W.H.O stands for world Health organisation.
The institution had been signed by 61 states on 7 April 1948, in Geneva, Switzerland.
Now, 93 states are WHO’s membership. There is a meeting every year in Geneva to approve the Organization’s budget. Geneva, Switzerland.
The role of WHO in public health is to sponsor development, improve the health’s performance, extend health system and sustenance the health security.
NHS stood for national health service and was created in 1948 by Aneurin Bevan. NHS Is the healthcare system in England, and it’s the biggest one in the world. It provides healthcare to all the resident in the UK, with most service free at the point of use. Services like emergency treatment are free for everyone. The NHS services handle more than 1 million patients every day. Funding comes from tax, and it had a budget £101.3 billion
The Ebola virus is a pathogen that causes severe haemorrhagic fever, often fatal, not only in humans but also in non-human primates with death rates up to 90%.
The pathological agent was recognised in 1976 during an epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. There are five several types of Ebola: Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast; Bundibugyo and Reston.
The Ebola virus is diffused through the body fluids of animals and infected people. Individuals can be infected by contact with blood, saliva, sperm, vomiting, urine or faeces. Also, dirty items, syringes or clothes can be contaminated with infected secretions.
Eating infected carcasses spreads the Ebola virus.
The countries affected by Ebola are all part of West Africa.
However, the countries most affected and with the uppermost number of victims are Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.
The clinical diagnosis of Ebola is problematic in the primary stages of infection: the symptoms are Fever, conjunctivitis, chills, joint and muscular pains, weakness,
diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, chest pain, dyspnoea, headache, confusion, bleeding that can be internally or externally.
The tests to verify the existence of Ebola virus are:
ELISA TEST, RT-PCR and serum-neutralisation test.
The Ebola virus is one of the most aggressive pathogens known to science, fatal up to 90% of cases.
It is not possible to intervene on the natural reservoir of the disease that has not been identified with certainty. Therefore, prevention relies on compliance with hygienic measures, the research laboratory diagnosis and patient isolation.
Currently, there are no specific treatments or vaccines for Ebola. For this reason, the therapy consists of supportive hospital action designed to lessen the symptoms. These can contain: Oxygen treatment; liquids to keep the hydro-electrolyte balance; Blood transfusions; Pain medications.
The cost of management of epidemic disease outbreaks is more than the cost of the prevention.
The World Bank estimates that more than $ 1 billion is needed to control the epidemic and avoid a
financial disaster compared to the 32.6 billion spent in the year 2015 for the treatment.
Therefore, without competent care and prevention, the threat is greater. More elaborate knowledge is needed to understand how the virus spreads and develops.
The term cancer refers to a pathological condition characterised by the uncontrolled proliferation of cells that can infiltrate the healthy organs and tissues of the organism by altering its structure and functioning.
Cancer also can localise itself at a distance from the primary disease, and in this case is a secondary or metastatic disease. Tumours are divided into solid cancers, characterised by a compact mass of tissue, and cancers of the blood (ex: lymphomas and leukaemia’s).
It is possible to classify cancers in separate ways, depending on the organ in which they develop, of the type of cells that are formed, of the stage at which the disease is found at the diagnosis, aggression and the possibility of development of metastases. Cancer ‘s not a transmissible disease. Cancer caused by mutations of DNA within cells. Cellular DNA contains information on how cells should grow and multiply. Errors in these instructions make the cell become cancerous. Smoking, sun and ultraviolet rays, overweight, exposure to toxic substances and radiation are the leading causes of the onset of cancers. The analysis was conducted considering the influence of external and internal factors on cancer development. However, factors such as biocide are one of the major causes of cancer in Italy, especially in Naples where the Cancer is three times more than the rest of Italy .”The lands of fire ” or ” triangle of death” it’s An area of 1,474 square km between Naples and Caserta, where for more than 20 years the Camorra has buried toxic and dangerous waste, such as Asbestos, lead, mercury, dioxins and furans,
In agricultural fields. For years, the residents of this area eaten contaminated food and the number of cases increase and currently the 90% of cancer in the land of fire are due to the environmental impact.
Excessive and unjustified fatigue, unintentional slimming, difficulty in swallowing are some of the symptoms of cancer. To recognise the existence of cancer, it is necessary to perform a simple blood test.
Healthy eating, moderate UV exposure and smoking exclusion are essential for preventing cancer.
However, unfortunately, there are no vaccines that can stop cancer.
Chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy are the most used treatments to fight cancer.
In some types of cancer, it is possible to remove it by surgery.
Every day in Italy about 1,000 new cases of cancer are discovered.
About 189,600 cases for men and 176,200 for women.
63% of women and 57% of men are alive five years after diagnosis.
A “magic pill” capable of treating all types of tumours will never exist because cancer is not a disease, but a set of similar and evolving diseases that respond in a different and changing way to treatments. For this reason, doctors and researchers are looking for many different solutions to the complicated and multifaceted problem of cancer.
We must continue to invest in the best scientific research against cancer.