an increased rate in order to support the body during the entire movement (3). However, the differentiation of opposition between the stable and unstable conditions in muscle activation in the triceps brachii, is due to the participant being trained; therefore, they knew from ‘muscle memory’ how to activate each muscle correctly to optimize the results of the movement (3). During the exercise the convergent muscle (pectoralis major) is used as the prime mover while the fusiform/multi-headed (triceps) and flat muscles (external obliques, internal obliques) act as synergists (2) in terms of muscle contraction and activation through action potentials (3). The internal oblique muscle has the greatest range between stable and unstable conditions of the exercise due to its increased demand (Figure 2). The demand becomes increased from the thorax since the lower and upper extremity limbs are unable to provide sufficient support throughout the entire movement (3) and the parallel muscle fibers provide stability (2). This causes a significant increase in action potentials (3) during both the concentric and eccentric movements (2).
Peak EMG would increase following a resistance training program due to an increase in their athletic balance and stability, while performing exercises with increased strength, power, coordination, aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance, force, and agility (4). Hypertrophy will occur during resistance training, providing an increased muscle mass and muscle strength to provide additional stability to joints to maintain the position longer (4); and will also allow a greater muscle fiber synchronization activation that will ultimately increase an EMG test amplitude (5). The force of the muscle will generate a greater capacity due to an increased muscle fiber composition and contractile protein density (5). Ultimately, increasing the rate of action potentials and metabolic capacity (3).
Unstable training during rehabilitation and performance training increases exercise functionality over time (1). Overall, unstable training will increase stability of the joints in movement during flexion and extension which will increase muscle activation. Further, by training both the dominant and non-dominant side of the body the progression of one’s performance will significantly increase compared to stable training (1) during rehabilitation and performance training through coordination; which will increase neural inhibition and the release of neurotransmitters, leading to an increase in muscle activation levels (5). However, unstable training is more beneficial when training for a sport because participants would adapt a joint stiffness appropriate to the unstable movement, and an overall increased core musculature that is beneficial for injury prevention (5). Whereas, during rehabilitation the injury has already occurred; therefore, there will always be damage or scar tissue within the injured area, increasing the change of the injury, or a similar injury occurring again, even with unstable rehabilitation training that may alter the overall movement pattern of the exercise (6).

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